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  • Baveye, Philippe C  (21)
  • Agriculture
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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Spanish Journal of Soil Science, 2017, Vol.7(2), pp.146-148
    Description: Letter to the Editor
    Keywords: Scholarly Publishing ; Soil Science ; Bibliometrics
    ISSN: 2253-6574
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, December 2016, Vol.103, pp.320-326
    Description: Soil biodiversity has become a major area of research over the last decade, and the literature on the topic has expanded tremendously in recent years, so much so that a huge number of publications now deal with soil biodiversity every year. This article does not attempt the formidable task of drawing a general picture of where the field is at the moment, but it zeroes in instead on two perspectives that seem to have gathered momentum over time and raise concern about future progress. The first perspective involves the implicit assumption that to make sense of either the species-, genetic-, or functional biodiversity of soils, it is not necessary to consider in detail the features of (micro)habitats provided by soils to organisms, and that analysis of the information provided by extracted DNA or RNA suffices. The second perspective is associated with research on the effect of the physical and chemical characteristics of microhabitats on the activity of microorganisms. It basically hypothesizes that all microorganisms behave similarly, and therefore that observations made mostly with bacteria can be extended readily to all organisms, ignoring taxonomic biodiversity. To illustrate both perspectives, we provide a number of illustrative examples from the relevant literature and analyze them briefly. We argue that these two perspectives, if they spread, will hinder progress in our understanding of soil biodiversity at any level, and especially of its impact on soil processes. In order to return to a more fruitful middle ground, where both a variety of organisms and the characteristics of the microhabitats where they reside are carefully considered, several routes can be envisaged, but our experience suggests that an emphasis on genuinely interdisciplinary research is crucial.
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 01 June 2016, Vol.271, pp.254-255
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2015.11.025 Byline: Philippe C. Baveye, Magdeline Laba Article History: Received 18 September 2015; Accepted 19 November 2015
    Keywords: Proximal Sensing ; Spatial Variability ; Soil Contamination ; Remediation ; Toxicology ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 01 January 2018, Vol.309, pp.118-123
    Description: The “4 per 1000” initiative: A credibility issue for the soil science community?
    Keywords: Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, July 2018, Vol.238, pp.140-149
    Description: Soil contamination due to atmospheric deposition of metals originating from smelters is a global environmental problem. A common problem associated with this contamination is the discrimination between anthropic and natural contributions to soil metal concentrations: In this context, we investigated the characteristics of soil contamination in the surrounding area of a world class smelter. We attempted to combine several approaches in order to identify sources of metals in soils and to examine contamination characteristics, such as pollution level, range, and spatial distribution. Soil samples were collected at 100 sites during a field survey and total concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn were analyzed. We conducted a multivariate statistical analysis, and also examined the spatial distribution by 1) identifying the horizontal variation of metals according to particular wind directions and distance from the smelter and 2) drawing a distribution map by means of a GIS tool. As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn in the soil were found to originate from smelter emissions, and As also originated from other sources such as abandoned mines and waste landfill. Among anthropogenic metals, the horizontal distribution of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Zn according to the downwind direction and distance from the smelter showed a typical feature of atmospheric deposition (regression model:  =   + αe ). Lithogenic Fe was used as an indicator, and it revealed the continuous input and accumulation of these four elements in the surrounding soils. Our approach was effective in clearly identifying the sources of metals and analyzing their contamination characteristics. We believe this study will provide useful information to future studies on soil pollution by metals around smelters.
    Keywords: Soil Contamination ; Smelter ; Metal ; Gis ; Atmospheric Deposition ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Soil Science Society of America journal, 2011, Vol.75(6), pp.2037-2048
    Description: When the Soil Science Society of America was created, 75 yr ago, the USA was suffering from major dust storms, causing the loss of enormous amounts of topsoil as well as human lives. These catastrophic events reminded public officials that soils are essential to society's well-being. The Soil Conservation Service was founded and farmers were encouraged to implement erosion mitigation practices. Still, many questions about soil processes remained poorly understood and controversial. In this article, we argue that the current status of soils worldwide parallels that in the USA at the beginning of the 20th century. Dust bowls and large-scale soil degradation occur over vast regions in a number of countries. Perhaps more so even than in the past, soils currently have the potential to affect populations critically in several other ways as well, from their effect on global climate change, to the toxicity of brownfield soils in urban settings. Even though our collective understanding of soil processes has experienced significant advances since 1936, many basic questions still remain unanswered, for example whether or not a switch to no-till agriculture promotes C sequestration in soils, or how to account for microscale heterogeneity in the modeling of soil organic matter transformation. Given the enormity of the challenges raised by our (ab)uses of soils, one may consider that if we do not address them rapidly, and in the process heed the example of U.S. public officials in the 1930s who took swift action, humanity may not get a chance to explore other frontiers of science in the future. From this perspective, insistence on the fact that soils are critical to life on earth, and indeed to the survival of humans, may again stimulate interest in soils among the public, generate support for soil research, and attract new generations of students to study soils. ; p. 2037-2048.
