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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 23 December 2011, Vol.334(6063), pp.1699-703
    Description: Several groups of tetrapods have expanded sesamoid (small, tendon-anchoring) bones into digit-like structures ("predigits"), such as pandas' "thumbs." Elephants similarly have expanded structures in the fat pads of their fore- and hindfeet, but for three centuries these have been overlooked as mere cartilaginous curiosities. We show that these are indeed massive sesamoids that employ a patchy mode of ossification of a massive cartilaginous precursor and that the predigits act functionally like digits. Further, we reveal clear osteological correlates of predigit joint articulation with the carpals/tarsals that are visible in fossils. Our survey shows that basal proboscideans were relatively "flat-footed" (plantigrade), whereas early elephantiforms evolved the more derived "tip-toed" (subunguligrade) morphology, including the predigits and fat pad, of extant elephants. Thus, elephants co-opted sesamoid bones into a role as false digits and used them for support as they changed their foot posture.
    Keywords: Biological Evolution ; Elephants -- Anatomy & Histology ; Foot -- Anatomy & Histology ; Sesamoid Bones -- Anatomy & Histology ; Toes -- Anatomy & Histology
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    In: Journal of Neurochemistry, January 2014, Vol.128(2), pp.206-209
    Description: ‘’ on doi:
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology;
    ISSN: 0022-3042
    E-ISSN: 1471-4159
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2010, Vol.397(5), pp.1787-1796
    Description: Fish are a common cause of allergic reactions associated with food consumption, with parvalbumin being the major allergenic protein. Some fish-hypersensitive patients tolerate some fish species while being allergic to others. Reliable detection methods for allergenic fish species in foods are necessary to ensure compliance with food allergen labeling guidelines to protect fish-allergic consumers. The objective of this project was to develop a multi-analyte detection method for the presence of fish in food. Therefore, conserved parvalbumin exon sequences were utilized for the design of universal PCR primers amplifying intron DNA and small regions of exons flanking the enclosed intron from even very distantly related fish species. An assay for the identification of eight fish species was developed using xMAP™ technology with probes targeting species-specific parvalbumin intron regions. Additionally, a universal fish probe was designed targeting a highly conserved exon region located between the intron and the reverse primer region. The universal fish assay showed no cross-reactivity with other species, such as beef, pork, lamb, chicken, turkey, and shrimp. Importantly, with the exception of one notable case with fish in the same subfamily, species-specific detection showed no cross-reactivity with other fish species. Limits of detection for these eight species were experimentally estimated to range from 0.01% to 0.04%, with potential to increase the detection sensitivity. This report introduces a newly developed method for the multiplex identification of at least eight allergenic fish species in food, which could conceivably be extended to detect up to 100 species simultaneously in one sample. Figure Schematic overview of the xMAP™ assay. Amine-modified capture oligonucleotides were covalently coupled to color-coded MagPlex™-C magnetic carboxylated microspheres (Luminex Corporation, TX, USA) using a carbodiimide coupling method described by Fulton et al. [25]. Parvalbuminencoding DNA was amplified with real-time PCR, whereas one of the primers was labeled with biotin. Biotin-labeled DNA strands were hybridized to their corresponding capture oligonucleotides. The fluorophor streptavidin–phycoerythrin (SAPE) was added and bound to the biotin molecules. Reaction tubes containing the magnetic microspheres were put on a magnet, unbound oligonucleotides and SAPE was removed by washing. The reaction mixture was analyzed on the BioPlex 200 analyzer (BioRad, CA, USA). Microspheres were interrogated individually in a rapidly flowing fluid stream as they passed by two separate lasers. A red diode laser excited two fluorochromes contained within the colorcoded microspheres and a green laser excited the reporter fluorochrome (SAPE) bound to the microsphere surface. High-speed digital signal processing classified the microsphere based on its spectral address and quantified the reaction on the surface
    Keywords: Fish allergy ; Parvalbumin ; PCR ; Universal primer ; xMAP
    ISSN: 1618-2642
    E-ISSN: 1618-2650
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Current Opinion in Neurobiology, February 2014, Vol.24, pp.82-87
    Description: The convergent evolution of hearing in insects and vertebrates raises the question about similarity of the central representation of sound in these distant animal groups. Topographic representations of spectral, spatial and temporal cues have been widely described in mammals, but evidence for such maps is scarce in insects. Recent data on insect sound encoding provides evidence for an early integration of sound parameters to form highly-specific representation that predict behavioral output. In mammals, new studies investigating neural representation of perceptual features in behaving animals allow asking similar questions. A comparative approach may help in understanding principles underlying the formation of perceptual categories and behavioral plasticity.
