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  • Lang, F
  • Agriculture
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2013, Vol.370(1), pp.497-509
    Description: Aims: We analysed current carbon (C) stocks in fine root and aboveground biomass of riparian forests and influential environmental parameters on either side of a dike in the Donau-Auen National Park, Austria. Methods: On both sides of the dike, carbon (C) stock of fine roots (CFR) under four dominant tree species and of aboveground biomass (CAB) were assessed by topsoil cores (0-30 cm) and angle count sampling method respectively (n=48). C stocks were modeled, performing boosted regression trees (BRT). Results: Overall CFR was 2.8 t ha super(-1), with significantly higher C stocks in diked (DRF) compared to flooded riparian forests (FRF). In contrast to CFR, mean CAB was 123 t ha super(-1) and lower in DRF compared to FRF. However, dike construction was consistently ruled out as a predictor variable in BRT. CFR was influenced by the distance to the Danube River and the dominant tree species. CAB was mainly influenced by the magnitude of fluctuations in the groundwater table and the distances to the river and the low groundwater table. Conclusions: Despite pronounced differences in FRF and DRF, we conclude that there is only weak support that dikes directly influence C allocation in floodplain forests within the time scale considered (110 years).
    Keywords: Aboveground biomass ; Belowground biomass ; Carbon distribution ; Carbon sequestration ; Dike ; Ecosystem services ; Floodplain forest
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 2012, Vol.93(1), pp.75-88
    Description: Topsoil constituents are eroded from agricultural sites and leached towards drainage channels. This transfer can affect aquatic ecosystems and deteriorate the efficiency of drainage systems and fertilisers. As long as erosion cannot be completely avoided, the recycling of sediments and associated nutrients may offer a sustainable solution to these problems. The aim of our case study at the island Sant Erasmo, lagoon of Venice (Italy) was to assess the ecological problems and potentials of sediment recycling. With our assessment we concentrated on (1) the origin of channel sediments, (2) the benefit of sediment application for increasing the nutrient stocks of the soils, and (3) the risk of heavy metal (HM) contamination of arable soils by sediment application. Samples from soils of horticultural sites, sediments, and waters from adjacent drainage channels and lagoon sediments were analyzed for the concentrations of nutrients (P and K) and HM (Cu, Pb, and Zn). Potentially available channel sediment masses and element stocks were calculated for the soil fertility classes of Sant Erasmo based on local measurements of sediment depths and analyses of aerial photographs by a geographic information system. In a column experiment, leaching of both nutrients and Cu from recently dredged sediments was analyzed. Heavy metal concentrations of soils and channel sediments were much higher than of lagoon sediments. The similarity of the chemical properties of the channel sediments and of top soil samples implies that topsoil material is eroded into the channels. The amount of sediments accumulated in the channels corresponded to soil erosion rates between 2 and 23 t ha −1  a −1 . Channel sediments contained higher concentrations of nutrients and organic carbon but slightly lower concentrations of HM than the soils of adjacent horticultural sites. Sediment P and K yields would be sufficient to replace fertiliser application at the horticultural sites for up to 51 and 35 years, respectively. The column experiment indicated that Cu mobilization induced by oxidation processes is restricted to the first years after sediments are applied to the soils. Our study emphasizes that for a comprehensive assessment of sediment recycling in agricultural systems the available sediment stocks as well as the contents of nutrients and pollutants of the sediment in relation to soils have to be considered.
