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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Pediatric exercise science, February 2015, Vol.27(1), pp.77-84
    Description: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of active (AR) and passive recovery (PR) after a high-intensive repeated sprint running protocol on physiological parameters in children and adults. Blood lactate (La) and blood pH were obtained during two sets of 5 × 5 s all-out sprints and several times during subsequent 30-min recovery in 16 children and 16 adults. End-exercise La was significantly lower and pH significantly higher in children (La: 5.21 ± 2.73 mmol·L-1; pH: 7.37 ± 0.06) compared with adults (La: 10.35 ± 5.76 mmol·L-1; pH: 7.27 ± 0.10) (p 〈 .01). La half-life during postexercise recovery was significantly shorter in children (AR: 436 ± 371 s, PR: 830 ± 349 s) than in adults (AR: 733 ± 371 s, PR: 1361 ± 372 s), as well as in active compared with passive recovery for both age groups (p 〈 .01). The age x recovery interaction for La half-life only approached statistical significance (p = .06). The results suggest a faster lactate disappearance and an earlier return to resting pH after a repeated sprint running protocol in children compared with adults and a less pronounced advantage of active recovery in children.
    Keywords: Lactic Acid -- Blood ; Running -- Physiology
    ISSN: 08998493
    E-ISSN: 1543-2920
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  • 2
    In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2017, Vol.31(7), pp.1994-1999
    Description: ABSTRACT: Altmann, S, Spielmann, M, Engel, FA, Neumann, R, Ringhof, S, Oriwol, D, and Haertel, S. Validity of single-beam timing lights at different heights. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1994–1999, 2017—The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of different timing light heights on sprint time and the validity of measurement. Two single-beam timing gate systems were used to measure 30-m sprint time (splits at 5 and 10 m) in 15 healthy and physically active male subjects. System 1 was set up at a height of 0.64 m and system 2 at 0.25 m (initial timing light) and 1.00 m (each following timing light), respectively. Participants performed 3 valid trials. The recordings of a high-speed video camera were used as a reference. Sprint times of system 1 and system 2 differed significantly between each other and from the reference system at all distances (p 〈 0.001). Intraclass correlation coefficients and Pearsonʼs r values between both timing light systems and the reference system were low to moderate at 5 and 10 m and moderate to high at 30 m. Bland and Altman analysis revealed that the agreement intervals were considerably higher for the comparison between system 1 and the reference system than for system 2 and the reference system. A valid measurement of splits at 5 and 10 m via the systems used in this study is questionable, whereas 30-m times have an acceptable validity, especially when using system 2. This study confirms the influence of methodological approaches on sprint times. Coaches and researchers should consider that results gained by single-beam timing lights at different heights are not comparable.
    Keywords: Light ; Time ; Running -- Physiology;
    ISSN: 1064-8011
    E-ISSN: 15334287
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  • 3
    In: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 2015, Vol.40(6), pp.623-631
    Description: This study characterized the impact of high-intensity interval training on the kinetics of blood lactate and performance in trained boys and men. Twenty-one boys (11.4 ± 0.8 years) and 19 men (29.4 ± 5.0 years) performed a set of four 30-s sprints with 2-min of rest and a single 30-s sprint on 2 separate occasions (randomized order) with assessment of performance. Blood lactate was assayed after each sprint and during 30 min of recovery from both tests. The individual time-curves of blood lactate concentration were fitted to the biexponential function as follows: [LA] ( t ) = [ LA] ( 0 ) + A 1 ( 1 − e − γ 1 t ) + A 2 ( 1 − e − γ 2 t ) , where the velocity parameters γ 1 and γ 2 reflect the capacity to release lactate from the previously active muscle into the blood and to subsequently eliminate lactate from the organism, respectively. In both tests, peak blood lactate concentration was significantly lower in the boys (four 30-s sprints: 12.2 ± 3.6 mmol·L −1 ; single 30-s sprint: 8.7 ± 1.8 mmol·L −1 ) than men (four 30-s sprints: 16.1 ± 3.3 mmol·L −1 ; single 30-s sprint: 11.5 ± 2.1; p 〈 0.001). The boys exhibited faster γ 1 (1.4531 ± 0.65 min; p 〈 0.001) and γ 2 (0.059 ± 0.023 min; p = 0.01) in the single 30-s sprint and faster γ 2 (0.049 ± 0.016 min; p = 0.01) in the four 30-s sprints. The worsening of performance from the first to the last of the four 30-s sprints was less pronounced in boys (9.2% ± 13.9%) than men (19.2% ± 11.5%; p = 0.01). In the present study boys, when compared with men, exhibited lower Peak blood lactate concentration; less pronounced decline in performance during the sprints concomitantly with more rapid release and elimination during the single 30-s sprint; and faster elimination of lactate following the four 30-s sprints.