    Keywords: Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0959-4388
    E-ISSN: 1873-6882
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: BBA - Bioenergetics, 2011, Vol.1807(9), pp.1206-1213
    Description: Hydrogen sulfide is enzymatically produced in mammalian tissues and functions as a gaseous transmitter. However, H S is also highly toxic as it inhibits mitochondrial respiration at the level of cytochrome c oxidase, which additionally is involved in sulfide oxidation. The accumulation of toxic sulfide levels contributes to the pathology of some diseases. This paper demonstrates that sulfide toxicity can be modified, and dehydroascorbic acid functions as an effector in this process. It significantly reduces the inhibitory effect of sulfide on cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in higher rates of respiration and sulfide oxidation in rat mitochondria. After the addition of dehydroascorbic acid mitochondria maintained more than 50% of the oxygen consumption and ATP production rates with different substrates in the presence of high concentrations of sulfide that would normally lead to complete inhibition. Dehydroascorbic acid significantly increased the sulfide concentration necessary to cause half maximal inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and thus completely prevented inhibition at low, physiological sulfide concentrations. In addition, sulfide oxidation was stimulated and led to ATP production even at high concentrations. The decrease in sulfide toxicity was more pronounced when analyzing supermolecular functional units of the respiratory chain than in isolated cytochrome c oxidase activity. Furthermore, the protective effect of dehydroascorbic acid at high sulfide concentrations was completely abolished by quantitative solubilization of mitochondrial membrane proteins with dodeclymaltoside. These results suggest that binding of cytochrome c oxidase to other proteins probably within respiratory chain supercomplexes is involved in the modulation of sulfide oxidation and toxicity by dehydroascorbic acid. ► Dehydroascorbic acid decreases sulfide toxicity in rat mitochondria. ► Dehydroascorbic acid increases rates of sulfide oxidation. ► Inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by sulfide can be modulated. ► The protective effect requires supermolecular association of cytochrome c oxidase.
    Keywords: Ascorbic Acid ; Enzyme Inhibitor ; Mitochondrial Metabolism ; Respiratory Chain ; Sulfide ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0005-2728
    E-ISSN: 1879-2650
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 01 March 2011, Vol.114(1), pp.1-11
    Description: Appearance and performance enhancing drug (APED) use includes the use of a range of pharmacologically distinct substances and concurrent investment in outward appearance or achievement, dietary control, and frequent exercise. A number of existing reviews and conceptual papers have defined pathological forms of APED use within the APED class of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) and using the framework of AAS dependence. We review published data on APED use including human studies of AAS users and identified three defining phenomenological features associated with increased health risk and pathology. These features included (1) polypharmacy or the concurrent use of several pharmacologically distinct substances used to change outward appearance or increase likelihood of personal achievement; (2) significant body image disturbance; (3) rigid practices and preoccupations with diet and exercise. Investigations into the latent structure of APED use suggest these features cluster together in a homogenous group of APED users who have the highest health risk and most psychopathology. These features are discussed in the context of AAS dependence and problems with defining classic tolerance-withdrawal symptoms among APED users. Suggestions for a resolution and outline for future research needed to determine the best system for identifying and diagnosing pathological APED use are discussed.
    Keywords: Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids ; Appearance and Performance Enhancing Drugs ; Substance Use Disorder ; Diagnosis ; Body Image Disturbance ; Compulsive Exercise ; Social Welfare & Social Work
    ISSN: 0376-8716
    E-ISSN: 1879-0046
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Neuron, 20 August 2014, Vol.83(4), pp.805-822
    Description: Mutations of are associated with nephronophthisis and Bardet-Biedl syndrome, as well as schizophrenia; however, the function of SDCCAG8 remains largely unknown. Here, we show that SDCCAG8 regulates centrosomal accumulation of pericentriolar material and neuronal polarization and migration in the developing mouse cortex. expression is selectively elevated in newborn neurons prior to their commencement of radial locomotion, and suppression of this expression by short-hairpin RNAs or a loss-of-function allele impairs centrosomal recruitment of γ-tubulin and pericentrin, interferes with microtubule organization, decouples the centrosome and the nucleus, and disrupts neuronal migration. Moreover, SDCCAG8 interacts and cotraffics with pericentriolar material 1 (PCM1), a centriolar satellite protein crucial for targeting proteins to the centrosome. Expression of SDCCAG8 carrying a human mutation causes neuronal migration defects. These results reveal a critical role for SDCCAG8 in controlling centrosomal properties and function, and provide insights into the basis of neurological defects linked to mutations. Mutations of are linked with nephronophthisis and Bardet-Biedl syndrome, as well as schizophrenia and mental retardation. Insolera et al. demonstrate that SDCCAG8 regulates centrosomal properties and cortical neuronal migration.
