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  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Applied and environmental microbiology, April 2011, Vol.77(7), pp.2527-30
    Description: Two soils were amended three times with pig manure. The abundance of sulfonamide resistance genes was determined by quantitative PCR 2 months after each application. In both soils treated with sulfadiazine-containing manure, the numbers of copies of sul1 and sul2 significantly increased compared to numbers after treatments with antibiotic-free manure or a control and accumulated with repeated applications.
    Keywords: Drug Resistance, Bacterial ; Genes, Bacterial ; Manure ; Metagenome ; Soil Microbiology ; Anti-Bacterial Agents -- Pharmacology ; Sulfadiazine -- Pharmacology
    ISSN: 00992240
    E-ISSN: 1098-5336
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2016, Vol.100(21), pp.9343-9353
    Description: Pig manures are frequently used as fertilizer or co-substrate in biogas plants (BGPs) and typically contain antibiotic residues (ARs), as well as bacteria carrying resistance genes (RGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs). A survey of manures from eight pig fattening and six pig breeding farms and digestates from eight BGPs in Lower Saxony, Germany was conducted to evaluate the link between antibiotic usage and ARs to RGs and MGEs present in organic fertilizers. In total, 11 different antibiotics belonging to six substance classes were applied in the farms investigated. Residue analysis revealed concentrations of tetracycline up to 300 mg kg −1 dry weight (DW) in manures and of doxycycline up to 10.1 mg kg −1 DW in digestates indicating incomplete removal during anaerobic digestion. RGs ( sul1 , sul2 , tet (A), tet (M), tet (X), qacE ∆ 1 ) were detected in total community DNA of all samples by PCR-Southern blot hybridization. Broad-host range plasmids (IncP-1, IncQ, IncN, and IncW) and integron integrase genes ( intI1 , intI2 ) were found in most manure samples with IncN and IncW plasmids being more abundant in manure from pig breeding compared to pig fattening farms. IntI1 , IncQ, and IncW plasmids were also detected in all digestates, while IncP-1, IncN, and LowGC plasmids were detected only sporadically. Our findings strongly reinforce the need for further research to identify mitigation strategies to reduce the level of contamination of organic fertilizers with ARs and transferable RGs that are applied to soil and that might influence the mobile resistome of the plant microbiome.
    Keywords: Antibiotic resistance genes ; Mobile genetic elements ; Antibiotics ; Pig husbandry ; Manures ; Digestates
    ISSN: 0175-7598
    E-ISSN: 1432-0614
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 April 2018, Vol.621, pp.725-733
    Description: Metal resistance has been associated with antibiotic resistance due to co- or cross-resistance mechanisms. Here, metal contaminated mine soil treated with organic wastes was screened for the presence of mobile genetic elements (MGEs). The occurrence of conjugative IncP-1 and mobilizable IncQ plasmids, as well as of class 1 integrons, was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization, suggesting that bacteria from these soils have gene-mobilizing capacity with implications for the dissemination of resistance factors. Moreover, exogenous isolation of MGEs from the soil bacterial community was attempted under antibiotic selection pressure by using as recipient. Seventeen putative transconjugants were identified based on increased antibiotic resistance. Metabolic traits and metal resistance of putative transconjugants were investigated, and whole genome sequencing was carried out for two of them. Most putative transconjugants displayed a multi-resistant phenotype for a broad spectrum of antibiotics. They also displayed changes regarding the ability to metabolise different carbon sources, RNA: DNA ratio, growth rate and biofilm formation. Genome sequencing of putative transconjugants failed to detect genes acquired by horizontal gene transfer, but instead revealed a number of nonsense mutations, including in , whose inactivation was linked to the observed resistance to aminoglycosides. Our results confirm that mine soils contain MGEs encoding antibiotic resistance. Moreover, they point out the role of spontaneous mutations in achieving low-level antibiotic resistance in a short time, which was associated with a trade-off in the capability to metabolise specific carbon sources.
