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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 06 February 2007, Vol.104(6), pp.1943-6
    Description: Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) are being developed for the treatment of various cancers. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of treatment with GHRH antagonist JMR-132 alone and in combination with docetaxel chemotherapy in nude mice bearing MX-1 human breast cancers. Specific high-affinity binding sites for GHRH were found on MX-1 tumor membranes using ligand competition assays with (125)I-labeled GHRH antagonist JV-1-42. JMR-132 displaced radiolabeled JV-1-42 with an IC(50) of 0.14 nM, indicating a high affinity of JMR-132 to GHRH receptors. Treatment of nude mice bearing xenografts of MX-1 with JMR-132 at 10 microg per day s.c. for 22 days significantly (P 〈 0.05) inhibited tumor volume by 62.9% and tumor weight by 47.8%. Docetaxel given twice at a dose of 20 mg/kg i.p. significantly reduced tumor volume and weight by 74.1% and 58.6%, respectively. Combination treatment with JMR-132 (10 microg/day) and docetaxel (20 mg/kg i.p.) led to growth arrest of most tumors as shown by an inhibition of tumor volume and weight by 97.7% and 95.6%, respectively (P 〈 0.001). Because no vital cancer cells were detected in some of the excised tumors, a total regression of the tumors was achieved in some cases. Treatment with JMR-132 also strongly reduced the concentration of EGF receptors in MX-1 tumors. Our results demonstrate that GHRH antagonists might provide a therapy for breast cancer and could be combined with docetaxel chemotherapy to enhance the efficacy of treatment.
    Keywords: Antineoplastic Agents -- Pharmacology ; Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone -- Antagonists & Inhibitors ; Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental -- Prevention & Control ; Taxoids -- Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 10916490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2015, Vol.10(5), p.e0124952
    Description: During the last two decades ferrets (Mustela putorius) have been established as a highly efficient animal model in different fields in neuroscience. Here we asked whether ferrets integrate sensory information according to the same principles established for other species. Since only few methods and protocols are available for behaving ferrets we developed a head-free, body-restrained approach allowing a standardized stimulation position and the utilization of the ferret's natural response behavior. We established a behavioral paradigm to test audiovisual integration in the ferret. Animals had to detect a brief auditory and/or visual stimulus presented either left or right from their midline. We first determined detection thresholds for auditory amplitude and visual contrast. In a second step, we combined both modalities and compared psychometric fits and the reaction times between all conditions. We employed Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) to model bimodal psychometric curves and to investigate whether ferrets integrate modalities in an optimal manner. Furthermore, to test for a redundant signal effect we pooled the reaction times of all animals to calculate a race model. We observed that bimodal detection thresholds were reduced and reaction times were faster in the bimodal compared to unimodal conditions. The race model and MLE modeling showed that ferrets integrate modalities in a statistically optimal fashion. Taken together, the data indicate that principles of multisensory integration previously demonstrated in other species also apply to crossmodal processing in the ferret.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of neurophysiology, September 2013, Vol.110(6), pp.1333-45
    Description: In the superior colliculus (SC), visual afferent inputs from various sources converge in a highly organized way such that all layers form topographically aligned representations of contralateral external space. Despite this anatomical organization, it remains unclear how the layer-specific termination of different visual input pathways is reflected in the nature of visual response properties and their distribution across layers. To uncover the physiological correlates underlying the laminar organization of the SC, we recorded multiunit and local field potential activity simultaneously from all layers with dual-shank multichannel linear probes. We found that the location of spatial receptive fields was strongly conserved across all visual responsive layers. There was a tendency for receptive field size to increase with depth in the SC, with superficial receptive fields significantly smaller than deep receptive fields. Additionally, superficial layers responded significantly faster than deeper layers to flash stimulation. In some recordings, flash-evoked responses were characterized by the presence of gamma oscillatory activity (40-60 Hz) in multiunit and field potential signals, which was strongest in retinorecipient layers. While SC neurons tended to respond only weakly to full-field drifting gratings, we observed very similar oscillatory responses to the offset of grating stimuli, suggesting gamma oscillations are produced following light offset. Oscillatory spiking activity was highly correlated between horizontally distributed neurons within these layers, with oscillations temporally locked to the stimulus. Together, visual response properties provide physiological evidence reflecting the laminar-specific termination of visual afferent pathways in the SC, most notably characterized by the oscillatory entrainment of superficial neurons.
