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  • 1
    In: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research, September 2015, Vol.28(5), pp.488-489
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/pcmr.12389/abstract Byline: Peter Dietrich, Anja Katrin Bosserhoff ***** No abstract is available for this article. ***** Article Note: Coverage on: Shoshan E, Mobley AK, Braeuer RR, Kamiya T, Huang L, Vasquez ME, Salameh A, Lee HJ, Kim SJ, Ivan C, Velazquez-Torres G, Nip KM, Zhu K, Brooks D, Jones SJ, Birol I, Mosqueda M, Wen YY, Eterovic AK, Sood AK, Hwu P, Gershenwald JE, Robertson AG, Calin GA, Markel G, Fidler IJ, Bar-Eli M. (2015) Reduced adenosine-to-inosine miR-455-5p editing promotes melanoma growth and metastasis. Nat. Cell Biol. 17(3), 311-321. doi: 10.1038/ncb3110.
    Keywords: Melanoma ; Microrna;
    ISSN: 1755-1471
    E-ISSN: 1755-148X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology, August 2014, Vol.28(4), pp.637-653
    Description: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now recognized as the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Its prevalence has increased to more than 30% of adults in developed countries and its incidence is still rising. The majority of patients with NAFLD have simple steatosis but in up to one third of patients, NAFLD progresses to its more severe form nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is characterized by liver inflammation and injury thereby determining the risk to develop liver fibrosis and cancer. NAFLD is considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. However, the liver is not only a passive target but affects the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome and its complications. Conversely, pathophysiological changes in other organs such as in the adipose tissue, the intestinal barrier or the immune system have been identified as triggers and promoters of NAFLD progression. This article details the pathogenesis of NAFLD along with the current state of its diagnosis and treatment.
    Keywords: Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (Nafld) ; Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (Nash) ; Metabolic Syndrome ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1521-6918
    E-ISSN: 1532-1916
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  • 3
    In: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research, September 2018, Vol.31(5), pp.614-629
    Description: The network of molecular players is similar when comparing neural crest‐derived, actively migrating melanoblasts to melanoma cells. However, melanoblasts are sensitive to differentiation‐initiating signals at their target site (epidermis), while melanoma cells maintain migratory and undifferentiated features. We aimed at identifying downregulated genes in melanoma that are particularly upregulated in melanoblasts. Loss of such genes could contribute to stabilization of a dedifferentiated, malignant phenotype in melanoma. We determined that micro‐622 (miR‐622) expression was strongly downregulated in melanoma cells and tissues compared to melanocytes and melanoblast‐related cells. miR‐622 expression correlated with survival of patients with melanoma. miR‐622 re‐expression inhibited clonogenicity, proliferation, and migration in melanoma. Inhibition of miR‐622 in melanocytes induced enhanced migration. Kirsten rat sarcoma () was identified as a major functional target of miR‐622 in melanoma. We conclude that miR‐622 is a novel tumor suppressor in melanoma and identify the miR‐622‐ axis as potential therapeutic target.
    Keywords: Kras ; Melanoma ; Micro Rna
    ISSN: 1755-1471
    E-ISSN: 1755-148X
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Gut, 12 August 2011, Vol.60(8), p.1122
    Description: Splanchnic vasodilation triggers the development of the hyperdynamic circulatory syndrome in portal hypertension. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a sympathetic co-transmitter of norepinephrine, improves contractility in mesenteric arteries of pre-hepatic portal hypertensive rats. Therefore, we investigated the effect of NPY on mesenteric arterial contractility in vitro and in vivo in cirrhotic ascitic rats, as well as the vasoactive pathways involved.
    Keywords: Portal Hypertension ; Splanchnic Circulation ; Neuropeptide Y ; Rho-Kinase ; No ; Gastrointestinal Blood Flow ; Hepatic Haemodynamics ; Liver Cirrhosis ; Portal Hypertension
    ISSN: 0017-5749
    ISSN: 00175749
    E-ISSN: 1468-3288
    E-ISSN: 14683288
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Gut, 4 April 2018, Vol.67(4), p.746
    Description: Preoperative chemotherapy with irinotecan is associated with the development of steatohepatitis, which increases the risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality for liver surgery. The molecular mechanisms of this chemotherapeutic complication are widely unknown.
