Kooperativer Bibliotheksverbund

Berlin Brandenburg

and
and

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
  • Anatomy & Physiology
Type of Medium
Language
Year
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Annals of Anatomy, January 2013, Vol.195(1), pp.11-24
    Description: Historical evidence shows that German anatomists used bodies of executed victims of the National Socialist (NS) regime for anatomical purposes. However, there has been little direct information on these anatomists’ thoughts and motivations, and a public discussion of their activities and ethics only started in the late 1980s. The present study documents a unique postwar controversy surrounding the promotion of the anatomist and medical historian Robert Herrlinger at the university of Würzburg in the late 1950s. This intramural debate had originally been mentioned by Goetz Aly in 1987. Herrlinger's files record his career as a representative of the discipline of medical history at the university of Würzburg from 1951 to 1960. He never worked there as an active anatomist. When the university senate applied for his appointment as full professor in 1957, the internist Ernst Wollheim, the pediatrician Joseph Ströder, and the psychiatrist Heinrich Scheller strongly opposed this move in a dissenting opinion based on Herrlinger's anatomical work on bodies of executed NS-victims. They claimed that he lacked the moral prerequisites required in a teacher of medical ethics. A highly controversial debate followed and was remarkable for addressing most of the questions of the ethical and political attitudes and responsibilities of anatomists in NS-Germany that are still being discussed today and are relevant for modern anatomy. It was also significant that Wollheim, Ströder and Scheller objected to Herrlinger in his role as a medical historian, not as an anatomist. The senate finally rejected the dissenting opinion and Herrlinger was promoted.
    Keywords: Robert Herrlinger ; National Socialist Anatomy ; Medical Ethics ; Bodies of the Executed ; History of Medicine ; Ns-Victims ; Zoology
    ISSN: 0940-9602
    E-ISSN: 1618-0402
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Annals of Anatomy, October 2013, Vol.195(5), pp.381-392
    Description: The (anatomical society, AG) was founded in Germany in 1886 as an international society and remains the main organizing body of German anatomists to this day. A previous study of the history of the AG during National Socialism (NS) was based on the published proceedings of the AG and drew the preliminary conclusion that the “AG did not follow the path of preemptive obedience toward the new rulers” in contrast to some other professional societies. However, it was noted that archival sources were needed to support this conclusion and to illustrate the decision process within the society. Such sources are now available in the estate papers of Alfred Benninghoff, a leading anatomist at the time. His correspondence supports the previous finding that the AG was able to maintain its international character, thereby enabling it to avoid the active exclusion of “non-Aryan” members. The papers also confirm that the AG did not defend its vulnerable members as valiantly as the official narrative suggests, a fact illustrated in a controversy surrounding Martin Heidenhain. The interactions and conflicts between the leaders of the AG can now be reconstructed, i.e. between the secretary of the AG Heinrich von Eggeling, Benninghoff and Hermann Stieve. The Benninghoff documents also refer to a meeting of a subsection of the AG in November 1942, at which a disturbing radicalization of some anatomists developed. Finally, the papers reflect the political realities for German professionals trying to re-establish their science in a country divided into four occupation zones.
