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  • Bacterial Proteins
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Molecular microbiology, June 2011, Vol.80(6), pp.1479-95
    Description: The photosynthetic alphaproteobacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides has to cope with photooxidative stress that is caused by the bacteriochlorophyll a-mediated formation of singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)). Exposure to (1)O(2) induces the alternative sigma factors RpoE and RpoH(II) which then promote transcription of photooxidative stress-related genes, including small RNAs (sRNAs). The ubiquitous RNA chaperone Hfq is well established to interact with and facilitate the base-pairing of sRNAs and target mRNAs to influence mRNA stability and/or translation. Here we report on the pleiotropic phenotype of a Δhfq mutant of R. sphaeroides, which is less pigmented, produces minicells and is more sensitive to (1)O(2). The higher (1)O(2) sensitivity of the Δhfq mutant is paralleled by a reduced RpoE activity and a disordered induction of RpoH(II)-dependent genes. We used co-immunoprecipitation of FLAG-tagged Hfq combined with RNA-seq to identify association of at least 25 sRNAs and of mRNAs encoding cell division proteins and ribosomal proteins with Hfq. Remarkably, 〉 70% of the Hfq-bound sRNAs are (1)O(2)-affected. Proteomics analysis of the Hfq-deficient strain revealed an impact of Hfq on amino acid transport and metabolic functions. Our data demonstrate for the first time an involvement of Hfq in regulation of photosynthesis genes and in the photooxidative stress response.
    Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; Oxidative Stress ; Protein Binding ; Bacterial Proteins -- Metabolism ; Host Factor 1 Protein -- Metabolism ; Rhodobacter Sphaeroides -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0950382X
    E-ISSN: 1365-2958
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  • 2
    In: Nature, 2011, Vol.471(7340), p.602
    Description: CRISPR/Cas systems constitute a widespread class of immunity systems that protect bacteria and archaea against phages and plasmids, and commonly use repeat/spacer-derived short crRNAs to silence foreign nucleic acids in a sequence-specific manner. Although the maturation of crRNAs represents a key event in CRISPR activation, the responsible endoribonucleases (CasE, Cas6, Csy4) are missing in many CRISPR/Cas subtypes. Here, differential RNA sequencing of the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes uncovered tracrRNA, a trans -encoded small RNA with 24 nucleotide complementarity to the repeat regions of crRNA precursor transcripts. We show that tracrRNA directs the maturation of crRNAs by the activities of the widely conserved endogenous RNase III and the CRISPR-associated Csn1 protein; all these components are essential to protect S. pyogenes against prophage-derived DNA. Our study reveals a novel pathway of small guide RNA maturation and the first example of a host factor (RNase III) required for bacterial RNA-mediated immunity against invaders.
    Keywords: Article;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 3
    In: Molecular Microbiology, September 2011, Vol.81(5), pp.1144-1165
    Description: GcvB is one of the most highly conserved Hfq‐associated small RNAs in Gram‐negative bacteria and was previously reported to repress several ABC transporters for amino acids. To determine the full extent of GcvB‐mediated regulation in , we combined a genome‐wide experimental approach with biocomputational target prediction. Comparative pulse expression of wild‐type versus mutant sRNA variants revealed that GcvB governs a large post‐transcriptional regulon, impacting ∼1% of all genes via its conserved G/U‐rich domain R1. Complementary predictions of C/A‐rich binding sites in mRNAs and reporter fusion experiments increased the number of validated GcvB targets to more than 20, and doubled the number of regulated amino acid transporters. Unlike the previously described targeting via the single R1 domain, GcvB represses the glycine transporter CycA by exceptionally redundant base‐pairing. This novel ability of GcvB is focused upon the one target that could feedback‐regulate the glycine‐responsive synthesis of GcvB. Several newly discovered mRNA targets involved in amino acid metabolism, including the global regulator Lrp, question the previous assumption that GcvB simply acts to limit unnecessary amino acid uptake. Rather, GcvB rewires primary transcriptional control circuits and seems to act as a distinct regulatory node in amino acid metabolism.