    Keywords: Dust Storms ; Students ; Carbon Sequestration ; Topsoil ; Urban Soils ; Society ; No-Tillage ; Soil Organic Matter ; Humans ; Climate Change ; Models ; Farmers ; Soil Degradation ; Toxicity ; Soil Conservation
    ISSN: 0361-5995
    E-ISSN: 14350661
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2015, Vol.15(3), pp.634-647
    Description: Byline: Burcu UyuAur (1), Chunyan Li (2), Philippe C. Baveye (3), Christophe J. G. Darnault (2) Keywords: Geochemistry; Precipitation; Sorption; Two-site and mobile-immobile transport models; Uranyl silicates; Vadose zone Abstract: Purpose Uranium contamination of subsurface environments was once thought to be an isolated occurrence, mostly at production sites. But recent evidence has shown that the presence of uranium in phosphate fertilizers has caused massive amounts of this element to be released worldwide. Concerns are related to uranium movement to groundwater supplies and its significant toxicological risks to human populations. Information is direly needed on how geochemical processes control uranium transport in the vadose zone. Materials and methods Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the effects of the pH of the soil solution on the reactive transport of uranium(VI) in the vadose zone. The uranium solution was prepared by dilution of a 10.sup.-3 M stock solution of uranium perchlorate, (UO.sub.2(ClO.sub.4).sub.2), with DI water. Two U(VI) solutions were prepared at concentrations of 2x10.sup.-6 M at pH 6 and 11 and were percolated under steady-state conditions through columns filled with sand. The convective-dispersion equation (CDE) was used to analyze the tracer and uranium breakthrough curves resulting from the column experiments. The program CXTFIT was used to estimate the transport parameters of equilibrium and nonequilibrium (i.e., two-site and mobile-immobile) models applied to the experimental data. Results and discussion Comparison of U(VI) breakthrough behavior at pH 6 with that of a nonreactive tracer indicated that U(VI) transport was significantly retarded, and about 52 % of the added U(VI) adsorbed to the quartz sand, likely in the cationic forms U[O.sub.2]OH.sup.+ and UO .sub.2 .sup.2+ . The adsorption was reversible upon the addition of deionized water. At pH 11, the U(VI) breakthrough curve increased gradually and reached a plateau value C/C .sub.0 oscillating between 72 and 82 %. Upon reaction, Si was released from the dissolution of quartz sand, which allowed the possible transport of U(VI) following precipitation of a U(VI) containing solid, such as uranyl-silicate minerals, or sorption of U(VI) onto silica colloids. Two-site and mobile-immobile (MIM) models suggested an influence of either rate-limited mass transfer processes or immobile/mobile water partitioning in U(VI) reactive transport. Conclusions The reactive transport of U(VI) governed by adsorption-desorption processes, precipitation, and complexation reactions in which kinetic behaviors are controlled by pH, solution chemistry, and heterogeneous flow regime impacts the mobility of U(VI). The column transport experiments indicated that under geochemical conditions and vadoze zone processes (preferential flow) that favor the mobility of U(VI), dissolved- and colloidal-phase associations of U(VI) may be transported rapidly and in high concentrations from the soil surface to the groundwater. Author Affiliation: (1) Tubitak Marmara Research Center, P.K. 21 41470, Gebze, Kocaeli, Turkey (2) Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, L.G. Rich Environmental Laboratory, Clemson University, 342 Computer Court, Anderson, SC, 29625, USA (3) Laboratory of Soil and Water Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic University, 319 Materials Research Center, 110 Eighth St., Troy, NY, 12180, USA Article History: Registration Date: 31/10/2014 Received Date: 19/05/2014 Accepted Date: 31/10/2014 Online Date: 20/11/2014 Article note: Responsible Editor: Dong-Mei Zhou
    Keywords: Geochemistry ; Precipitation ; Sorption ; Two-site and mobile-immobile transport models ; Uranyl silicates ; Vadose zone
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 1614-7480
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  • 8
    In: Soil Science, 2012, Vol.177(2), pp.111-119
    Description: ABSTRACT: Macroscopic measurements and observations in two-dimensional soil-thin sections indicate that fungal hyphae invade preferentially the larger, air-filled pores in soils. This suggests that the architecture of soils and the microscale distribution of water are likely to influence significantly the dynamics of fungal growth. Unfortunately, techniques are lacking at present to verify this hypothesis experimentally, and as a result, factors that control fungal growth in soils remain poorly understood. Nevertheless, to design appropriate experiments later on, it is useful to indirectly obtain estimates of the effects involved. Such estimates can be obtained via simulation, based on detailed micron-scale X-ray computed tomography information about the soil pore geometry. In this context, this article reports on a series of simulations resulting from the combination of an individual-based fungal growth model, describing in detail the physiological processes involved in fungal growth, and of a Lattice Boltzmann model used to predict the distribution of air-liquid interfaces in soils. Three soil samples with contrasting properties were used as test cases. Several quantitative parameters, including Minkowski functionals, were used to characterize the geometry of pores, air-water interfaces, and fungal hyphae. Simulation results show that the water distribution in the soils is affected more by the pore size distribution than by the porosity of the soils. The presence of water decreased the colonization efficiency of the fungi, as evinced by a decline in the magnitude of all fungal biomass functional measures, in all three samples. The architecture of the soils and water distribution had an effect on the general morphology of the hyphal network, with a “looped” configuration in one soil, due to growing around water droplets. These morphologic differences are satisfactorily discriminated by the Minkowski functionals, applied to the fungal biomass.