    Keywords: History of Anatomy ; National Socialism ; Anatomische Gesellschaft ; Heinrich Von Eggeling ; Alfred Benninghoff ; Hermann Stieve ; Zoology
    ISSN: 0940-9602
    E-ISSN: 1618-0402
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    In: Clinical Anatomy, May 2014, Vol.27(4), pp.514-536
    Description: Research on the history of anatomy in the Third Reich has often focused on anatomists who collaborated with the National Socialist (NS) regime. Only recently has attention shifted to investigations of the victims, of which there are two groups: anatomists whose careers were disrupted by NS policies, and victims of the NS regime whose bodies were used for anatomical purposes. No systematic approach has yet been undertaken toward the identification of all the different groups of victims and the individuals' fates. This overview of currently available data on NS victims whose bodies were used for anatomical purposes reveals that an estimated total number of all bodies delivered to departments of anatomy lies at more than 40,000, and the so far documented number of executed persons among them at a minimum of 3,749. The traditional sources of body procurement and their significant changes in character during the NS period can be traced. Postwar attempts on finding the fate and identity of bodies of NS victims in anatomy can be divided into three phases. Most investigations focused on the removal of remaining “material” from NS victims from the anatomical collections, while identification and remembrance of individual victims was not a priority. So far, about 500 NS victims' names and biographies have been at least partially identified. Existing memorials rarely name individuals. New approaches to the identification of victims and the potential of a databank for these victims' biographies as an appropriate manner of remembrance are examined in this study. Clin. Anat. 514–536, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Keywords: Anatomy In The Third Reich ; Victims Of National Socialism ; Ethics In Anatomy ; Anatomical Dissection ; Anatomical Research ; Remembrance Of Victims
    ISSN: 0897-3806
    E-ISSN: 1098-2353
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    In: Clinical Anatomy, September 2014, Vol.27(6), pp.833-834
    Description: A recent student article relates disrespectful and traumatizing events in a modern dissection room. This comment serves to remind anatomical educators' of their duties toward the medical students. It is the anatomical educators' duty to help students not only to become familiar with the structure of the human body but also with the emotional repertoire available when dealing with the living and the dead. And it is the educators' duty to accompany students through the dissection course experience in a manner that keeps them safe from emotional harm. Clin. Anat. 27:833–834, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Keywords: Anatomical Dissection ; Ethics In Anatomy ; Duty Of The Educator ; Trauma In Medical Students
    ISSN: 0897-3806
    E-ISSN: 1098-2353
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Annals of Anatomy, July 2013, Vol.195(4), pp.283-295
    Description: None of the existing studies on the history of anatomy in National Socialism (NS) has yet explored the careers of those younger anatomists, whose professional development continued through NS times and who attained prominence in postwar German and Austrian anatomy. As they became modern anatomists’ teachers and role models, the revelation that men like Wolfgang Bargmann and Heinrich von Hayek had used bodies of the executed for research in their early careers has recently led to some consternation. This study contributes to the analysis of the moral challenges inherent to a science that relies on work with “material” from human bodies and its interaction with its political environment. The results reveal that Bargmann and Hayek behaved like most other anatomists at the time, in that they used bodies of the executed for research and in that they joined the NS party or other NS political groups. As ambitious and successful young anatomists they may have felt that an early joining of NS affiliations was inevitable for the advancement of their careers. They and most of their colleagues became in some measure complicit with the NS regime. The complicated biographical realities of such luminous postwar figures as Bargmann and Hayek should lead modern anatomists to the questioning of their own ethical and political decisions in politically less demanding times.
    Keywords: Wolfgang Bargmann ; Heinrich Von Hayek ; National Socialism ; Bodies of the Executedethics of Anatomy ; Zoology
    ISSN: 0940-9602
    E-ISSN: 1618-0402
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Annals of Anatomy, May 2016, Vol.205, pp.90-102
    Description: The Anatomical Institute at the Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg is among the anatomical departments for which a comprehensive account of its history during National Socialism (NS) is still missing. Previous investigations (such as in: ) have revealed the political activities of some anatomists, but, in the absence of relevant body-registers, a more comprehensive examination of the anatomical body procurement has not been attempted. The inspection of records in university and municipal archives allows insight into the activities in the institute within the historical context. The Freiburg Institute shared the experience of the impact of NS politics with other German anatomies. Four anatomists were dismissed because of NS racial discrimination, and chairman von Möllendorf left for political reasons. His successor Nauck's appointment was politically motivated, as he was a staunch Nazi. His colleagues were also members of NS political organizations. Body procurement was controversial between the public and the anatomists in Freiburg prior to and following the Third Reich, and much of the anatomists’ efforts focused on the improvement of the body supply. In 1935, and, again during the war, the number of bodies was sufficient for anatomical education. Among the traditional sources of body procurement were increasing numbers of NS victims. Forty-four of them can be identified, among them 21 forced laborers and their children who died of so-called natural causes, and 22 men who had been executed at Stuttgart prison on April 6, 1943. While the victims’ names have been ascertained, their biographies still need restoration to ensure an appropriate commemoration.