    Keywords: Ferret ; Oscillations ; Superior Colliculus ; Evoked Potentials, Visual ; Superior Colliculi -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00223077
    E-ISSN: 1522-1598
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Development (Cambridge, England), October 2011, Vol.138(20), pp.4499-509
    Description: The extracellular matrix is crucial for organogenesis. It is a complex and dynamic component that regulates cell behavior by modulating the activity, bioavailability and presentation of growth factors to cell surface receptors. Here, we determined the role of the extracellular matrix protein Nephronectin (Npnt) in heart development using the zebrafish model system. The vertebrate heart is formed as a linear tube in which myocardium and endocardium are separated by a layer of extracellular matrix termed the cardiac jelly. During heart development, the cardiac jelly swells at the atrioventricular (AV) canal, which precedes valve formation. Here, we show that Npnt expression correlates with this process. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of Npnt prevents proper valve leaflet formation and trabeculation and results in greater than 85% lethality at 7 days post-fertilization. The earliest observed phenotype is an extended tube-like structure at the AV boundary. In addition, the expression of myocardial genes involved in cardiac valve formation (cspg2, fibulin 1, tbx2b, bmp4) is expanded and endocardial cells along the extended tube-like structure exhibit characteristics of AV cells (has2, notch1b and Alcam expression, cuboidal cell shape). Inhibition of has2 in npnt morphants rescues the endocardial, but not the myocardial, expansion. By contrast, reduction of BMP signaling in npnt morphants reduces the ectopic expression of myocardial and endocardial AV markers. Taken together, our results identify Npnt as a novel upstream regulator of Bmp4-Has2 signaling that plays a crucial role in AV canal differentiation.
    Keywords: Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 -- Metabolism ; Endocardial Cushions -- Embryology ; Extracellular Matrix Proteins -- Metabolism ; Glucuronosyltransferase -- Metabolism ; Zebrafish -- Embryology ; Zebrafish Proteins -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 09501991
    E-ISSN: 1477-9129
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2010, Vol.5(3), p.e9748
    Description: Chromatin modifying enzymes play a critical role in cardiac differentiation. Previously, it has been shown that the targeted deletion of the histone methyltransferase, Smyd1, the founding member of the S ET and MY N D domain containing (Smyd) family, interferes with cardiomyocyte maturation and proper formation of the right heart ventricle. The highly related paralogue, Smyd2 is a histone 3 lysine 4- and lysine 36-specific methyltransferase expressed in heart and brain. Here, we report that Smyd2 is differentially expressed during cardiac development with highest expression in the neonatal heart. To elucidate the functional role of Smyd2 in the heart, we generated conditional knockout (cKO) mice harboring a cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Smyd2 and performed histological, functional and molecular analyses. Unexpectedly, cardiac deletion of Smyd2 was dispensable for proper morphological and functional development of the murine heart and had no effect on global histone 3 lysine 4 or 36 methylation. However, we provide evidence for a potential role of Smyd2 in the transcriptional regulation of genes associated with translation and reveal that Smyd2, similar to Smyd3, interacts with RNA Polymerase II as well as to the RNA helicase, HELZ.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Cell Biology -- Gene Expression ; Cell Biology -- Nuclear Structure And Function ; Developmental Biology -- Cell Differentiation ; Developmental Biology -- Organogenesis
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of clinical investigation, October 2013, Vol.123(10), pp.4242-54
    Description: DCs and macrophages both express the chemokine receptor CX3CR1. Here we demonstrate that its ligand, CX3CL1, is highly expressed in the murine kidney and intestine. CX3CR1 deficiency markedly reduced DC numbers in the healthy and inflamed kidney cortex, and to a lesser degree in the kidney medulla and intestine, but not in other organs. CX3CR1 also promoted influx of DC precursors in crescentic glomerulonephritis, a DC-dependent aggressive type of nephritis. Disease severity was strongly attenuated in CX3CR1-deficient mice. Primarily CX3CR1-dependent DCs in the kidney cortex processed antigen for the intrarenal stimulation of T helper cells, a function important for glomerulonephritis progression. In contrast, medullary DCs played a specialized role in inducing innate immunity against bacterial pyelonephritis by recruiting neutrophils through rapid chemokine production. CX3CR1 deficiency had little effect on the immune defense against pyelonephritis, as medullary DCs were less CX3CR1 dependent than cortical DCs and because recruited neutrophils produced chemokines to compensate for the DC paucity. These findings demonstrate that cortical and medullary DCs play specialized roles in their respective kidney compartments. We identify CX3CR1 as a potential therapeutic target in glomerulonephritis that may involve fewer adverse side effects, such as impaired anti-infectious defense or compromised DC functions in other organs.
