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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • Antineoplastic Agents
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Letters, 2009, Vol.277(1), pp.8-21
    Description: Histone deacetylases comprise a family of 18 genes, which are grouped into classes I–IV based on their homology to their respective yeast orthologues. Classes I, II, and IV consist of 11 family members, which are referred to as “classical” HDACs, whereas the 7 class III members are called sirtuins. Classical HDACs are a promising novel class of anti-cancer drug targets. First HDAC inhibitors have been evaluated in clinical trials and show activity against several cancer diseases. However, these compounds act unselectively against several or all 11 HDAC family members. As a consequence, clinical phase I trials document a wide range of side effects. Therefore, the current challenge in the field is to define the cancer relevant HDAC family member(s) in a given tumor type and to design selective inhibitors, which target cancer cells but leave out normal cells. Knockout of single HDAC family members in mice produces a variety of phenotypes ranging from early embryonic death to viable animals with only discrete alterations, indicating that potential side effects of HDAC inhibitors depend on the selectivity of the compounds. Recently, several studies have shown that certain HDAC family members are aberrantly expressed in several tumors and have non-redundant function in controlling hallmarks of cancer cells. The aim of this review is to discuss individual HDAC family members as drug targets in cancer taking into consideration their function under physiological conditions and their oncogenic potential in malignant disease.
    Keywords: Histone Deacetylase ; Hdac ; Hdac Inhibitor ; Cancer ; Development ; Therapy ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0304-3835
    E-ISSN: 1872-7980
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Cancer, 01 May 2013, Vol.132(9), pp.2200-2208
    Description: Inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity as stand‐alone or combination therapy represents a promising therapeutic approach in oncology. The pan‐ or class I HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) currently approved or in clinical studies for oncology give rise to dose‐limiting toxicities, presumably because of the inhibition of several HDACs. This could potentially be overcome by selective blockade of single HDAC family members. Here we report that HDAC11, the most recently identified zinc‐dependent HDAC, is overexpressed in several carcinomas as compared to corresponding healthy tissues. HDAC11 depletion is sufficient to cause cell death and to inhibit metabolic activity in HCT‐116 colon, PC‐3 prostate, MCF‐7 breast and SK‐OV‐3 ovarian cancer cell lines. The antitumoral effect induced can be mimicked by enforced expression of a catalytically impaired HDAC11 variant, suggesting that inhibition of the enzymatic activity of HDAC11 by small molecules could trigger the desired phenotypic changes. HDAC11 depletion in normal cells causes no changes in metabolic activity and viability, strongly suggesting that tumor‐selective effects can be achieved. Altogether, our data show that HDAC11 plays a critical role in cancer cell survival and may represent a novel drug target in oncology. What's new? Histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes influence the regulation of numerous cellular processes, and their inhibition by small molecules has been shown to provide benefits against multiple cancer types. Here, HDAC11, a recently identified member of the HDAC family, was found to play an important role in the control of proliferation and survival pathways in several carcinoma cell lines. The high incidence of the tumors represented suggests that HDAC11 could be a valuable drug target in oncology.
    Keywords: Chromatin Modulation ; Targeted Therapy ; Histone Deacetylase ; Colon Cancer ; Prostate Cancer
    ISSN: 0020-7136
    E-ISSN: 1097-0215
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of medicinal chemistry, 28 December 2017, Vol.60(24), pp.10188-10204
    Description: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important modulators of epigenetic gene regulation and additionally control the activity of non-histone protein substrates. While for HDACs 1-3 and 6 many potent selective inhibitors have been obtained, for other subtypes much less is known on selective inhibitors and the consequences of their inhibition. The present report describes the development of substituted benzhydroxamic acids as potent and selective HDAC8 inhibitors. Docking studies using available crystal structures have been used for structure-based optimization of this series of compounds. Within this study, we have investigated the role of HDAC8 in the proliferation of cancer cells and optimized hits for potency and selectivity, both in vitro and in cell culture. The combination of structure-based design, synthesis, and in vitro screening to cellular testing resulted in potent and selective HDAC8 inhibitors that showed anti-neuroblastoma activity in cellular testing.