    Keywords: Surgical Oncology ; Pharmacotherapy ; Liver Metastases ; Liver
    ISSN: 0017-5749
    ISSN: 00175749
    E-ISSN: 1468-3288
    E-ISSN: 14683288
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  • 6
    In: Liver International, December 2015, Vol.35(12), pp.2556-2563
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/liv.12874/abstract Byline: Johannes Hartl, Peter Dietrich, Lukas Moleda, Martina Muller-Schilling, Reiner Wiest Keywords: cirrhosis; hyperdynamic circulatory syndrome; Neuropeptide Y; portal hypertension; splanchnic vasodilatation; vasoconstriction Abstract Background & Aims Vascular hyporeactivity to vasoconstrictors contributes to splanchnic arterial vasodilatation and hemodynamic dysregulation in portal hypertension. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a sympathetic cotransmitter, has been shown to improve adrenergic vascular contractility in portal hypertensive rats and markedly attenuate hyperdynamic circulation. To further characterize the NPY-effects in portal hypertension, we investigated its role for non-receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) of portal vein ligated (PVL) and sham-operated rats. Methods Ex vivo SMA perfusion of PVL and sham rats was used to analyse the effects of NPY on pressure response to non-receptor-mediated vasoconstriction. Dose-response curves to KCl (30-300 mM) were used to bypass G protein-coupled receptor mechanisms. Potential involvement of the cyclooxygenase-pathway was tested by non-selective cyclooxygenase-inhibition using indomethacin. Results KCl-induced vascular contractility but not vascular sensitivity was significantly attenuated in PVL rats as compared with sham rats. Administration of NPY resulted in an augmentation of KCl-evoked vascular sensitivity being not different between study groups. However, KCl-induced vascular contractility was markedly more enhanced in PVL rats, thus, vascular response was no more significantly different between PVL and sham rats after addition of NPY. Administration of indomethacin abolished the NPY-induced enhancement of vasoconstriction. Conclusions Receptor-independent vascular contractility is impaired in mesenteric arteries in portal hypertension. NPY improves non-receptor mediated mesenteric vasoconstriction more effective in portal hypertension than in healthy conditions correcting splanchnic vascular hyporesponsiveness. This beneficial vasoactive action of NPY adds to its well known more pronounced effects on adrenergic vasoconstriction in portal hypertension making it a promising therapeutic agent in portal hypertension. Article Note: Handling Editor: Christophe Bureau
    Keywords: Cirrhosis ; Hyperdynamic Circulatory Syndrome ; Neuropeptide Y ; Portal Hypertension ; Splanchnic Vasodilatation ; Vasoconstriction
    ISSN: 1478-3223
    E-ISSN: 1478-3231
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(6), p.e39909
    Description: The current vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), BCG, has failed to control TB worldwide and the protective efficacy is moreover limited to 10–15 years. A vaccine that could efficiently boost a BCG-induced immune response and thus prolong protective immunity would therefore have a significant impact on the global TB-burden. ; In the present study we show that the fusion protein HyVac4 (H4), consisting of the mycobacterial antigens Ag85B and TB10.4, given in the adjuvant IC31® or DDA/MPL effectively boosted and prolonged immunity induced by BCG, leading to improved protection against infection with virulent (M.tb). Increased protection correlated with an increased percentage of TB10.4 specific IFNγ/TNFα/IL-2 or TNFα/IL-2 producing CD4 T cells at the site of infection. Moreover, this vaccine strategy did not compromise the use of ESAT-6 as an accurate correlate of disease development/vaccine efficacy. Indeed both CD4 and CD8 ESAT-6 specific T cells showed significant correlation with bacterial levels. ; H4-IC31® can efficiently boost BCG-primed immunity leading to an increased protective anti-M.tb immune response dominated by IFNγ/TNFα/IL-2 or TNFα/IL2 producing CD4 T cells. H4 in the CD4 T cell inducing adjuvant IC31® is presently in clinical trials.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Immunology ; Microbiology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Biophysical Journal, 03 March 2010, Vol.98(5), pp.753-761