    Keywords: Dendritic Cells -- Physiology ; Glomerulonephritis -- Pathology ; Receptors, Chemokine -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00219738
    E-ISSN: 1558-8238
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 05 July 2006, Vol.103(27), pp.10403-10407
    Description: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treatment of experimental ovarian cancers with targeted cytotoxic analogs as single compounds and in combination. Targeted cytotoxic analogs of bombesin (AN-215), somatostatin (AN-238), and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (AN-207) consisted of 2-pyrrolinodoxorubicin (AN-201) linked to the respective peptide carrier. AN-238 at 200 nmol/kg significantly inhibited growth of UCI-107, ES-2 and OV-1063 ovarian cancers. AN-215 alone at 200 nmol/kg and its combination with AN-238 at one-half of the dose were also able to inhibit the growth of UCI-107 tumors. A combination of AN-238 with AN-207at 50% of the dose strongly suppressed the proliferation of ES-2 and OV-1063 ovarian tumors. Cytotoxic radical AN-201 was toxic and had no significant effect on tumor growth. In contrast, the toxicity of the conjugated peptide analogs was low. Because ovarian cancers tend to acquire chemoresistance, we used real-time PCR to measure the mRNA expression of multidrug resistance protein 1, multidrug resistance-related protein 1, and breast cancer resistance protein after treatment. Low or no induction of multidrug resistance protein 1, multidrug resistance-related protein, and breast cancer resistance protein occurred after treatment with AN-238, AN-215, and the combination of AN-238 with AN-207 or AN-215. These results demonstrate that a therapy with cytotoxic analogs such as single agents and combinations is effective and nontoxic. Our work suggests that cytotoxic peptide analogs of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, somatostatin, and bombesin could be used for the therapy of ovarian cancers, considering the lack of induction of chemoresistance.
    Keywords: Antineoplastic Agents -- Pharmacology ; Bombesin -- Therapeutic Use ; Lutein -- Chemistry ; Ovarian Neoplasms -- Drug Therapy ; Somatostatin -- Therapeutic Use
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 10916490
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Nature medicine, December 2014, Vol.20(12), pp.1401-9
    Description: We searched for genetic alterations in human B cell lymphoma that affect the ubiquitin-proteasome system. This approach identified FBXO25 within a minimal common region of frequent deletion in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). FBXO25 encodes an orphan F-box protein that determines the substrate specificity of the SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box)(FBXO25) ubiquitin ligase complex. An unbiased screen uncovered the prosurvival protein HCLS1-associated protein X-1 (HAX-1) as the bona fide substrate of FBXO25 that is targeted after apoptotic stresses. Protein kinase Cδ (PRKCD) initiates this process by phosphorylating FBXO25 and HAX-1, thereby spatially directing nuclear FBXO25 to mitochondrial HAX-1. Our analyses in primary human MCL identify monoallelic loss of FBXO25 and stabilizing HAX1 phosphodegron mutations. Accordingly, FBXO25 re-expression in FBXO25-deleted MCL cells promotes cell death, whereas expression of the HAX-1 phosphodegron mutant inhibits apoptosis. In addition, knockdown of FBXO25 significantly accelerated lymphoma development in Eμ-Myc mice and in a human MCL xenotransplant model. Together we identify a PRKCD-dependent proapoptotic mechanism controlling HAX-1 stability, and we propose that FBXO25 functions as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor and that HAX1 is a proto-oncogene in MCL.
