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  • Arbuscular Mycorrhiza
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Annals of Botany, March 2001, Vol.87(3), pp.303-311
    Description: This study compared the influence of NH〈$〉^{\plus}_{\mkern1pt 4}〈$〉or NO〈$〉^{\minus}_{\mkern1pt 3}〈$〉nutrition on the contribution of extraradical hyphae of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae Nicol. and Gerd. Gerd. and Trappe BEG 107 to NH〈$〉^{\plus}_{\mkern1.6pt 4}〈$〉or NO〈$〉^{\minus}_{\mkern1pt 3}〈$〉uptake by Triticum aestivum L. Hano summer wheat with sufficient or insufficient N supply in semi-hydroponic culture. Roots and root-distant hyphae were spatially separated in compartmentalized pots. Although NH〈$〉^{\plus}_{\mkern1pt 4}〈$〉-fed plants supplied with sufficient N had higher N concentrations than their NO〈$〉^{\minus}_{\mkern1pt 3}〈$〉-fed counterparts, this did not favourably affect colonization rates, hyphal length densities or 15 N amounts transported via hyphae to the plants. Ammonium supply did not result in higher P or reduced carbohydrate concentrations in the plants, so these factors could not explain the reduced hyphal lengths. It was concluded that the effect of NH〈$〉^{\plus}_{\mkern1pt 4}〈$〉supply on hyphal length may be related to the reduced root growth and/or a direct effect of NH〈$〉^{\plus}_{\mkern1pt 4}〈$〉on hyphal growth. Plant N deficiency reduced the percentage root length colonized, hyphal length, total 15 N uptake by hyphae and dry weight of both NO〈$〉^{\minus}_{\mkern1pt 3}〈$〉- and NH〈$〉^{\plus}_{\mkern1pt 4}〈$〉-fed mycorrhizal plants. This was more obvious for NO〈$〉^{\minus}_{\mkern1pt 3}〈$〉-fed plants because plant biomass and hyphal lengths of NH〈$〉^{\plus}_{\mkern1pt 4}〈$〉-fed plants were relatively low in mycorrhizal plants irrespective of the N concentration supplied. Copyright 2001 Annals of Botany Company
    Keywords: Ammonium, Arbuscular Mycorrhiza, Glomus Mosseae, Nitrate, Nitrogen Uptake,15n Studies, Triticum Aestivum, Wheat ; Botany
    ISSN: 0305-7364
    E-ISSN: 1095-8290
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2013, Vol.364(1), pp.341-355
    Description: Aims: The aim was to quantify the nitrogen (N) transferred via the extra-radical mycelium of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices from both a dead host and a dead non-host donor root to a receiver tomato plant. The effect of a physical disruption of the soil containing donor plant roots and fungal mycelium on the effectiveness of N transfer was also examined. Methods: The root systems of the donor (wild type tomato plants or the mycorrhiza-defective rmc mutant tomato) and the receiver plants were separated by a 30 mu m mesh, penetrable by hyphae but not by the roots. Both donor genotypes produced a similar quantity of biomass and had a similar nutrient status. Two weeks after the supply of super(15)N to a split-root part of donor plants, the shoots were removed to kill the plants. The quantity of N transferred from the dead roots into the receiver plants was measured after a further 2 weeks. Results: Up to 10.6 % of donor-root super(15)N was recovered in the receiver plants when inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF). The quantity of super(15)N derived from the mycorrhizal wild type roots clearly exceeded that from the only weakly surface-colonised rmc roots. Hyphal length in the donor rmc root compartments was only about half that in the wild type compartments. The disruption of the soil led to a significantly increased AMF-mediated transfer of N to the receiver plants. Conclusions: The transfer of N from dead roots can be enhanced by AMF, especially when the donor roots have been formerly colonised by AMF. The transfer can be further increased with higher hyphae length densities, and the present data also suggest that a direct link between receiver mycelium and internal fungal structures in dead roots may in addition facilitate N transfer. The mechanical disruption of soil containing dead roots may increase the subsequent availability of nutrients, thus promoting mycorrhizal N uptake. When associated with a living plant, the external mycelium of G. intraradices is readily able to re-establish itself in the soil following disruption and functions as a transfer vessel.
    Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhiza ; Reduced mycorrhizal colonisation (rmc) mutant ; Extra-radical mycelium ; Root turnover ; Solanum lycopersicum
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Mycorrhiza, 2013, Vol.23(2), pp.107-117
    Description: Labeled nitrogen ( 15  N) was applied to a soil-based substrate in order to study the uptake of N by Glomus intraradices extraradical mycelium (ERM) from different mineral N (NO 3 − vs. NH 4 + ) sources and the subsequent transfer to cowpea plants. Fungal compartments (FCs) were placed within the plant growth substrate to simulate soil patches containing root-inaccessible, but mycorrhiza-accessible, N. The fungus was able to take up both N-forms, NO 3 − and NH 4 + . However, the amount of N transferred from the FC to the plant was higher when NO 3 − was applied to the FC. In contrast, analysis of ERM harvested from the FC showed a higher 15  N enrichment when the FC was supplied with 15 NH 4 + compared with 15 NO 3 − . The 15  N shoot/root ratio of plants supplied with 15 NO 3 − was much higher than that of plants supplied with 15 NH 4 + , indicative of a faster transfer of 15 NO 3 − from the root to the shoot and a higher accumulation of 15 NH 4 + in the root and/or intraradical mycelium. It is concluded that hyphae of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus may absorb NH 4 + preferentially over NO 3 − but that export of N from the hyphae to the root and shoot may be greater following NO 3 − uptake. The need for NH 4 + to be assimilated into organically bound N prior to transport into the plant is discussed.
    Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhiza ; Cowpea ; Nitrate/ammonium transfer ; Fungal compartment
    ISSN: 0940-6360
    E-ISSN: 1432-1890
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Physiology, 2011, Vol.168(9), pp.911-919
    Description: The sucrose transporter functions in phloem loading of photoassimilates in solanaceous plant species. In the present study, wildtype and transgenic potato plants with either constitutive overexpression or inhibition of were grown under high or low phosphorus (P) fertilization levels in the presence or absence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus . At a low soil P fertilization level, the extent of AM fungal root colonization was not different among the genotypes. In all plants, the AM symbiosis contributed significantly to P uptake under these conditions. In response to a high soil P fertilization level, all genotypes showed a decrease in AM fungal root colonization, indicating that the expression level of does not constitute a major mechanism of control over AM development in response to the soil P availability. However, plants with overexpression of showed a higher extent of AM fungal root colonization compared with the other genotypes when the soil P availability was high. Whether an increased symbiotic C supply, alterations in the phytohormonal balance, or a decreased synthesis of antimicrobial compounds was the major cause for this effect requires further investigation. In plants with impaired phloem loading, a low C status of plant sink tissues did apparently not negatively affect plant C supply to the AM symbiosis. It is possible that, at least during vegetative and early generative growth, source rather than sink tissues exert control over amounts of C supplied to AM fungi.
    Keywords: Arbuscular Mycorrhiza ; Carbohydrate Partitioning ; Phloem Loading ; Phosphorus Nutrition ; Sucrose Transporter Sut1 ; Botany
    ISSN: 0176-1617
    E-ISSN: 16181328
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, June 2010, Vol.173(3), pp.353-359
    Description: In most plant species, nutrient uptake is facilitated upon root association with symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The aim of the present experiment was to test how the form in which nitrogen (N) is supplied to the growth medium affects substrate pH, AM development, and contribution of the symbiosis to phosphorus (P) uptake from sparingly available or soluble resources. Cowpea ( L. Walp) plants inoculated or noninoculated with AM fungi ( sp.) were grown in pots with a sand substrate supplied with nutrient solution. The nutrient solution was prepared either with a high or a low concentration of soluble P, and NO‐N : NH‐N ratios of 9:1 or 5:5. The substrate supplied with low‐P nutrient solution was either or not additionally amended with ground rock phosphate. Despite a high level of root colonization, AM fungi used in the present study did not appear to increase plant availability of rock phosphate. It cannot be excluded that the ability of AM root systems to acquire P from sparingly available resources differs depending on the plant and fungal genotypes or environmental conditions. The absence from the growth substrate of P‐solubilizing microorganisms able to associate with AM mycelia might also have been a reason for this observation in our study. Increased supply of NH relative to NO improved plant P availability from rock phosphate, but also had a negative effect on the extent of AM‐fungal root colonization, irrespective of the plant P‐nutritional status. Whether increasing levels of NH can also negatively affect the functioning of the AM symbiosis in terms of plant element uptake, pathogen protection or soil‐structure stabilization deserves further investigation.
