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  • Doerr, Hans  (14)
  • Cinatl, J.
  • Animals
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2007, Vol.196(4), pp.181-190
    Description: Among emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, influenza constitutes one of the major threats to mankind. In this review series epidemiologic, virologic and pathologic concerns raised by infections of humans with avian influenza virus A/H5N1 are discussed. This first part concentrates on epidemiologic concerns and virulence determinants. H5N1 spread over the world and caused a series of fowl pest outbreaks. Significant human-to-human transmissions have not been observed yet. Mutations that make the virus more compatible with human-to-human transmission may occur at any time. Nevertheless, no one can currently predict with certainty whether H5N1 will become a human pandemic virus.
    Keywords: Avian Influenza;
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(5), p.e36506
    Description: Oncolytic influenza A viruses with deleted NS1 gene (delNS1) replicate selectively in tumour cells with defective interferon response and/or activated Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signalling pathway. To develop a delNS1 virus with specific immunostimulatory properties, we used an optimised technology to insert the interleukin-15 (IL-15) coding sequence into the viral NS gene segment (delNS1-IL-15). DelNS1 and delNS1-IL-15 exerted similar oncolytic effects. Both viruses replicated and caused caspase-dependent apoptosis in interferon-defective melanoma cells. Virus replication was required for their oncolytic activity. Cisplatin enhanced the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses. The cytotoxic drug increased delNS1 replication and delNS1-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. Interference with MEK/ERK signalling by RNAi-mediated depletion or the MEK inhibitor U0126 did not affect the oncolytic effects of the delNS1 viruses. In oncolysis sensitive melanoma cells, delNS1-IL-15 (but not delNS1) infection resulted in the production of IL-15 levels ranging from 70 to 1140 pg/mL in the cell culture supernatants. The supernatants of delNS1-IL-15-infected (but not of delNS1-infected) melanoma cells induced primary human natural killer cell-mediated lysis of non-infected tumour cells. In conclusion, we constructed a novel oncolytic influenza virus that combines the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses with immunostimulatory properties through production of functional IL-15. Moreover, we showed that the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses can be enhanced in combination with cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Virology ; Infectious Diseases ; Molecular Biology ; Oncology ; Dermatology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Phytomedicine, 2011, Vol.18(5), pp.384-386
    Description: The extract EPs 7630 is an approved drug for the treatment of acute bronchitis in Germany. The postulated mechanisms underlying beneficial effects of EPs 7630 in bronchitis patients include immunomodulatory and cytoprotective effects, inhibition of interaction between bacteria and host cells, and increase of cilliary beat frequency on respiratory cells. Here, we investigated the influence of EPs 7630 on replication of a panel of respiratory viruses. Determination of virus-induced cytopathogenic effects and virus titres revealed that EPs 7630 at concentrations up to 100 μg/ml interfered with replication of seasonal influenza A virus strains (H1N1, H3N2), respiratory syncytial virus, human coronavirus, parainfluenza virus, and coxsackie virus but did not affect replication of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1), adenovirus, or rhinovirus. Therefore, antiviral effects may contribute to the beneficial effects exerted by EPs 7630 in acute bronchitis patients.
    Keywords: Pelargonium Sidoides ; Respiratory Viruses ; Acute Bronchitis ; Medicine ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0944-7113
    E-ISSN: 1618-095X
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2007, Vol.196(4), pp.191-201
    Description: Among emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, influenza constitutes one of the major threats to mankind. In this review series epidemiologic, virologic and pathologic concerns raised by infections of humans with avian influenza virus A/H5N1 are discussed. The second part focuses on experimental and clinical results, which give insights in the pathogenic mechanisms of H5N1 infection in humans. H5N1 is poorly transmitted to humans. However, H5N1-induced disease is very severe. More information on the role entry barriers, H5N1 target cells and on H5N1-induced modulation of the host immune response is needed to learn more about the determinants of H5N1 pathogenicity.
    Keywords: Avian Influenza;
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2007, Vol.196(4), pp.203-212
    Description: Among emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, influenza constitutes one of the major threats to mankind. In this review series epidemiologic, virologic and pathologic concerns raised by infections of humans with avian influenza virus A/H5N1 as well as treatment options are discussed. The third part discusses therapeutic options. Neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors are the most promising agents despite uncertainty about efficacy. Dosage increase, prolonged treatment or combination therapies may increase treatment efficacy and/or inhibit resistance formation. Immune system dysregulation contributes to H5N1 disease. Although current evidence does not support the use of anti-inflammatory drugs beneficial effects cannot be excluded at later disease stages.
    Keywords: Antiviral Agents ; Avian Influenza;
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
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  • 6
    In: The Journal of Virology, 2004, Vol. 78(17), p.9007
    Description: The worldwide outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was shown to be associated with a novel coronavirus (CoV) now called SARS CoV. We report here the generation of SARS CoV S protein-pseudotyped murine leukemia virus (MLV) vector particles. The wild-type S protein pseudotyped MLV vectors, although at a low efficiency. Partial deletion of the cytoplasmic tail of S dramatically increased infectivity of pseudotypes, with titers only two- to threefold lower than those of pseudotypes generated in parallel with the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein. S-pseudotyped MLV particles were used to analyze viral tropism. MLV(SARS) pseudotypes and wild-type SARS CoV displayed similar cell types and tissue and host restrictions, indicating that the expression of a functional receptor is the major restraint in permissiveness to SARS CoV infection. Efficient gene transfer could be detected in Vero and CaCo2 cells, whereas the level of gene marking of 293T, HeLa, and HepG2 cells was only slightly above background levels. A cat cell line and a dog cell line were not susceptible. Interestingly, PK-15, a porcine kidney cell line, and primary porcine kidney cells were also highly permissive for SARS S pseudotypes and wild-type SARS CoV. This finding suggests that swine may be susceptible to SARS infection and may be a source for infection of humans. Taken together, these results indicate that MLV(SARS) pseudotypes are highly valuable for functional studies of viral tropism and entry and, in addition, can be a powerful tool for the development of therapeutic entry inhibitors without posing a biohazard to human beings.