    Keywords: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing -- Genetics ; Apoptosis -- Genetics ; F-Box Proteins -- Genetics ; Lymphoma, B-Cell -- Genetics ; Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell -- Genetics ; Nerve Tissue Proteins -- Genetics ; Protein Kinase C-Delta -- Genetics ; Proto-Oncogenes -- Genetics ; Skp Cullin F-Box Protein Ligases -- Metabolism ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 10788956
    E-ISSN: 1546-170X
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Gastroenterology, 2011, Vol.141(4), pp.1346-1358
    Description: The neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P, and calcium channels, which control their release from extrinsic sensory neurons, have important roles in experimental colitis. We investigated the mechanisms of colitis in 2 different models, the involvement of the irritant receptor transient receptor potential of the ankyrin type-1 (TRPA1), and the effects of CGRP and substance P. We used calcium-imaging, patch-clamp, and neuropeptide-release assays to evaluate the effects of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene-sulfonic-acid (TNBS) and dextran-sulfate-sodium-salt on neurons. Colitis was induced in wild-type, knockout, and desensitized mice. TNBS induced TRPA1-dependent release of colonic substance P and CGRP, influx of Ca2+, and sustained ionic inward currents in colonic sensory neurons and transfected HEK293t cells. Analysis of mutant forms of TRPA1 revealed that TNBS bound covalently to cysteine (and lysine) residues in the cytoplasmic N-terminus. A stable sulfinic acid transformation of the cysteine-SH group, shown by mass spectrometry, might contribute to sustained sensitization of TRPA1. Mice with colitis had increased colonic neuropeptide release, mediated by TRPA1. Endogenous products of inflammatory lipid peroxidation also induced TRPA1-dependent release of colonic neuropeptides; levels of 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal increased in each model of colitis. Colitis induction by TNBS or dextran-sulfate-sodium-salt was inhibited or reduced in mice and by 2-(1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-7H-purin-7-yl)-N-(4-isopro-pylphenyl)-acetamide, a pharmacologic inhibitor of TRPA1. Substance P had a proinflammatory effect that was dominant over CGRP, based on studies of knockout mice. Ablation of extrinsic sensory neurons prevented or attenuated TNBS-induced release of neuropeptides and both forms of colitis. Neuroimmune interactions control intestinal inflammation. Activation and sensitization of TRPA1 and release of substance P induce and maintain colitis in mice.
    Keywords: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases ; Nervous ; Immune System ; 4-Hne ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0016-5085
    E-ISSN: 1528-0012
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  • 10
    In: Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 2012, Vol.9(75), pp.2745-2748
    Description: Flying insects typically possess two pairs of wings. In beetles, the front pair has evolved into short, hardened structures, the elytra, which protect the second pair of wings and the abdomen. This allows beetles to exploit habitats that would otherwise cause damage to the wings and body. Many beetles fly with the elytra extended, suggesting that they influence aerodynamic performance, but little is known about their role in flight. Using quantitative measurements of the beetle's wake, we show that the presence of the elytra increases vertical force production by approximately 40 per cent, indicating that they contribute to weight support. The wing-elytra combination creates a complex wake compared with previously studied animal wakes. At mid-downstroke, multiple vortices are visible behind each wing. These include a wingtip and an elytron vortex with the same sense of rotation, a body vortex and an additional vortex of the opposite sense of rotation. This latter vortex reflects a negative interaction between the wing and the elytron, resulting in a single wing span efficiency of approximately 0.77 at mid downstroke. This is lower than that found in birds and bats, suggesting that the extra weight support of the elytra comes at the price of reduced efficiency.
    Keywords: Reports
    ISSN: 1742-5689
    E-ISSN: 1742-5662
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