    Keywords: Glycine -- Physiological Aspects ; Genetic Research -- Physiological Aspects ; Genomics -- Physiological Aspects ; Messenger Rna -- Physiological Aspects;
    ISSN: 0950-382X
    E-ISSN: 1365-2958
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  • 4
    In: EMBO Journal, 17 October 2012, Vol.31(20), pp.4005-4019
    Description: The small RNAs associated with the protein Hfq constitute one of the largest classes of post‐transcriptional regulators known to date. Most previously investigated members of this class are encoded by conserved free‐standing genes. Here, deep sequencing of Hfq‐bound transcripts from multiple stages of growth of revealed a plethora of new small RNA species from within mRNA loci, including DapZ, which overlaps with the 3′ region of the biosynthetic gene, . Synthesis of the DapZ small RNA is independent of DapB protein synthesis, and is controlled by HilD, the master regulator of invasion genes. DapZ carries a short G/U‐rich domain similar to that of the globally acting GcvB small RNA, and uses GcvB‐like seed pairing to repress translation of the major ABC transporters, DppA and OppA. This exemplifies double functional output from an mRNA locus by the production of both a protein and an Hfq‐dependent ‐acting RNA. Our atlas of Hfq targets suggests that the 3′ regions of mRNA genes constitute a rich reservoir that provides the Hfq network with new regulatory small RNAs. Deep sequencing of Hfq‐binding RNAs isolated from at different growth stages reveals that the 3′ UTR of bacterial mRNAs are a rich source of regulatory small RNAs which modulate gene expression in trans.
    Keywords: Abc Transporter ; Dapz ; Gcvb ; Hfq ; 3′ Utr
    ISSN: 0261-4189
    E-ISSN: 1460-2075
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of biological chemistry, 03 February 2017, Vol.292(5), pp.1934-1950
    Description: RNA degradation is crucial for regulating gene expression in all organisms. Like the decapping of eukaryotic mRNAs, the conversion of the 5'-terminal triphosphate of bacterial transcripts to a monophosphate can trigger RNA decay by exposing the transcript to attack by 5'-monophosphate-dependent ribonucleases. In both biological realms, this deprotection step is catalyzed by members of the Nudix hydrolase family. The genome of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori, a Gram-negative epsilonproteobacterium, encodes two proteins resembling Nudix enzymes. Here we present evidence that one of them, HP1228 (renamed HpRppH), is an RNA pyrophosphohydrolase that triggers RNA degradation in H. pylori, whereas the other, HP0507, lacks such activity. In vitro, HpRppH converts RNA 5'-triphosphates and diphosphates to monophosphates. It requires at least two unpaired nucleotides at the 5' end of its substrates and prefers three or more but has only modest sequence preferences. The influence of HpRppH on RNA degradation in vivo was examined by using RNA-seq to search the H. pylori transcriptome for RNAs whose 5'-phosphorylation state and cellular concentration are governed by this enzyme. Analysis of cDNA libraries specific for transcripts bearing a 5'-triphosphate and/or monophosphate revealed at least 63 potential HpRppH targets. These included mRNAs and sRNAs, several of which were validated individually by half-life measurements and quantification of their 5'-terminal phosphorylation state in wild-type and mutant cells. These findings demonstrate an important role for RppH in post-transcriptional gene regulation in pathogenic Epsilonproteobacteria and suggest a possible basis for the phenotypes of H. pylori mutants lacking this enzyme.