    Description: Channelrhodopsins are light-gated ion channels that mediate vision in phototactic green algae like . In neurosciences, channelrhodopsins are widely used to light-trigger action potentials in transfected cells. All known channelrhodopsins preferentially conduct H . Previous studies have indicated the existence of an early and a late conducting state within the channelrhodopsin photocycle. Here, we show that for channelrhodopsin-2 expressed in oocytes and HEK cells, the two open states have different ion selectivities that cause changes in the channelrhodopsin-2 reversal voltage during a light pulse. An enzyme kinetic algorithm was applied to convert the reversal voltages in various ionic conditions to conductance ratios for H and divalent cations (Ca and/or Mg ), as compared to monovalent cations (Na and/or K ). Compared to monovalent cation conductance, the H conductance, , is ∼3 × 10 and the divalent cation conductance, , is ∼0.01 in the early conducting state. In the stationary mixture of the early and late states, is larger and smaller, both by a factor of ∼2. The results suggest that the ionic basis of light perception in is relatively nonspecific in the beginning of a light pulse but becomes more selective for protons during longer light exposures.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 0006-3495
    E-ISSN: 1542-0086
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  • 9
    In: Ecology, November 2007, Vol.88(11), pp.2915-2925
    Description: It is notoriously difficult to study population interactions among highly mobile animals that cannot be meaningfully confined to experimental plots of limited size. For example, migratory water birds are believed to suffer from competition with resident fish populations for shared food resources. While observational evidence in support of this hypothesis is accumulating, replicated experiments addressing this issue at the proper spatial scale are lacking. Here, we report from a replicated whole‐system experiment in which we stocked large (0.07 km), shallow (≤2.5 m deep), highly eutrophic ponds in the bird protection area “Ismaninger Speichersee mit Fischteichen” with different densities of carp and assessed the responses of water birds and their food resources during summer over several years. In all years, the biomasses of benthic macroinvertebrates, macroalgae, and macrophytes as well as the densities of herbivorous, carnivorous, and omnivorous water birds were reduced in carp ponds compared to fishless ponds. The negative effects of carp on food resources and on the numbers of water birds feeding in carp ponds increased over the season (May–September) and were stronger at high than at low stocking densities of carp. Consequently, differences in resource densities between ponds with and without carp increased, and the ranking of ponds with respect to resource densities became more predictable over the season. These factors may have contributed to a seasonal improvement of the birds' abilities to track resource densities across ponds, as suggested by tight correlations of bird numbers on ponds with resource densities late, but not early, in the season.
    Keywords: Carp ; Competition ; Cyprinus Carpio ; Ismaninger Speichersee Mit Fischteichen ; Macroalgae ; Macroinvertebrates ; Macrophytes ; Wing Feather Molt
    ISSN: 0012-9658
    E-ISSN: 1939-9170
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2009, Vol.4(4), p.e5139
    Description: Although CD4 T cells are crucial for defense against M.tb, it is still not clear whether the optimal response against M.tb in fact involves both CD4 and CD8 T cells. To test this, we used a new vaccine strategy that generated a strong balanced T cell response consisting of both CD4 and CD8 T cells. ; To compare CD4 and CD8 responses against Ag85B-TB10.4 (H4), H4 was delivered as a subunit vaccine in cationic liposomes (CAF01), expressed in Ad5 (Ad-H4) or as a heterologous prime boost vaccination. H4/CAF01 induced primarily CD4 T cells and Ad-H4 gave predominantly a CD8 T cell response. In contrast, the heterologous prime boost combination resulted in augmentation of both the CD4 and CD8 response. The majority (〉40%) of the CD4 T cells induced by the heterologous prime boost protocol were polyfunctional, and expressed IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α, whereas most of the CD8 T cells expressed IFN-γ and TNF-α and possessed strong cytotoxic potential. The heterologous prime boost protocol also gave an increase in protective efficacy against challenge compared to H4/CAF01 and Ad-H4. Both the H4 specific CD4 and CD8 T cells were recruited to the site of infection, at the onset of infection. However, compared to CD8 T cells, CD4 T cells showed more extensive recruitment and were the main T cell subset proliferating at the site of infection. ; Heterologous prime boost based on H4, produced an additive effect on the priming of CD4 and CD8 cells and in terms of the protective capacity of the vaccine, and therefore represent an interesting new vaccine strategy against . However, CD4 and CD8 T cells respond very differently to live challenge, in a manner which supports the consensus that CD4 T cells do play the major role during the early stages of an infection.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Immunology ; Infectious Diseases ; Immunology -- Immune Response ; Immunology -- Immunity To Infections ; Infectious Diseases -- Bacterial Infections
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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