    Keywords: Arbuscular Mycorrhiza ; Nitrate‐To‐Ammonium Ratio ; Rock Phosphate ; Vigna Unguiculata
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Symbiosis, 2017, Vol.73(3), pp.191-200
    Description: We investigated the effect of mineral nitrogen forms on transfer of nitrogen (N) and zinc (Zn) from attached compartments to rhodes grass ( Chloris gayana ) colonised with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). After being pre-cultivated in substrates with adequate nutrient supply and either AMF inoculated (+AM) or left non-inoculated (−AM), rhodes grass was positioned adjacent to an outer compartment holding a similar substrate but applied with labelled nitrogen ( 15 N) either as ammonium (NH 4 + ) or nitrate (NO 3 − ), and a high supply of Zn (150 mg kg −1 DS). Plant roots together with fungal mycelium were either allowed to explore the outer compartment (with root access) or only mycorrhizal hyphae were allowed (without root access). Within each access treatment, biomasses of rhodes grass were not significantly affected by AMF inoculation or N form. AMF contribution to plant 15 N uptake was about double in NH 4 + compared with NO 3 − -supplied treatments while the mycorrhizal influence on plant Zn uptake was insignificant. Without root access, the shoot 15 N/Zn concentration ratio was up to ten-fold higher in +AM than –AM treatments and this ratio increase was clearly more pronounced in NH 4 + than NO 3 − -supplied treatments. In conclusion, rhodes grass in symbiosis with the tested AMF acquired more N when supplied with ammonium. Moreover, there is clear indication that although the AMF have transported both nutrients (N and Zn), N was preferentially transferred as compared to Zn. We confirmed that, while rhodes grass is not able to prevent excessive Zn uptake via roots under conditions of high Zn, mycorrhiza is able to avoid excessive Zn supply to the host plant when the fungus alone has access to contaminated patches.
    Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhiza ; Ammonium ; Nitrate ; Mycorrhizal nutrient uptake ; (Rhodes grass)
    ISSN: 0334-5114
    E-ISSN: 1878-7665
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2000, Vol.226(2), pp.275-285
    Description: New information on N uptake and transport of inorganic and organic N in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is reviewed here. Hyphae of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae (Nicol. and Gerd.) Gerd. and Trappe (BEG 107) were shown to transport N supplied as 15 N-Gly to wheat plants after a 48 h labelling period in semi-hydroponic (Perlite), non-sterile, compartmentalised pot cultures. Of the 15 N supplied to hyphae in pot cultures over 48 h, 0.2 and 6% was transported to plants supplied with insufficient N or sufficient N, respectively. The increased 15 N uptake at the higher N supply was related to the higher hyphal length density at the higher N supply. These findings were supported by results from in vitro and monoxenic studies. Excised hyphae from four Glomus isolates (BEG 84, 107, 108 and 110) acquired N from both inorganic ( 15 NH 4 15 NO 3 , 15 NO 3 − or 15 NH 4 + ) and organic ( 15 N-Gly and 15 N-Glu, except in BEG 84 where amino acid uptake was not tested) sources in vitro during short-term experiments. Confirming these studies under sterile conditions where no bacterial mineralisation of organic N occurred, monoxenic cultures of Glomus intraradices Schenk and Smith were shown to transport N from organic sources ( 15 N-Gly and 15 N-Glu) to Ri T-DNA transformed, AM-colonised carrot roots in a long-term experiment. The higher N uptake (also from organic N) by isolates from nutrient poor sites (BEG 108 and 110) compared to that from a conventional agricultural field implied that ecotypic differences occur. Although the arbuscular mycorrhizal isolates used contributed to the acquisition of N from both inorganic and organic sources by the host plants/roots used, this was not enough to increase the N nutritional status of the mycorrhizal compared to non-mycorrhizal hosts.