    Description: Cette étude décrit l’effet d’un entraînement par intervalle d’intensité élevée sur la cinétique du lactate sanguin et la performance chez des garçons et des hommes entraînés. Vingt-et-un garçons (11,4 ± 0,8 ans) et 19 hommes (29,4 ± 5,0 ans) effectuent une série de 4 sprints d’une durée de 30 s avec 2 min de repos et un seul sprint d’une durée de 30 s en deux occasions distinctes (ordre aléatoire) et on évalue la performance. On évalue la concentration sanguine de lactate après chaque sprint et au cours des 30 min de récupération à chaque test. Les courbes individuelles concentration-temps de lactate sanguin sont ajustées à une fonction biexponentielle comme suit : [LA] ( t ) = [ LA] ( 0 ) + A 1 ( 1 − e − γ 1 t ) + A 2 ( 1 − e − γ 2 t ) où les paramètres de la vélocité γ 1 et γ 2 reflètent respectivement la capacité des muscles précédemment actifs à libérer le lactate dans le sang et à l’éliminer de l’organisme par la suite. Dans les deux tests, la concentration sanguine de pointe de lactate est significativement plus faible chez les garçons (4 × 30-s sprint: 12,2 ± 3,6 mmol·L –1 ; 1 sprint de 30 s: 8,7 ± 1,8 mmol·L –1 ) comparativement aux hommes (4 sprints de 30 s: 16,1 ± 3,3 mmol·L –1 ; 1 sprint de 30 s: 11,5 ± 2,1 mmol·L –1 ; p 〈 0,001). Chez les garçons, on observe des valeurs plus élevées de γ 1 (1,4531 ± 0,65 min; p 〈 0,001) et de γ 2 (0,059 ± 0,023 min; p = 0,01) au sprint de 30 s et des valeurs plus élevées de γ 2 (0,049 ± 0,016 min; p = 0,01) aux 4 sprints de 30 s. La diminution de la performance du 1 er au 4 e sprint de 30 s est moins prononcée chez les garçons (9,2 ± 13,9 %) que chez les hommes (19,2 ± 11,5 %; p = 0,01). Comparativement aux hommes, les garçons présentent une plus faible concentration sanguine de pointe de lactate, une diminution moins importante de la performance au sprint concomitamment à une libération et une élimination plus rapide du lactate au cours du sprint isolé de 30 s et une élimination plus rapide de lactate à la suite des 4 sprints de 30 s. [Traduit par la Rédaction]
    Keywords: High Intensive Interval Training ; Children ; Elimination ; Recovery ; Entraînement Par Intervalle D’intensité Élevée ; Enfants ; Élimination ; Récupération
    ISSN: 1715-5312
    E-ISSN: 1715-5320
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Pediatric exercise science, November 2014, Vol.26(4), pp.485-94
    Description: This study aimed to determine the effects of a single high-intensity interval training (HIIT) session on salivary cortisol (SC) levels, physiological responses, and performance in trained boys and men. Twenty-three boys (11.5 ± 0.8 years) and 25 men (29.7 ± 4.6 years) performed HIIT (4 consecutive Wingate Anaerobic Tests). SC in boys and men increased after HIIT from 5.55 ± 3.3 nmol/l to 15.13 ± 9.7 nmol/l (+173%) and from 7.07 ± 4.7 nmol/l to 19.19 ± 12.7 nmol/l (+171%), respectively (p 〈 .01). Pretest SC as well as posttest changes were comparable in both groups (both p 〈 .01). Peak blood lactate concentration was significantly lower in boys (12.6 ± 3.5 mmol/l) than in men (16.3 ± 3.1 mmol/l; p 〈 .01). Throughout the HIIT, mean heart rates in boys were higher (p 〈 .001) but relative peak oxygen uptake (ml·min-1·kg-1; p 〈 .05) and performance were lower (p 〈 .001) in boys than in men. HIIT in young athletes is associated with a higher activation of the hormonal stress axis than other types of exercise regimes as described in the literature. This study is the first to show a pronounced SC increase to HIIT in trained boys accompanied by elevated levels of blood lactate concentrations and heart rate suggesting a high cardio-respiratory, metabolic, and hormonal response to HIIT in 11-year-old boys.