    Keywords: Sars Coronavirus ; Murine Leukemia Virus ; Vesicular Stomatitis Virus ; Sars Coronavirus ; Murine Leukemia Virus ; Vesicular Stomatitis Virus ; Expression Vectors ; Infection ; Host Range ; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome ; Kidney ; Tropism ; Leukemia ; Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Protein ; Gene Transfer ; Deletion ; Tails ; Infectivity ; Vesicular Stomatitis ; Background Levels ; Expression Vectors ; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome ; Kidney ; Tropism ; Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Protein ; Gene Transfer ; Deletion ; Infectivity ; Viral Genetics Including Virus Reactivation ; Cloning Vectors ; S Protein ; S Protein;
    ISSN: 0022-538X
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 10985514
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2009, Vol.198(3), pp.175-183
    Description: Influenza A viruses represent a continuous pandemic threat. In April 2009, a novel influenza A virus, the so-called swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV), was identified in Mexico. Although S-OIV originates from triple-reassortant swine influenza A (H1) that has been circulating in North American pig herds since the end of the 1990s, S-OIV is readily transmitted between humans but is not epidemic in pigs. After its discovery, S-OIV rapidly spread throughout the world within few weeks. In this review, we sum up the current situation and put it into the context of the current state of knowledge of influenza and influenza pandemics. Some indications suggest that a pandemic may be mild but even “mild” pandemics can result in millions of deaths. However, no reasonable forecasts how this pandemic may develop can be made at this time. Despite stockpiling by many countries and WHO, antiviral drugs will be limited in case of pandemic and resistances may emerge. Effective vaccines are regarded to be crucial for the control of influenza pandemics. However, production capacities are restricted and development/production of a S-OIV vaccine will interfere with manufacturing of seasonal influenza vaccines. The authors are convinced that S-OIV should be taken seriously as pandemic threat and underestimation of the menace by S-OIV to be by far more dangerous than its overestimation.
    Keywords: Swine influenza ; H1N1 ; Swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus ; Pandemic
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2007, Vol.196(4), pp.213-225
    Description: Among emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, influenza constitutes one of the major threats to mankind. In this review series epidemiologic, virologic and pathologic concerns raised by infections of humans with avian influenza virus A/H5N1 are discussed. This fourth part focuses on vaccine development. Several phase I clinical studies with vaccines against H5 viruses have demonstrated limited efficacy compared to seasonal influenza vaccines. To induce protective immunity two immunisations with increased amounts of H5N1 vaccine were required. Novel vaccination strategies that are egg- and adjuvant-independent, broadly cross-reactive and long-lasting are highly desirable.
    Keywords: Vaccines ; Avian Influenza;
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Current Molecular Medicine, March 2009, Vol.9(2), pp.131-151
    Description: Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus can infect humans and is currently the most deadly influenza virus that has crossed the species barrier. As of December 2007, the spread of H5N1 virus from human to human has been rare. Nobody can predict if H5N1 may cause a pandemic. However, the number of human cases is continuously increasing and changes in virulence and epidemiology have been detected. There are specific pathogenic features of H5N1 infection. In contrast to human-adapted influenza A strains, H5N1 preferentially infects cells of the lower respiratory tract and may spread to tissues outside the respiratory tract in humans. Moreover, H5N1 replication is prolonged in target organs and results in higher viral loads and increased tissue damage. These features will have to be considered for therapeutic protocols for H5N1 infection in humans. Rapid genetic and antigenic changes observed in H5N1 virus isolates represent a challenge for the development of vaccines. In the present review, current knowledge about epidemiology, virulence factors and pathology of H5N1 infections in humans are summarised and discussed. Moreover, the possible roles of antiinfluenza drugs in the pandemic situation as well as the development of effective vaccines are subject of this overview.
    Keywords: Pathogenic H5n1 ; Avian Influenza ; Humans ; Of Chickens ; Epidemiology ; Epidemiology
    ISSN: 1566-5240
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  • 10
    Article
    Article
    In: Current Pharmaceutical Design, November 2007, Vol.13(33), pp.3378-3393
    Description: The short chain fatty acid valproic acid (VPA, 2-propylpetanoic acid) is approved for the treatment of epilepsia, bipolar disorders and migraine and clinically used for schizophrenia. In 1999, the first clinical anti-cancer trial using VPA was initiated. Currently, VPA is examined in numerous clinical trials for different leukaemias and solid tumour entities. In addition to clinical assessment, the experimental examination of VPA as anti-cancer drug is ongoing and many questions remain unanswered. Although other mechanisms may also contribute to VPA-induced anti-cancer effects, inhibition of histone deacetylases appears to play a central role. This review focuses on recent developments regarding the anti-cancer activity of VPA.
    Keywords: Hdac ; Differentiation ; Combination Therapy ; Clinical Studies ; Valproic Acid ; Angiogenesis
    ISSN: 1381-6128
    E-ISSN: 18734286
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