    Keywords: Antibiotic Resistance ; Competitive Fitness ; Conjugative Plasmids ; Imipenem ; Integrons ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Applied and environmental microbiology, March 2013, Vol.79(5), pp.1704-11
    Description: Spreading manure containing antibiotics in agriculture is assumed to stimulate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in soil bacterial populations. Plant roots influencing the soil environment and its microflora by exudation of growth substrates might considerably increase this effect. In this study, the effects of manure from pigs treated with sulfadiazine (SDZ), here called SDZ manure, on the abundance and transferability of sulfonamide resistance genes sul1 and sul2 in the rhizosphere of maize and grass were compared to the effects in bulk soil in a field experiment. In plots that repeatedly received SDZ manure, a significantly higher abundance of both sul genes was detected compared to that in plots where manure from untreated pigs was applied. Significantly lower abundances of sul genes relative to bacterial ribosomal genes were encountered in the rhizosphere than in bulk soil. However, in contrast to results for bulk soil, the sul gene abundance in the SDZ manure-treated rhizosphere constantly deviated from control treatments over a period of 6 weeks after manuring, suggesting ongoing antibiotic selection over this period. Transferability of sulfonamide resistance was analyzed by capturing resistance plasmids from soil communities into Escherichia coli. Increased rates of plasmid capture were observed in samples from SDZ manure-treated bulk soil and the rhizosphere of maize and grass. More than 97% of the captured plasmids belonged to the LowGC type (having low G+C content), giving further evidence for their important contribution to the environmental spread of antibiotic resistance. In conclusion, differences between bulk soil and rhizosphere need to be considered when assessing the risks associated with the spreading of antibiotic resistance.
    Keywords: Drug Resistance, Bacterial ; Gene Transfer, Horizontal ; Manure ; Soil Microbiology ; Anti-Bacterial Agents -- Therapeutic Use ; Sulfadiazine -- Therapeutic Use
    ISSN: 00992240
    E-ISSN: 1098-5336
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  • 5
    In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 2014, Vol. 87(1), pp.78-88
    Description: Difloxacin (DIF) belongs to the class of fluoroquinolone antibiotics that have been intensively used for the treatment of bacterial infections in veterinary and human medicine. The aim of this field study was to compare the effect of manure from DIF-treated pigs and untreated pigs on the bacterial community structure and resistance gene abundance in bulk soil and rhizosphere of maize. A significant effect of DIF manure on the bacterial community composition in bulk soil was revealed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA. In few samples, quinolone resistance genes qnrB and qnrS1/qnrS2 were detected by PCR and subsequent hybridization, while qnrA was not detected. Quantitative PCR revealed an increased abundance of the integrase gene intI1 of class I integrons and sulfonamide resistance genes sul1 and sul2 in DIF manure-treated bulk soil and rhizosphere, relative to 16S rRNA genes, while traN genes specific for LowGC-type plasmids were increased only in bulk soil. Principal component analysis of DGGE profiles suggested a manure effect in soil until day 28, but samples of days 71 and 140 were found close to untreated soil, indicating resilience of soil community compositions from disturbances by manure. 〈p〉〈fig id="fig0" position="float"〉 〈graphic alt-version="no" position="float" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="fem12191-toc-0001" xlink:type="simple"/〉〈/fig〉 〈/p〉
    Keywords: Difloxacin ; Resistance ; Dgge ; Soil ; Manure ; Rhizosphere
    ISSN: 01686496
    E-ISSN: 1574-6941
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  • 6
    In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 2016, Vol. 92(2)
    Description: The goal of this study was to determine the fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and class 1 integrons following the application of swine and dairy manure to soil. Soil microcosms were amended with either manure from swine fed subtherapeutic levels of antibiotics or manure from dairy cows that were given antibiotics only rarely and strictly for veterinary purposes. Microcosms were monitored for 6 months using quantitative PCR targeting 16S rRNA genes (a measure of bacterial biomass), intI1 , erm (B) , tet (A), tet (W) and tet (X). Swine manure had 10- to 100-fold higher levels of ARGs than the dairy manure, all of which decayed over time after being applied to soil. A modified Collins–Selleck model described the decay of ARGs in the soil microcosms well, particularly the characteristic in which the decay rate declined over time. By the completion of the soil microcosm experiments, ARGs in the dairy manure-amended soils returned to background levels, whereas the ARGs in swine manure remained elevated compared to control microcosms. Our research suggests that the use of subtherapeutic use of antibiotics in animal feed could lead to the accumulation of ARGs in soils to which manure is applied. The application of manure to soil from animals fed subtherapeutic levels of antibiotics can lead to the accumulation of antibiotic resistance genes. Graphical Abstract Figure. The application of manure to soil from animals fed subtherapeutic levels of antibiotics can lead to the accumulation of antibiotic resistance genes.