    Keywords: Bicycling -- Physiology ; Physical Exertion -- Physiology
    ISSN: 08998493
    E-ISSN: 1543-2920
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Radiation oncology (London, England), 15 April 2013, Vol.8, pp.90
    Description: Preoperative radiochemotherapy (RCT) with 5-FU or capecitabine is the standard of care for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Preoperative RCT achieves pathological complete response rates (pCR) of 10-15%. We conducted a single arm phase II study to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of addition of bevacizumab and oxaliplatin to preoperative standard RCT with capecitabine. Eligible patients had LARC (cT3-4; N0/1/2, M0/1) and were treated with preoperative RCT prior to planned surgery. Patients received conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (50.4 Gy in 1.8 Gy fractions) and simultaneous chemotherapy with capecitabine 825 mg/m2 bid (d1-14, d22-35) and oxaliplatin 50 mg/m2 (d1, d8, d22, d29). Bevacizumab 5 mg/kg was added on days 1, 15, and 29. The primary study objective was the pCR rate. 70 patients with LARC (cT3-4; N0/1, M0/1), ECOG 〈 2, were enrolled at 6 sites from 07/2008 through 02/2010 (median age 61 years [range 39-89], 68% male). At initial diagnosis, 84% of patients had clinical stage T3, 62% of patients had nodal involvement and 83% of patients were M0. Mean tumor distance from anal verge was 5.92 cm (± 3.68). 58 patients received the complete RCT (full dose RT and full dose of all chemotherapy). During preoperative treatment, grade 3 or 4 toxicities were experienced by 6 and 2 patients, respectively: grade 4 diarrhea and nausea in one patient (1.4%), respectively, grade 3 diarrhea in 2 patients (3%), grade 3 obstipation, anal abscess, anaphylactic reaction, leucopenia and neutropenia in one patient (1.4%), respectively. In total, 30 patients (46%) developed postoperative complications of any grade including one gastrointestinal perforation in one patient (2%), wound-healing problems in 7 patients (11%) and bleedings in 2 patients (3%). pCR was observed in 12/69 (17.4%) patients. Pathological downstaging (ypT 〈 cT and ypN ≤ cN) was achieved in 31 of 69 patients (44.9%). All of the 66 operated patients had a R0 resection. 47 patients (68.1%) underwent sphincter preserving surgery. The addition of bevacizumab and oxaliplatin to RCT with capecitabine was well tolerated and did not increase perioperative morbidity or mortality. However, the pCR rate was not improved in comparison to other trials that used capecitabine or capecitabine/oxaliplatin in preoperative radiochemotherapy.
    Keywords: Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols -- Therapeutic Use ; Chemoradiotherapy -- Methods ; Neoadjuvant Therapy -- Methods ; Rectal Neoplasms -- Therapy
    E-ISSN: 1748-717X
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  • 6
    In: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 2011, Vol.199(4), pp.276-279
    Description: The use of highly experienced expert judges was suggested for the assessment of therapistsʼ adherence and competence. However, such an approach implies high costs. It can be questioned whether only experts are able to evaluate therapistsʼ adherence and competence reliably. To test this, 4 judges evaluated therapist adherence and competence in 30 randomly selected videotapes of cognitive therapy sessions for depression. In that, 2 judges exhibited high clinical experience (experts), whereas 2 judges did not (novices). We could demonstrate that novices evaluated an aggregated adherence and competence measure with high reliability. However, several adherence and competence aspects were not assessed with satisfactory reliability by novices. Although adherence ratings of experts and novices showed high concordance, the concordance of competence ratings was only moderate. Results revealed that therapistsʼ adherence could be evaluated satisfactorily by trained novices with some restrictions, but not their competence.