    Keywords: Antineoplastic Agents–Chemistry ; Biomarkers, Tumor–Pharmacology ; Cell Line, Tumor–Genetics ; Drug Design–Drug Effects ; Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor–Chemistry ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic–Pharmacology ; Hek293 Cells–Chemistry ; Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors–Metabolism ; Histone Deacetylases–Chemistry ; Humans–Drug Therapy ; Hydroxamic Acids–Genetics ; Molecular Docking Simulation–Pathology ; Neuroblastoma–Antagonists & Inhibitors ; Repressor Proteins–Chemistry ; Structure-Activity Relationship–Metabolism ; Antineoplastic Agents ; Biomarkers, Tumor ; Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors ; Hydroxamic Acids ; Repressor Proteins ; Hdac8 Protein, Human ; Histone Deacetylases ; Benzohydroxamic Acid;
    ISSN: 00222623
    E-ISSN: 1520-4804
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Autophagy, 05 December 2013, Vol.9(12), pp.2163-2165
    Description: Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood. Despite intense multimodal therapy and many improvements through basic scientific and clinical research, the successful response of advanced-stage patients to chemotherapy remains poor. Autophagy is a cytoprotective mechanism...
    Keywords: Hdac10 ; Neuroblastoma ; Drug Resistance ; Hdac-Inhibitor ; Lysosome ; Macroautophagy ; Biology
    ISSN: 1554-8627
    E-ISSN: 1554-8635
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  • 5
    In: PLoS ONE, 2016, Vol.11(6)
    Description: Background Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, has demonstrated efficacy in treating subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) and other manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). However, long-term use of mTOR inhibitors might be necessary. This analysis explored long-term efficacy and safety of everolimus from the conclusion of the EXIST-1 study (NCT00789828). Methods and Findings EXIST-1 was an international, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial examining everolimus in patients with new or growing TSC-related SEGA. After a double-blind core phase, all remaining patients could receive everolimus in a long-term, open-label extension. Everolimus was initiated at a dose (4.5 mg/m 2 /day) titrated to a target blood trough of 5–15 ng/mL. SEGA response rate (primary end point) was defined as the proportion of patients achieving confirmed ≥50% reduction in the sum volume of target SEGA lesions from baseline in the absence of worsening nontarget SEGA lesions, new target SEGA lesions, and new or worsening hydrocephalus. Of 111 patients (median age, 9.5 years) who received ≥1 dose of everolimus (median duration, 47.1 months), 57.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 47.9–67.0) achieved SEGA response. Of 41 patients with target renal angiomyolipomas at baseline, 30 (73.2%) achieved renal angiomyolipoma response. In 105 patients with ≥1 skin lesion at baseline, skin lesion response rate was 58.1%. Incidence of adverse events (AEs) was comparable with that of previous reports, and occurrence of emergent AEs generally decreased over time. The most common AEs (≥30% incidence) suspected to be treatment-related were stomatitis (43.2%) and mouth ulceration (32.4%). Conclusions Everolimus use led to sustained reduction in tumor volume, and new responses were observed for SEGA and renal angiomyolipoma from the blinded core phase of the study. These findings support the hypothesis that everolimus can safely reverse multisystem manifestations of TSC in a significant proportion of patients. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00789828
    Keywords: Research Article ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    In: Pediatric Blood & Cancer, March 2018, Vol.65(3), pp.n/a-n/a
    Description: Infants with low‐grade glioma (LGG) and diencephalic syndrome have a poor outcome. The patient described here had a desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma harboring a BRAF V600E mutation. After relapse following initial standard chemotherapy treatment, he was successfully treated with the BRAF V600E inhibitor vemurafenib at the age of 3 years 11 months and 5 years 0 months. A rapid response was observed on both occasions. This illustrates the possibility of continuous oncogenic addiction and the therapeutic potential of BRAF V600E inhibitor monotherapy in LGG, even in very young severely compromised children. BRAF V600E inhibition in LGG and possible (re‐)treatment regimens are briefly discussed.
    Keywords: Braf V600e Inhibitor ; Child ; Desmoplastic Infantile Astrocytoma ; Infant ; Low‐Grade Glioma ; Vemurafenib
    ISSN: 1545-5009
    E-ISSN: 1545-5017
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Cancer, July 2016, Vol.62, pp.124-131
    Description: An urgent need remains for new paediatric oncology drugs to cure children who die from cancer and to reduce drug-related sequelae in survivors. In 2007, the European Paediatric Regulation came into law requiring industry to create paediatric drug (all types of medicinal products) development programmes alongside those for adults. Unfortunately, paediatric drug development is still largely centred on adult conditions and not a mechanism of action (MoA)-based model, even though this would be more logical for childhood tumours as these have much fewer non-synonymous coding mutations than adult malignancies. Recent large-scale sequencing by International Genome Consortium and Paediatric Cancer Genome Project has further shown that the genetic and epigenetic repertoire of driver mutations in specific childhood malignancies differs from more common adult-type malignancies. To bring about much needed change, a Paediatric Platform, ACCELERATE, was proposed in 2013 by the Cancer Drug Development Forum, Innovative Therapies for Children with Cancer, the European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents and the European Society for Paediatric Oncology. The Platform, comprising multiple stakeholders in paediatric oncology, has three working groups, one with responsibility for promoting and developing high-quality MoA-informed paediatric drug development programmes, including specific measures for adolescents. Key is the establishment of a freely accessible aggregated database of paediatric biological tumour drug targets to be aligned with an aggregated pipeline of drugs. This will enable prioritisation and conduct of early phase clinical paediatric trials to evaluate these drugs against promising therapeutic targets and to generate clinical paediatric efficacy and safety data in an accelerated time frame. Through this work, the Platform seeks to ensure that potentially effective drugs, where the MoA is known and thought to be relevant to paediatric malignancies, are evaluated in early phase clinical trials, and that this approach to generate pre-clinical and clinical data is systematically pursued by academia, sponsors, industry, and regulatory bodies to bring new paediatric oncology drugs to front-line therapy more rapidly.