    Keywords: History of Anatomy ; National Socialism ; Freiburg ; Body Procurement ; Victims ; Commemoration ; Ernst Nauck ; Zoology
    ISSN: 0940-9602
    E-ISSN: 1618-0402
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    In: Clinical Anatomy, January 2016, Vol.29(1), pp.37-45
    Description: While questions of ethics in body procurement have become a focus of attention in many medical schools around the world, the recent report by a medical student regarding disturbing incidences in an anatomical dissection course (Terry, [Terry M, 2014]) underlines the importance of a discussion of ethical practices in anatomical education. Here thoughts on core elements of instruction are proposed which are based on the premise that both, ethical body procurement and ethical anatomical education, are the foundation for a humanism‐based professional training of students in medicine. As the anatomical dissection course presents an exceptional situation for students, practical guidelines for a curriculum founded on ethical considerations are essential. They include a preparatory phase before the start of the course in which students are asked about their expectations and fears concerning anatomical dissection; an introduction to the history and ethics of anatomy; a time for reflection in the dissection room before the start of dissection; a regular opportunity for reflections on dissection in parallel to the course with students and faculty; and a memorial service for the donors organized by students for faculty, students and donor families. Finally, anatomical faculty should undergo training in ethical educational practices. Many anatomy programs have incorporated various of these ideas, while others have not done so. Guidelines for ethical anatomical practices can strengthen the foundation of a humanistic approach to medicine in future physicians and health care workers. Clin. Anat. 29:37–45, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Keywords: Anatomical Education ; Ethics In Anatomy ; Body Donation ; Memorial Service ; Reflection On Medicine
    ISSN: 0897-3806
    E-ISSN: 1098-2353
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Clinical Anatomy, April 2012, Vol.25(3), pp.284-294
    Description: Hans Elias (1907 to 1985) was an anatomist, an educator, a mathematician, a cinematographer, a painter, and a sculptor. Above all, he was a German of Jewish descent, who had to leave his home country because of the policies of the National Socialist (NS) regime. He spent his life in exile, first in Italy and then in the United States. His biography is exemplary for a generation of younger expatriates from National Socialist Germany who had to find a new professional career under difficult circumstances. Elias was a greatly productive morphologist whose artistic talent led to the foundation of the new science of stereology and made him an expert in scientific cinematography. He struggled hard to fulfill his own high expectations of himself in terms of his effectiveness as a scientist, educator, and politically acting man in this world. Throughout his life this strong‐willed and outspoken man never lost his great fondness for Germany and many of its people, while reserving some of his sharpest criticism for fellow anatomists who were active in National Socialist Germany, among them his friend Hermann Stieve, Max Clara, and Heinrich von Hayek. Hans Elias' life is well documented in his unpublished diaries and memoirs, and thus allows fresh insights into a time period when some anatomists were among the first victims of NS policies and other anatomists became involved in the execution of such policies. Clin. Anat. 25:284–294, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Keywords: Hans Elias ; Anatomy ; National Socialism ; Jews ; Emigrants
    ISSN: 0897-3806
    E-ISSN: 1098-2353
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Clinical Anatomy, April 2013, Vol.26(3), pp.292-293
    Description: ***** No abstract is available for this article. ***** Author Affiliation: Division of Anatomical Sciences, Department of Medical Education, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan Division of Anatomical Sciences, Department of Medical Education, University of Michigan Medical School, 3767 Medical Science Building II, Catherine Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0608, USA Division of Anatomical Sciences, Department of Medical Education, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan
    Keywords: Medical Schools;
    ISSN: 0897-3806
    E-ISSN: 1098-2353
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Clinical Anatomy, January 2013, Vol.26(1), pp.3-21
    Description: Research on the history of anatomy in the Third Reich has often concentrated on the influence of the National Socialist (NS) regime on anatomists and their consequent unethical activities. Only recently, the focus has shifted to NS victims whose bodies were used for anatomical purposes. As a first approach to learning more about the victims, this study investigated the persons whose names Hermann Stieve, chairman of the Anatomical Department at the University of Berlin, had listed after using their bodies for his research. The study draws a group portrait and recounts selected biographies of the 174 women and eight men on the list. Most women were of reproductive age, two‐thirds were German and a majority was executed for political reasons. Among the executed were at least two pregnant women. The corrected names, biographical data, and nationalities of all persons on the list are published here. None of them volunteered to be dissected, nor were the anatomists at the time interested in the victims' personal background. Future work will have to focus on the investigation of further biographies so that numbers can be turned back into people. This history is a reminder to modern anatomy that ethical body procurement and the anatomists' caring about the body donor is of the utmost importance in a discipline that introduces students to professional ethics in the medical teaching curriculum. Clin. Anat. 26:3–21, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Keywords: National Socialist Anatomy ; Bodies Of The Executed ; Hermann Stieve ; Nazi Victims ; Anatomical Dissection
    ISSN: 0897-3806
    E-ISSN: 1098-2353
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. Further information can be found on the KOBV privacy pages