    Keywords: Phosphorus ; Heavy metals ; Nutrient cycling ; Leaching experiment
    ISSN: 1385-1314
    E-ISSN: 1573-0867
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2013, Vol.13(3), pp.606-615
    Description: Byline: Horst Schonsky (1), Andre Peters (1), Friederike Lang (2), Stefan Abel (1), Beate Mekiffer (3), Gerd Wessolek (1) Keywords: Column experiment; Construction rubble; Numerical modeling; Sulfate; Urban soil Abstract: Purpose In Berlin and many other cities, technogenic soil substrates from World War II and building and construction debris, in general, play an important role for soil formation and solute transport in the vadose zone. The largest debris landfill in Berlin is the Teufelsberg. Sulfate release from the landfill poses threats to groundwater quality. The scope of this study is to determine and model the processes controlling sulfate release from soils containing construction rubble. Materials and methods Column leaching experiments were conducted to analyze sulfate mobilization from Teufelsberg topsoil material. Flow interruptions of 1 and 7 days were applied. Sulfate release was modeled using a geochemical simulation tool (HP1). The model considered water flux, solute transport, and precipitation/dissolution with first-order kinetics. Results and discussion Sulfate release increased after flow interruptions, although bromide breakthrough indicated physical equilibrium of transport processes. Hence, kinetically limited solution/dissolution of sulfate is assumed. The model was applicable for qualitative description of our experimental results. The estimated equilibrium concentrations of sulfate were one to two orders of magnitude smaller than expected according to the equilibrium constant of gypsum. Conclusions It is assumed that the mobilization and transport of sulfate from debris soil material can be described by an effective model. If sulfate release and transport from soils containing debris is modeled using literature values of thermodynamic constants for gypsum, sulfate concentrations will be overestimated by one to two orders of magnitude. Author Affiliation: (1) Fachgebiet Standortkunde und Bodenschutz, Technische Universitat Berlin, Ernst Reuter Platz 1, 10587, Berlin, Germany (2) Institut fur Bodenkunde und Waldernahrungslehre, Albert Ludwig Universitat Freiburg, Bertoldstr. 17, 79085, Freiburg i.Br., Germany (3) WISTA-MANAGEMENT GMBH, Rudower Chaussee 17, 12489, Berlin, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 01/10/2012 Received Date: 12/12/2011 Accepted Date: 01/10/2012 Online Date: 19/10/2012 Article note: Responsible editor: Jean Louis Morel
    Keywords: Column experiment ; Construction rubble ; Numerical modeling ; Sulfate ; Urban soil
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 1614-7480
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2005, Vol.275(1), pp.vii-vii
    Description: Issue Title: Kinetics of soil physico - chemical processes
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Plant Sciences ; Ecology ; Plant Physiology ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Agriculture ; Botany ; Ecology;
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, February 2018, Vol.181(1), pp.31-35
    Description: Quantifying and understanding fluxes of methane (CH) and carbon dioxide (CO) in natural soil–plant–atmosphere systems are crucial to predict global climate change. Wetland herbaceous species or tree species at waterlogged sites are known to emit large amounts of CH. Upland forest soils are regarded as CH sinks and tree species like upland beech are not known to significantly emit CH. Yet, data are scarce and this assumption needs to be tested. We combined measurements of soil–atmosphere and stem–atmosphere fluxes of CO and CH and soil gas profiles to assess the contribution of the different ecosystem compartments at two upland beech forest sites in Central Europe in a case study. Soil was a net CH sink at both sites, though emissions were detected consistently from beech stems at one site. Although stem emissions from beech stems were high compared to known fluxes from other upland tree species, they were substantially lower compared to the strong CH sink of the soil. Yet, we observed extraordinarily large CH emissions from one beech tree that was 140% of the CH sink of the soil. The soil gas profile at this tree indicated CH production at a soil depth 〉 0.3 m, despite the net uptake of CH consistently observed at the soil surface. Field soil assessment showed strong redoximorphic color patterns in the adjacent soil and supports this evaluation. We hypothesize that there is a transport link between the soil and stem the root system representing a preferential transport mechanism for CH despite the fact that beech roots usually do not bear aerenchyma. The high mobility of gases requires a holistic view on the soil–plant–atmosphere system. Therefore, we recommend including field soil assessment and soil gas profiles measurements when investigating soil–atmosphere and stem–atmosphere fluxes to better understand the sources of gases and their transport mechanisms.