    Keywords: Biology ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0896-6273
    E-ISSN: 1097-4199
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  • 8
    In: European Journal of Neuroscience, July 2013, Vol.38(1), pp.2041-2056
    Description: Ablating the cochlea causes total sensory deafferentation of the cochlear nucleus. Over the first postoperative week, degeneration of the auditory nerve and its synaptic terminals in the cochlear nucleus temporally overlaps with its re‐innervation by axon collaterals of medial olivocochlear neurons. At the same time, astrocytes increase in size and density. We investigated the time courses of the expression of ezrin, polysialic acid, matrix metalloprotease‐9 and matrix metalloprotease‐2 within these astrocytes during the first week following cochlear ablation. All four proteins are known to participate in degeneration, regeneration, or both, following injury of the central nervous system. In a next step, stereotaxic injections of kainic acid were made into the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body prior to cochlear ablation to destroy the neurons that re‐innervate the deafferented cochlear nucleus by axon collaterals developing growth‐associated protein 43 immunoreactivity. This experimental design allowed us to distinguish between molecular processes associated with degeneration and those associated with re‐innervation. Under these conditions, astrocytic growth and proliferation showed an unchanged deafferentation‐induced pattern. Similarly, the distribution and amount of ezrin and matrix metalloprotease‐9 in astrocytes after cochlear ablation developed in the same way as under cochlear ablation alone. In sharp contrast, the astrocytic expression of polysialic acid and matrix metalloprotease‐2 normally invoked by cochlear ablation collapsed when re‐innervation of the cochlear nucleus was inhibited by lesioning medial olivocochlear neurons with kainic acid. In conclusion, re‐innervation, including axonal growth and synaptogenesis, seems to prompt astrocytes to recompose their molecular profile, paving the way for tissue reorganisation after nerve degeneration and loss of synaptic contacts. Ablating the cochlea of adult rats causes a total sensory deafferentation of the cochlear nucleus. Degeneration of the auditory nerve and its synaptic terminals temporally overlaps with the formation of new synapses in the cochlear nucleus. We show that the process of establishing new synaptic contacts prompts astrocytes to recompose their molecular profile, indicating that they are an integral component of a lesion‐induced re‐organisation in the adult brain.
    Keywords: Adult Brain Plasticity ; Cochlear Ablation ; Degeneration ; Neuroplasticity ; Re‐Innervation
    ISSN: 0953-816X
    E-ISSN: 1460-9568
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(3), p.e17744
    Description: The naked mole-rat ( Heterocephalus glaber ) is one of the two known mammalian species that live in a eusocial population structure. Here we investigate the exceptionally long gestation period of 70 days observed in the mole-rat queen. The course of seven successful pregnancies in two individuals was recorded in a colony of captive naked mole-rats using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and 3D-ultrasonography. We establish a catalogue of basic reference ultrasound data for this species by describing the ultrasonographic appearance of reproductive organs, calculating growth curves to predict gestational age and defining ultrasonographic milestones to characterize pregnancy stages. Mean litter size was 10.9±2.7, of which 7.2±1.5 survived the weaning period. Mean interbirth interval was 128.8±63.0 days. The reproductive success in our colony did not differ from previously published data. In the queen the active corpora lutea had an anechoic, fluid filled centre. Using UBM, pregnancy could be detected 53 days before parturition. The period of embryonic development is assumed to last until 30 days before parturition. Embryonic resorptions were detected frequently in the queen, indicating that this might be an ordinary event in this species. We discuss the extraordinary long gestation period of this small rodent and postulate that the long gestation is beneficial to both the eusocial structure and longevity. An increased litter size, twice as large as for other rodents of similar size, seemingly compensates for the doubling of pregnancy length. We demonstrate that the lifetime reproductive effort of a naked mole-rat queen is equivalent to the mass of offspring that would be produced if all of the females of a colony would be reproducing.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Veterinary Science ; Physiology ; Developmental Biology ; Evolutionary Biology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(9), p.e23796
    Description: Factors and mechanisms controlling lipometabolism homeostasis share a remarkable evolutionary conservation between humans and Drosophila flies. Accordingly, the Drosophila model has been successfully used to understand the pathophysiology of human metabolic diseases such as obesity. Body fat stores in species as different as humans and flies consist of neutral lipids, mainly triacylglycerols. Changes in body fat storage are a diagnostic phenotype of lipometabolism imbalances of genetic or environmental origin. Various methods have been developed to quantify Drosophila body fat storage. The most widely used method adopts a commercial coupled colorimetric assay designed for human serum triacylglycerol quantification, which is based on glycerol content determination after enzymatic conversion of glycerides into glycerol. The coupled colorimetric assay is compatible with large-scale genetic screen approaches and has been successfully applied to characterize central regulators of Drosophila lipometabolism. Recently, the applicability of the coupled colorimetric assay for Drosophila storage fat quantification has been questioned in principle. Here we compare the performance of the coupled colorimetric assay on Drosophila samples with thin layer chromatography, the “gold standard” in storage lipid analysis. Our data show that the presented variant of the coupled colorimetric assay reliably discriminates between lean and fat flies and allows robust, quick and cost-effective quantification of Drosophila body fat stores.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Genetics And Genomics ; Biochemistry
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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