    Keywords: Paediatric Oncology ; Mechanism of Action ; Targeted Cancer Drug Development ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0959-8049
    E-ISSN: 1879-0852
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Future medicinal chemistry, September 2016, Vol.8(13), pp.1609-34
    Description: Histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8), a unique class I zinc-dependent HDAC, is an emerging target in cancer and other diseases. Its substrate repertoire extends beyond histones to many nonhistone proteins. Besides being a deacetylase, HDAC8 also mediates signaling via scaffolding functions. Aberrant expression or deregulated interactions with transcription factors are critical in HDAC8-dependent cancers. Many potent HDAC8-selective inhibitors with cellular activity and anticancer effects have been reported. We present HDAC8 as a druggable target and discuss inhibitors of different chemical scaffolds with cellular effects. Furthermore, we review HDAC8 activators that revert activity of mutant enzymes. Isotype-selective HDAC8 targeting in patients with HDAC8-relevant cancers is challenging, however, is promising to avoid adverse side effects as observed with pan-HDAC inhibitors.
    Keywords: Hdac8 ; Smc3 ; T-Cell ; Cancer ; Druggable ; Hydroxamic Acid ; Inhibitor ; Stem Cell ; Therapy ; Antineoplastic Agents -- Pharmacology ; Neoplasms -- Drug Therapy ; Neurodegenerative Diseases -- Drug Therapy ; Neuroprotective Agents -- Pharmacology ; Repressor Proteins -- Antagonists & Inhibitors
    ISSN: 17568919
    E-ISSN: 1756-8927
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: BMC cancer, 08 June 2012, Vol.12, pp.226
    Description: Treatment options for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are limited. Histone deacetylase inhibitors are a new and promising drug family with strong anticancer activity. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of in vitro and in vivo treatment with the novel pan-HDAC inhibitor belinostat on the growth of human PDAC cells. The proliferation of tumour cell lines (T3M4, AsPC-1 and Panc-1) was determined using an MTT assay. Apoptosis was analysed using flow cytometry. Furthermore, p21Cip1/Waf1 and acetylated histone H4 (acH4) expression were confirmed by immunoblot analysis. The in vivo effect of belinostat was studied in a chimeric mouse model. Antitumoural activity was assessed by immunohistochemistry for Ki-67. Treatment with belinostat resulted in significant in vitro and in vivo growth inhibition of PDAC cells. This was associated with a dose-dependent induction of tumour cell apoptosis. The apoptotic effect of gemcitabine was further enhanced by belinostat. Moreover, treatment with belinostat increased expression of the cell cycle regulator p21Cip1/Waf1 in Panc-1, and of acH4 in all cell lines tested. The reductions in xenograft tumour volumes were associated with inhibition of cell proliferation. Experimental treatment of human PDAC cells with belinostat is effective in vitro and in vivo and may enhance the efficacy of gemcitabine. A consecutive study of belinostat in pancreatic cancer patients alone, and in combination with gemcitabine, could further clarify these effects in the clinical setting.
    Keywords: Antineoplastic Agents -- Pharmacology ; Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal -- Metabolism ; Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors -- Pharmacology ; Hydroxamic Acids -- Pharmacology ; Sulfonamides -- Pharmacology
    E-ISSN: 1471-2407
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Letters, 2009, Vol.280(2), pp.123-124
    Description: [...]HDAC inhibitors clearly act in a non-epigenetic manner and it is currently an open discussion whether targeting of epigenetic mechanisms and chromatin remodelling, or modulation of the functional activity of cytoplasmatic proteins and transcription factors, or both mechanisms contribute most to...
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0304-3835
    E-ISSN: 1872-7980
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