    Keywords: Antibiotic Resistance ; Dairy ; Manure ; Qpcr ; Subtherapeutic ; Swine
    E-ISSN: 1574-6941
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Current Opinion in Microbiology, June 2011, Vol.14(3), pp.236-243
    Description: The usage of antibiotics in animal husbandry has promoted the development and abundance of antibiotic resistance in farm environments. Manure has become a reservoir of resistant bacteria and antibiotic compounds, and its application to agricultural soils is assumed to significantly increase antibiotic resistance genes and selection of resistant bacterial populations in soil. The genome location of resistance genes is likely to shift towards mobile genetic elements such as broad-host-range plasmids, integrons, and transposable elements. Horizontal transfer of these elements to bacteria adapted to soil or other habitats supports their environmental transmission independent of the original host. The human exposure to soil-borne resistance has yet to be determined, but is likely to be severely underestimated.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 1369-5274
    E-ISSN: 1879-0364
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  • 8
    In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 2016, Vol. 92(2)
    Description: The distribution of potential clinically relevant antibiotic resistance (AR) genes across soil, water, animal, plant and human microbiomes is not well understood. We aimed to investigate if there were differences in the distribution and relative abundances of resistance genes across a variety of ecological niches. All sequence reads (human, animal, water, soil, plant and insect metagenomes) from the MG-RAST database were downloaded and assembled into a local sequence database. We show that there are many reservoirs of the basic form of resistance genes e.g. bla TEM , but the human and mammalian gut microbiomes contain the widest diversity of clinically relevant resistance genes using metagenomic analysis. The human microbiomes contained a high relative abundance of resistance genes, while the relative abundances varied greatly in the marine and soil metagenomes, when datasets with greater than one million genes were compared. While these results reflect a bias in the distribution of AR genes across the metagenomes, we note this interpretation with caution. Metagenomics analysis includes limits in terms of detection and identification of AR genes in complex and diverse microbiome population. Therefore, if we do not detect the AR gene is it in fact not there or just below the limits of our techniques? Distribution and relative abundances of antibiotic resistance genes across the world from the ocean to the human gut and everywhere in between. Graphical Abstract Figure. Distribution and relative abundances of antibiotic resistance genes across the world from the ocean to the human gut and everywhere in between.
    Keywords: Resistome ; Microbiome ; Metagenome ; Soil ; Animal ; Gut
    E-ISSN: 1574-6941
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Emerging infectious diseases, 2013, Vol.19(7)
    Description: The clinical failure of antimicrobial drugs that were previously effective in controlling infectious disease is a tragedy of increasing magnitude that gravely affects human health. This resistance by pathogens is often the endpoint of an evolutionary process that began billions of years ago in non-disease-causing...
    Keywords: Infektionsmedicin ; Infectious Medicine
    ISSN: 1080-6059
    ISSN: 10806040
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Trends in Microbiology, September 2014, Vol.22(9), pp.536-545
    Description: Large amounts of veterinary antibiotics are applied worldwide to farm animals and reach agricultural fields by manure fertilization, where they might lead to an increased abundance and transferability of antibiotic-resistance determinants. In this review we discuss recent advances, limitations, and research needs in determining the fate of veterinary antibiotics and resistant bacteria applied with manure to soil, and their effects on the structure and function of soil microbial communities in bulk soils and the rhizosphere. The increased abundance and mobilization of antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) might contribute to the emergence of multi-resistant human pathogens that increasingly threaten the successful antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections.
    Keywords: Antibiotic-Resistance Genes ; Horizontal Gene Transfer ; Rhizosphere ; Biology
    ISSN: 0966-842X
    E-ISSN: 1878-4380
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