    Keywords: Clinical Competence -- Standards ; Cognitive Behavioral Therapy -- Standards ; Guideline Adherence -- Standards;
    ISSN: 0022-3018
    E-ISSN: 1539736X
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  • 7
    In: PLoS ONE, 2014, Vol.9(9)
    Description: Factors influencing crossmodal interactions are manifold and operate in a stimulus-driven, bottom-up fashion, as well as via top-down control. Here, we evaluate the interplay of stimulus congruence and attention in a visual-tactile task. To this end, we used a matching paradigm requiring the identification of spatial patterns that were concurrently presented visually on a computer screen and haptically to the fingertips by means of a Braille stimulator. Stimulation in our paradigm was always bimodal with only the allocation of attention being manipulated between conditions. In separate blocks of the experiment, participants were instructed to (a) focus on a single modality to detect a specific target pattern, (b) pay attention to both modalities to detect a specific target pattern, or (c) to explicitly evaluate if the patterns in both modalities were congruent or not. For visual as well as tactile targets, congruent stimulus pairs led to quicker and more accurate detection compared to incongruent stimulation. This congruence facilitation effect was more prominent under divided attention. Incongruent stimulation led to behavioral decrements under divided attention as compared to selectively attending a single sensory channel. Additionally, when participants were asked to evaluate congruence explicitly, congruent stimulation was associated with better performance than incongruent stimulation. Our results extend previous findings from audiovisual studies, showing that stimulus congruence also resulted in behavioral improvements in visuotactile pattern matching. The interplay of stimulus processing and attentional control seems to be organized in a highly flexible fashion, with the integration of signals depending on both bottom-up and top-down factors, rather than occurring in an ‘all-or-nothing’ manner.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: NeuroImage, 01 August 2015, Vol.116, pp.177-186
    Description: Coherent percepts emerge from the accurate combination of inputs from the different sensory systems. There is an ongoing debate about the neurophysiological mechanisms of crossmodal interactions in the brain, and it has been proposed that transient synchronization of neurons might be of central importance. Oscillatory activity in lower frequency ranges (〈 30 Hz) has been implicated in mediating long-range communication as typically studied in multisensory research. In the current study, we recorded high-density electroencephalograms while human participants were engaged in a visuotactile pattern matching paradigm and analyzed oscillatory power in the theta- (4–7 Hz), alpha- (8–13 Hz) and beta-bands (13–30 Hz). Employing the same physical stimuli, separate tasks of the experiment either required the detection of predefined targets in visual and tactile modalities or the explicit evaluation of crossmodal stimulus congruence. Analysis of the behavioral data showed benefits for congruent visuotactile stimulus combinations. Differences in oscillatory dynamics related to crossmodal congruence within the two tasks were observed in the beta-band for crossmodal target detection, as well as in the theta-band for congruence evaluation. Contrasting ongoing activity preceding visuotactile stimulation between the two tasks revealed differences in the alpha- and beta-bands. Source reconstruction of between-task differences showed prominent involvement of premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, somatosensory association cortex and the supramarginal gyrus. These areas not only exhibited more involvement in the pre-stimulus interval for target detection compared to congruence evaluation, but were also crucially involved in post-stimulus differences related to crossmodal stimulus congruence within the detection task. These results add to the increasing evidence that low frequency oscillations are functionally relevant for integration in distributed brain networks, as demonstrated for crossmodal interactions in visuotactile pattern matching in the current study.
    Keywords: Cortical Oscillations ; Multisensory Integration ; Visuotactile ; Pattern Matching ; Crossmodal Congruence ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1053-8119
    E-ISSN: 1095-9572
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Psychiatry Research, 30 November 2013, Vol.210(1), pp.140-145
    Description: The prevention of relapse in recurrent depression is considered a central aim in cognitive-behavioral therapy, given the high risk of relapse. In this study, patients with recurrent major depressive disorder (currently remitted) received 16 sessions of Maintenance Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (M-CBT) over a period of 8 months, in order to prevent relapse. Therapist adherence and competence, as well as the therapeutic alliance, were investigated as predictors for reducing the risk of recurrence in depression. Videotapes of 80 participants were analyzed in order to evaluate therapist adherence and competence. Additionally, the therapeutic alliance was assessed by questionnaire. No associations were found between therapist adherence or competence, and the risk of relapse 1 year after treatment. By contrast, the therapeutic alliance was a significant predictor of the time to relapse. Moreover, we found that the number of previous depressive episodes (≥5 vs. ≤4) was a significant moderator variable. This indicates that the alliance-outcome relationship was particularly important when patients with five or more previous depressive episodes were taken into account, in comparison to patients with four or fewer episodes. For the psychotherapeutic treatment of recurrent depression and the prevention of relapse, sufficient attention should be paid to the therapeutic alliance.
    Keywords: Adherence ; Alliance ; Competence ; Maintenance Cognitive Therapy ; Outcome ; Recurrent Depression ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0165-1781
    E-ISSN: 1872-7123
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  • 10
    In: Scientific Reports, 2016, Vol.6
    Description: In this study, we used a novel multisensory attention paradigm to investigate attention-modulated cortical oscillations over a wide range of frequencies using magnetencephalography in healthy human participants. By employing a task that required the evaluation of the congruence of audio-visual stimuli, we promoted the formation of widespread cortical networks including early sensory cortices as well as regions associated with cognitive control. We found that attention led to increased high-frequency gamma-band activity and decreased lower frequency theta-, alpha-, and beta-band activity in early sensory cortex areas. Moreover, alpha-band coherence decreased in visual cortex. Frontal cortex was found to exert attentional control through increased low-frequency phase synchronisation. Crossmodal congruence modulated beta-band coherence in mid-cingulate and superior temporal cortex. Together, these results offer an integrative view on the concurrence of oscillations at different frequencies during multisensory attention.
    Keywords: Biology;
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
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