    Keywords: Ch 4 ; Soil Gas Profile ; Gas Flux ; Stem Gas Flux ; Co 2 ; Methanogenesis
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 01 July 2017, Vol.297, pp.61-69
    Description: The use of heavy machinery for timber harvesting causes soil damage, which may restrict forest soil functions over decades. Numerous studies have demonstrated the negative impact of soil compaction on soil physical properties, but the effects of compaction of forest soils on soil chemical and biological processes like the phosphorus availability are largely unknown. Aim of our study was to analyze the effect of skidding activity on the P dynamics on skid trails and the soil recovery ability after skidding. Furthermore, we wanted to assess if acid phosphatase activity is an appropriate indicator of soil structure damage after compaction. We investigated the phosphorus availability, acid phosphatase activity, TOC, pH value, and fine root density of soil samples from skid trails and from control plots without any skidding effect. We conducted our studies at three sites (Göttingen: Cambisols on limestone, Heide: Podzol on glacial drift and sand, and Solling: Cambisols at loess-covered sandstone) in Lower Saxony, Germany 10 to 40 years after last traffic impact in a space-for-time substitution. We observed mainly higher P concentrations and higher pH values at the wheel tracks than in the control. TOC was predominantly higher at the wheel tracks, but lower TOC at the wheel tracks was also found. In the acidic loams of the Solling region, the amount of mineralized phosphate was much higher in the tracks compared to the control areas 10 to 30 years after last traffic impact. This suggests a decoupling of P mineralization from P uptake in the wheel tracks for several decades. Furthermore, higher as well as lower phosphatase activity at the wheel tracks compared to the untrafficked control was found, but higher phosphatase activities at the wheel tracks were predominant. Acid phosphatase activity was strongly correlated with TOC, but did not correlate with the time since last traffic impact and the gas diffusivity of the soil. Therefore, our results did not confirm that acid phosphatase activity is an appropriate soil biological indicator of soil compaction and structural recovery.
    Keywords: Acid Phosphatase Activity ; P Availability ; Soil Compaction ; Soil Structure Recovery ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Soil & Tillage Research, November 2016, Vol.163, pp.14-20
    Description: Rutting caused by heavy machinery during logging operations can lead to loss of trafficability which is a considerable problem in designated skid trail systems. Wide base tires and bogie tracks are common accepted technical options to minimize rut formation. In this work the suitability of 940 mm super wide base tires on trafficability preservation was tested in comparison to 710 mm wide base tires and common used ECO-TRACK™ bogie tracks. An experiment with repeated passes by a heavy forest machine (forwarder) was conducted. Digital elevation models (DEM) of the ruts were created using photogrammetry to assess rut morphology parameters: rut depth, material displacement and erosion relevant depression storage capacity. Photogrammetry was discovered to be a time and cost efficient method to provide highly resolved 3D-data with high precision. Super wide base tires distinctly reduced rut formation compared to 710 mm tires and bogie tracks by more than 50% and 40%, respectively. Displacement of soil material led to the formation of prominent bulges that can be prone to erosion. 710 mm tires and bogie tracks caused the most voluminous bulges due to their strong rut formation. The investigated tire equipment differently affected the surface depression storage of water in the skid trails due to their different lug morphology. Ruts of bogie tracks could retain significantly more surface water than ruts produced by tires. Nonetheless, the absolute depression storage in all cases is rather low, implying that erosion would occur in case of heavy precipitation.
    Keywords: Skid Trail ; Logging ; Photogrammetry ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0167-1987
    E-ISSN: 1879-3444
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 15 February 2017, Vol.288, pp.204-212
    Description: Deadwood is a key factor in forest ecosystems, yet how it influences forest soil properties is uncertain. We hypothesized that changes in soil properties induced by deadwood mainly depend on the amount of released phenolic matter. Consequently we expected softwood- and hardwood-related deadwood effects on soil to be explained by unequal enrichment of phenolic substances. We measured differences in the quantity and composition of soil organic matter (SOM), pH, nutrient concentrations, and enzymatic activity between paired control and treatment points influenced by deadwood of silver fir ( Mill.) and European beech ( L.), and checked for correlations with total C and phenolic matter; the latter was quantified as aromaticity of water-extractable organic C through specific UV absorbance at 280 nm. Near fir deadwood, aromaticity and effective cation exchange capacity (CEC) increased while pH decreased. In comparison, concentrations of water-extractable organic C, effective CEC, exchangeable Ca and Mg , base saturation, and available molybdenum-reactive P increased near beech deadwood while exchangeable Al decreased. For fir deadwood, soil properties strongly correlated almost exclusively with total C. For beech deadwood, numerous strong correlations with aromaticity indicated that extractable phenolics influenced soil properties. These differences in correlations imply that deadwood affects soil through the composition of added phenolic matter, which would stem from differing decay processes and organisms. Decayed, particulate lignin from brown-rot in fir deadwood as opposed to oxidized, dissolved lignin from white-rot in beech deadwood would account for our observations.