    Keywords: arbuscular mycorrhiza ; Daucus carota ; Glomus mosseae ; Glomus intraradices ; monoxenic culture ; N uptake ; Triticum aestivum
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 8
    In: HortScience, 04/2005, Vol.40(2), pp.378-380
    Description: A nutrient film technique (NFT) culture system was developed to allow nursery production of arbuscular mycorrhizal horticultural crops. This would benefit horticultural production and allow for uncomplicated production of mycorrhizal hyphae. Roots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata) plants were highly colonized by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus mosseae (BEG 107) after 4 weeks in the NFT system, following an initial phase of five weeks in inoculated in Perlite substrate. In the NFT system, a thin layer of glass beads was used to provide solid support for plant and fungus growth and nutrient solution was supplied intermittently (15 min, six times per day). A modified nutrient solution (80 micromolar P) was used and was replaced with fresh solution every 3 days. A significantly higher dry weight was found for the mycorrhizal versus the nonmycorrhizal lettuce plants in Perlite during the precolonization period. The root colonization rate was also high at rates up to 80 micromolar P supply. On the NFT system, growth differences between mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants were less than in Perlite. However, root colonization rate was not reduced during the NFT culture period. In this system, high amounts of fungal biomass were produced. This would allow the determination of metal and other nutrient concentrations in fungal hyphae. Furthermore, we found large amounts of external fungal hyphae surrounding the root surface. As much as 130 mg fungal biomass were collected per culture plate (three plants). Therefore, we suggest that this modified NFT culture system would be suitable for fungal biomass production on a large scale with a view to additional aeration by intermittent nutrient supply, optimum P supply, and a use of glass beads as support materials. Furthermore, bulk inoculum composition with a mixture of spores, colonized roots, and hyphae grown in soilless media by the modified NFT system might be a useful way to mass-produce mycorrhizal crops and inoculum for commercial horticultural purposes. ; Includes references ; p. 378-380.
    Keywords: Mycorrhizal Fungi ; Roots ; Perlite ; Phosphorus ; Glomus Mosseae ; Microbial Colonization ; Inoculation Methods ; Vegetable Crops ; Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae ; Head Lettuce ; Dry Matter Accumulation ; Nutrient Film Technique ; Nutrient Solutions ; Plant Growth ; Inoculum ; Hyphae ; Lactuca Sativa Var. Capitata;
    ISSN: 0018-5345
    E-ISSN: 2327-9834
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Mycorrhiza, 2007, Vol.17(5), pp.469-474
    Description: Two challenges frequently encountered in the production of ornamental plants in organic horticulture are: (1) the rate of mineralization of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) from organic fertilizers can be too slow to meet the high nutrient demand of young plants, and (2) the exclusive use of peat as a substrate for pot-based plant culture is discouraged in organic production systems. In this situation, the use of beneficial soil microorganisms in combination with high quality compost substrates can contribute to adequate plant growth and flower development. In this study, we examined possible alternatives to highly soluble fertilizers and pure peat substrates using pelargonium ( Pelargonium peltatum L’Her.) as a test plant. Plants were grown on a peat-based substrate with two rates of compost addition and with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Inoculation with three different commercial AM inocula resulted in colonization rates of up to 36% of the total root length, whereas non-inoculated plants remained free of root colonization. Increasing the rate of compost addition increased shoot dry weight and shoot nutrient concentrations, but the supply of compost did not always completely meet plant nutrient demand. Mycorrhizal colonization increased the number of buds and flowers, as well as shoot P and potassium (K) concentrations, but did not significantly affect shoot dry matter or shoot N concentration. We conclude that addition of compost in combination with mycorrhizal inoculation can improve nutrient status and flower development of plants grown on peat-based substrates.
    Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhiza ; Compost ; Organic horticulture ; Pelargonium
    ISSN: 0940-6360
    E-ISSN: 1432-1890
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  • 10
    In: Canadian Journal of Botany (Revue canadienne de botanique), 1997, Vol.75(5), pp.723-729
    Description: The influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus mosseae , on the adverse effects of soil compaction on growth and phosphorus (P) uptake of red clover was studied in a model experiment. The pots used in the experiment had three compartments, a central one with a soil bulk density of 1.3g∙cm 3 and two outer compartments with three different levels of soil bulk density (1.3, 1.6, or 1.8g∙cm 3 ). The soil in the outer compartments was fertilized with P and was either freely accessible to roots and hyphae, or separated by nets and accessible to hyphae only. At a soil bulk density of 1.3g∙cm 3 , mycorrhizal plants did not absorb more P than nonmycorrhizal plants except when access of roots to the outer compartments was restricted by nets. At high soil bulk density, root growth was drastically decreased. However, hyphae of G . mosseae absorbed P even from highly compacted soil, and induced a P-depletion zone of about 30mm from the root surface. In consequence, at higher soil bulk density shoot P concentration and the total amount of P in the shoot were higher in mycorrhizal than in nonmycorrhizal plants. This experiment showed that hyphae of G . mosseae are more efficient in obtaining P from compacted soil than mycorrhizal or nonmycorrhizal roots of red clover. Key words : arbuscular mycorrhiza, phosphorus, red clover ( Trifolium pratense L.), soil bulk density, soil compaction.
    Description: l'aide d'un modle exprimental, les auteurs ont tudi l'influence d'un champignon mycorhizien arbusculaire, le Glomus mosseae , sur les effets ngatifs de la compaction du sol spar rapport la croissance et la nutrition en phosphore (P) du trfle rouge. Les pots utiliss pour l'exprience ont trois compartiments; le compartiment central contient du sol avec une densit de masse (bulk density) de 1,3g∙cm 3 et les deux compartiments externes du sol avec trois densits de masses diffrentes (1,3, 1,6 ou 1,8g∙cm 3 ). Le sol dans les compartiments externes est fertilis avec P et est librement accessible aux racines et aux hyphes, ou est spar par un filet, ne le rendant accessible qu'aux hyphes. Avec une densit de masse de 1,3g∙cm 3 , les plantes mycorhiziennes n'absorbent pas plus de P que les plantes non-mycorhiziennes, sauf lorsque l'accs au compartiment est empch par les filets. Les densits de masse leves rduisent drastiquement la croissance des racines. Cependant, les hyphes du G . mosseae absorbent du P mme partir des sols fortement compacts, et induisent un puisement en P dans un rayon de 30mm autour de la surface racinaire. Consquemment, aux densits de masse les plus leves, la teneur en P et la quantit totale de P dans la tige sont suprieures chez les plantes mycorhizes comparativement aux plantes non-mycorhizes. Cette exprience montre que les hyphes du G . mosseae sont plus efficaces pour l'obtention du P partir de sols compacts que les racines, mycorhizes ou non, du trfle rouge. Mots cls : mycorhizes arbusculaires, phosphore, trfle rouge ( Trifolium pratense L.), densit de masse du sol, compaction du sol. [Traduit par la rdaction]
    Keywords: Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae ; Trifolium Pratense ; Bulk Density ; Soil Compaction ; Roots ; Nutrient Uptake ; Shoots ; Hyphae ; Phosphorus ; Glomus Mosseae ; Soil Density ; Growth;
    ISSN: 0008-4026
    E-ISSN: 1480-3305
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