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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Acta Neurochirurgica, 2015, Vol.157(8), pp.1359-1367
    Description: Objectives: The anatomy of the cavernous sinus is described controversially in a number of publications. In the present cadaveric study, the architecture of the dorsolateral wall of the cavernous sinus is studied microsurgically and histologically. Materials and methods: Twenty cadaveric skulls have been dissected through a classical surgical frontotemporal approach. The temporal skull base was flattened and anatomical landmarks like the meningo-orbital band, superior orbital fissure, foramina rotundum, ovale, and spinosum were identified. Lateral of the trigeminal foramina, the dura was cut and the periosteal dural layer was separated from the meningeal layer, identifying an interdural zone. The length and the extent of this zone were evaluated. The dural architecture of the interdural incision zone was examined histologically. Results: In all specimens, two dural layers lateral of the trigeminal foramina could be separated. The identified interdural incision zone extended in a length of 3.8-6.4 cm in the antero-posterior direction. The zone could be followed medially to the superior orbital fissure for 5.3 mm and lateral of the foramen spinosum for 6.4 mm. The separation of the dural layers allowed the approach to the superior border of the cavernous sinus through this interdural incision zone. The histological analysis of the interdural incision zone showed clearly the existence of two dural layers. Conclusions: The architecture of the temporal-fossa-dura allows the microsurgical separation of two meningeal dural layers through a length of 5-6 cm next to the trigeminal foramina. Opening this interdural incision zone allowed exploring the superior border of the cavernous sinus.
    Keywords: Skull base ; Anatomy ; Cavernous sinus ; Interdural incision zone
    ISSN: 0001-6268
    E-ISSN: 0942-0940
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE, 18 March 2013(73), pp.e50313
    Description: Intraparenchymal injection of a viral vector enables conditional gene manipulation in distinct populations of neurons or particular regions of the central nervous system. We demonstrate a stereotaxic injection technique that allows targeted gene expression or silencing in the dorsal horn of the mouse spinal cord. The surgical procedure is brief. It requires laminectomy of a single vertebra, providing for quick recovery of the animal and unimpaired motility of the spine. Controlled injection of a small vector suspension volume at low speed and use of a microsyringe with beveled glass cannula minimize the tissue lesion. The local immune response to the vector depends on the intrinsic properties of the virus employed; in our experience, it is minor and short-lived when a recombinant adeno-associated virus is used. A reporter gene such as enhanced green fluorescent protein facilitates monitoring spatial distribution of the vector, and the efficacy and cellular specificity of the transfection.
    Keywords: Gene Transfer Techniques ; Stereotaxic Techniques ; Adenoviridae -- Genetics ; Genetic Vectors -- Administration & Dosage ; Spinal Cord -- Physiology
    E-ISSN: 1940-087X
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  • 3
    In: Spine, 2001, Vol.26(9), pp.1028-1037
    Description: STUDY DESIGN. : The quantitative anatomic, radiographic, computerized tomographic, and biomechanical data of sheep and human cervical spines were evaluated. OBJECTIVES.: To compare the anatomic, radiographic, computerized tomographic, and biomechanical data of human and sheep cervical spines to determine whether the sheep spine is a suitable model for human spine research. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. : Sheep spines have been used in several in vivo and in vitro experiments. Quantitative data of the normal sheep cervical spine are lacking, yet these data are crucial to discussion about the results of such animal studies. METHODS.: In this study, 20 fresh adult female Merino sheep cervical spines and 20 fresh human cadaver cervical spines were evaluated anatomically, radiographically, computerized tomographically, and biomechanically. Three linear and two angular parameters were evaluated on four digital radiographic views: anteroposterior, right lateral in neutral position, flexion, and extension. Quantitative computed tomography scans at the center of each vertebral body and 3 mm below both endplates were analyzed for bone mineral density measurements. Biomechanical testing was performed in flexion, extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending by a nondestructive stiffness method using a nonconstrained testing apparatus. Range of motion and stiffness of each motion segment were calculated. Additionally, 10 linear anatomic parameters of each vertebra were measured using a digital ruler. RESULTS.: Anterior and mean disc space height in the sheep cervical spine increased constantly from C2–C3 to C6–C7, whereas middle disc space height decreased and posterior disc space height remained unchanged. Anterior and mean disc space height were significantly higher in sheep. In both sheep and human cervical spines, intervertebral angles were not significantly different. Standard deviations of bone mineral density in the human cervical spine were fourfold higher than in the sheep cervical spine, yet no significant differences were found in bone mineral density values between the two species. Range of motion differed significantly between the two species except in flexion–extension of C3–C4, C5–C6, axial rotation of C2–C3, and lateral bending of C2–C3, C3–C4, and C4–C5. Stiffness also was significantly different except in flexion–extension of C2–C3, C4–C5, C5–C6, and lateral bending of C2–C3, C3–C4, and C4–C5. Anatomic evaluation showed no difference in upper endplate parameters for C4 and C5. CONCLUSIONS.: Although several differences were found between human and sheep cervical spines, the small intergroup standard deviations and the good comparability with the human spine encourage the use of the sheep cervical spine as a model for cervical spine research. On the basis of the quantitative data obtained in this study, the sheep motion segment C3–C4 seemed to be the most reliable model for the corresponding human motion segment.
    Keywords: Cervical Vertebrae -- Anatomy & Histology ; Sheep -- Anatomy & Histology;
    ISSN: 0362-2436
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