    Keywords: Coarse Woody Debris ; Soil Chemistry ; Lignin ; Brown-Rot Fungi ; White-Rot Fungi ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2015, Vol.15(1), pp.1-12
    Description: Byline: Daniela Gildemeister (1,2), George Metreveli (1), Sandra Spielvogel (3), Sabina Hens (1,4), Friederike Lang (5), Gabriele E. Schaumann (1) Keywords: Cation bridges; Cross-link; Differential scanning calorimetry; Dissolved organic matter; Glass transition; Water molecule bridges Abstract: Purpose Precipitation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by multivalent cations is important for biogeochemical cycling of organic carbon. We investigated to which extent cation bridges are involved in DOM precipitation and how cross-links by cations and water molecule bridges (WaMB) stabilise the matrix of precipitated DOM. Materials and methods DOM was precipitated from the aqueous extract of a forest floor layer adding solutions of Ca(NO.sub.3).sub.2, Al(NO.sub.3).sub.3 and Pb(NO.sub.3).sub.2 with different initial metal cation/C (Me/C) ratios. Precipitates were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry before and after ageing to detect cation bridges, WaMB and restructuring of supramolecular structure. Results and discussion Twenty-five to sixty-seven per cent of the dissolved organic carbon was precipitated. The precipitation efficiency of cations increased in the order Ca〈Al〈Pb, while the cation content of precipitates increased in the order Pb〈Ca〈Al. The different order and the decrease in the WaMB transition temperature (T*) for Al/C〉3 is explained by additional formation of small AlOOH particles. Thermal analysis indicated WaMB and their disruption at T* of 53--65 [degrees]C. Like cation content, T* increased with increasing Me/C ratio and in the order Ca〈Pb〈Al for low Me/C. This supports the general assumption that cross-linking ability increases in the order Ca〈Pb〈Al. The low T* for high initial Me/C suggests less stable and less cross-linked precipitates than for low Me/C ratios. Conclusions Our results suggest a very similar thermal behaviour of OM bound in precipitates compared with soil organic matter and confirms the relevance of WaMB in stabilisation of the supramolecular structure of cation-DOM precipitates. Thus, stabilisation of the supramolecular structure of the DOM precipitates is subjected to dynamics in soils. Author Affiliation: (1) Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Universitat Koblenz-Landau, Fortstr. 7, 76829, Landau, Germany (2) Umweltbundesamt, FG IV 2.2 Pharmaceuticals, Worlitzer Platz 1, 06844, Dessau-Ro[sz]lau, Germany (3) Department of Geography, Institute of Integrated Natural Sciences, Universitat Koblenz-Landau, Universitatsstr. 1, 56070, Koblenz, Germany (4) GN Dr. Netta Beratende Ingenieure und Geowissenschaftler, Bienengarten 3, 56072, Koblenz, Germany (5) Albert-Ludwigs-Universitat Freiburg, Institute of Forest Sciences, 79085, Freiburg i.Br., Germany Article History: Registration Date: 09/07/2014 Received Date: 02/04/2014 Accepted Date: 09/07/2014 Online Date: 30/07/2014 Article note: Responsible editor: Dong-Mei Zhou Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s11368-014-0946-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Keywords: Cation bridges ; Cross-link ; Differential scanning calorimetry ; Dissolved organic matter ; Glass transition ; Water molecule bridges
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 1614-7480
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2018, Vol.432(1), pp.289-301
    Description: The accumulation of organic layers in forests is linked to decreasing nutrient availability. Organic layers might represent a source of phosphorus (P) nutrition of trees in forests. Our aims were i) to test if the fate of P in a tree sapling-soil system differs between nutrient-poor and nutrient-rich sites, and ii) to assess the influence of organic layers on the fate of P in a tree sapling-soil system at either site.We conducted a 33P labeling experiment of mesocosms of beech (Fagus sylvatica) saplings.Recovery of 33P in the organic layer was greater under nutrient-poor than under nutrient-rich conditions likely caused by the abundance of microorganisms and roots. Under nutrient-poor conditions, we found that the mobilization of P followed by efficient uptake promoted tree sapling growth if the organic layer was present. The presence of organic layers did not significantly influence P uptake by beech saplings under nutrient-rich conditions suggesting mechanisms of P mobilization in addition to organic matter mineralization.Our results highlight the importance of organic layers for P nutrition of young beech trees growing on nutrient-poor soils in temperate forest ecosystems. The role of organic layers should be considered for sustainable forest management.
    Keywords: P tracer ; Phosphorus nutrition ; Forest floor ; Soil ; Beech ; Phosphorus uptake
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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