    Keywords: Agriculture;
    ISSN: 0038-075X
    E-ISSN: 15389243
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Vadose Zone Journal, 2013, Vol.12(3), p.0
    Description: Recent advances in imaging techniques offer the possibility of visualizing the three-dimensional structure of soils at very fine scales. To make use of such information, a thresholding process is commonly implemented to separate the image into solid particles and pores. Despite the multitude of thresholding algorithms available, their performance is being challenged by the complexity of the soil structure. Experience shows that, to improve thresholding performance, existing methods require significant input from a skilled operator, making the thresholding subjective. In this context, this article proposes a new, operator-independent thresholding technique based on the analysis of the intraclass grayscale variance. The method extends the well-established Otsu technique, by applying first a preclassification of the voxels corresponding to the solid phase. Then, a threshold value is determined through minimization of the intraclass variance of the unclassified voxels. The method was implemented globally, then locally for a range of window sizes, with the optimal window size selected as that for which the standardized grayscale variances of the two voxel populations are equal. Results on the three-dimensional soil images investigated suggest that the proposed method performs noticeably better than Otsu's method, and in particular is robust enough to variations in image contrast and soil structure. Tested on a synthetic image, the new method produces a misclassification of only 2% of voxels, compared to 4.9% with Otsu's method. These results suggest that the proposed method can be very useful in the analysis of images of a variety of heterogeneous media, including soils.
    Keywords: Soils ; Algorithms ; Applications ; Complexity ; Computed Tomography Data ; Data Processing ; Dundee Scotland ; Europe ; Experimental Studies ; Great Britain ; Greyscale Imagery ; Imagery ; Mapping ; Matlab ; Micro-Tomography ; Microstructure ; Particulate Materials ; Porosity ; Scotland ; Segmentation ; Soils ; Statistical Analysis ; Synthetic Imagery ; Three-Dimensional Models ; Thresholding Method ; United Kingdom ; Values ; Variance Analysis ; Visualization ; Western Europe ; X-Ray Data;
    ISSN: Vadose Zone Journal
    E-ISSN: 1539-1663
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 15 September 2017, Vol.302, pp.14-21
    Description: Most soil structure-related physical properties are correlated to soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Texture, mineralogy, and SOC:clay ratio are also acknowledged to affect physical properties, however there is no consensus or general conclusions in this respect. Against this background, the present study aims at determining objectives for the management of SOC in terms of structural quality of agricultural soils. The large area in which 161 free-to-swell undisturbed samples were obtained for this research represents a major part of the Swiss agricultural land and belongs to one broad soil group (Cambi-Luvisols). The structural quality was scored visually, and bulk volumes (inverse of bulk density) were measured at standard matric potentials. To define the effect of SOC without interference of soil mechanical degradation, soils with good structural quality scores were considered first in studying the relationship between SOC and soil pore volumes. Results suggest that the relationship is always linear, irrespective of the clay content of the soils. No optimum of SOC corresponding to a fraction of the clay content is found, contrary to the theory of “complexed organic carbon” (Dexter et al., 2008). However, the SOC:clay ratio decreases with decreasing soil structure quality. The SOC:clay ratio of 1:8 is the average for a very good structure quality. A SOC:clay ratio of 1:10 is the limit between good and medium structural quality, thus it constitutes a reasonable goal for soil management by farmers. A SOC:clay ratio of 1:8 or smaller leads to a high probability of poor structural state. These ratios can be used as criteria for soil structural quality and SOC management, and in that context, the concept of complexed organic carbon appears relevant.
    Keywords: Soil Organic Matter ; Clay Content ; Soil Quality ; Soil Structure ; Complexed Organic Carbon ; Vess ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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