The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, 2011, Vol.71(3), pp.523-527
BACKGROUND:: The optimal method for spinal evaluation after penetrating trauma is currently unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a standardized clinical examination for the detection of spinal injuries after penetrating trauma. METHODS:: After Institutional Review Board approval, all evaluable penetrating trauma patients aged 15 years or more admitted to the Los Angeles County + University of Southern California Medical Center were prospectively evaluated for spinal pain, tenderness to palpation, deformity, and neurologic deficit. RESULTS:: During the 6-month study period, 282 patients were admitted after sustaining a penetrating injury; 143 (50.7%) as a result of gunshot wound (GSW) and 139 (49.3%) as a result of stab wound (SW). None of the patients sustaining a SW had a spinal injury. Of the 112 evaluable GSW patients, 9 sustained an injury: 6 with a true-positive and 3 with a false-negative clinical examination. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 66.7%, 89.6%, 46.2% and 95.2%, respectively. For clinically significant injuries requiring surgical intervention, cervical or thoracolumbar spine orthosis, or cord transections, however, the sensitivity of clinical examination was 100.0%, specificity 87.5%, positive predictive value 30.8%, and negative predictive value 87.5%. CONCLUSION:: Clinically significant spinal injury, although rare after SWs, is not uncommon after GSWs. A structured clinical examination of the spine in evaluable patients who have sustained a GSW is highly reliable for identifying those with clinically significant injuries.
Adolescent–Diagnosis ; Adult–Etiology ; Aged–Complications ; Aged, 80 and Over–Diagnosis ; Clinical Protocols–Complications ; Cohort Studies–Diagnosis ; Female–Diagnosis ; Humans–Diagnosis ; Male–Diagnosis ; Middle Aged–Diagnosis ; Physical Examination–Diagnosis ; Predictive Value of Tests–Diagnosis ; Reproducibility of Results–Diagnosis ; Spinal Injuries–Diagnosis ; Tomography, Spiral Computed–Diagnosis ; Wounds, Gunshot–Diagnosis ; Wounds, Stab–Diagnosis ; Young Adult–Diagnosis ; Abridged;