    Keywords: Helicobacter Pylori ; Nudix ; RNA Degradation ; RNA Modification ; RNA Turnover ; RNA-Protein Interaction ; Deep Sequencing ; Gene Regulation ; Acid Anhydride Hydrolases -- Metabolism ; Bacterial Proteins -- Metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial -- Physiology ; Helicobacter Pylori -- Metabolism ; RNA Stability -- Physiology ; RNA, Bacterial -- Metabolism ; RNA, Messenger -- Metabolism
    E-ISSN: 1083-351X
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Nucleic acids research, March 2012, Vol.40(5), pp.2020-31
    Description: The Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) is an important model to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the interaction with the host. To gain insight into the transcriptome of the Xcv strain 85-10, we took a differential RNA sequencing (dRNA-seq) approach. Using a novel method to automatically generate comprehensive transcription start site (TSS) maps we report 1421 putative TSSs in the Xcv genome. Genes in Xcv exhibit a poorly conserved -10 promoter element and no consensus Shine-Dalgarno sequence. Moreover, 14% of all mRNAs are leaderless and 13% of them have unusually long 5'-UTRs. Northern blot analyses confirmed 16 intergenic small RNAs and seven cis-encoded antisense RNAs in Xcv. Expression of eight intergenic transcripts was controlled by HrpG and HrpX, key regulators of the Xcv type III secretion system. More detailed characterization identified sX12 as a small RNA that controls virulence of Xcv by affecting the interaction of the pathogen and its host plants. The transcriptional landscape of Xcv is unexpectedly complex, featuring abundant antisense transcripts, alternative TSSs and clade-specific small RNAs.
    Keywords: RNA, Small Untranslated -- Metabolism ; Virulence Factors -- Genetics ; Xanthomonas Campestris -- Genetics
    ISSN: 03051048
    E-ISSN: 1362-4962
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Microbiology spectrum, September 2018, Vol.6(5)
    Description: Diverse mechanisms and functions of posttranscriptional regulation by small regulatory RNAs and RNA-binding proteins have been described in bacteria. In contrast, little is known about the spatial organization of RNAs in bacterial cells. In eukaryotes, subcellular localization and transport of RNAs play important roles in diverse physiological processes, such as embryonic patterning, asymmetric cell division, epithelial polarity, and neuronal plasticity. It is now clear that bacterial RNAs also can accumulate at distinct sites in the cell. However, due to the small size of bacterial cells, RNA localization and localization-associated functions are more challenging to study in bacterial cells, and the underlying molecular mechanisms of transcript localization are less understood. Here, we review the emerging examples of RNAs localized to specific subcellular locations in bacteria, with indications that subcellular localization of transcripts might be important for gene expression and regulatory processes. Diverse mechanisms for bacterial RNA localization have been suggested, including close association to their genomic site of transcription, or to the localizations of their protein products in translation-dependent or -independent processes. We also provide an overview of the state of the art of technologies to visualize and track bacterial RNAs, ranging from hybridization-based approaches in fixed cells to imaging approaches using fluorescent protein reporters and/or RNA aptamers in single living bacterial cells. We conclude with a discussion of open questions in the field and ongoing technological developments regarding RNA imaging in eukaryotic systems that might likewise provide novel insights into RNA localization in bacteria.
    Keywords: RNA Transport ; Molecular Imaging -- Methods ; RNA, Bacterial -- Ultrastructure ; Staining and Labeling -- Methods
    ISSN: Microbiology Spectrum
    E-ISSN: 2165-0497
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: PLoS Genetics, 2012, Vol.8(6), p.e1002782
    Description: RNA turnover plays an important role in both virulence and adaptation to stress in the Gram-positive human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus . However, the molecular players and mechanisms involved in these processes are poorly understood. Here, we explored the functions of S. aureus endoribonuclease III (RNase III), a member of the ubiquitous family of double-strand-specific endoribonucleases. To define genomic transcripts that are bound and processed by RNase III, we performed deep sequencing on cDNA libraries generated from RNAs that were co-immunoprecipitated with wild-type RNase III or two different cleavage-defective mutant variants in vivo . Several newly identified RNase III targets were validated by independent experimental methods. We identified various classes of structured RNAs as RNase III substrates and demonstrated that this enzyme is involved in the maturation of rRNAs and tRNAs, regulates the turnover of mRNAs and non-coding RNAs, and autoregulates its synthesis by cleaving within the coding region of its own mRNA. Moreover, we identified a positive effect of RNase III on protein synthesis based on novel mechanisms. RNase III–mediated cleavage in the 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) enhanced the stability and translation of cspA mRNA, which encodes the major cold-shock protein. Furthermore, RNase III cleaved overlapping 5′UTRs of divergently transcribed genes to generate leaderless mRNAs, which constitutes a novel way to co-regulate neighboring genes. In agreement with recent findings, low abundance antisense RNAs covering 44% of the annotated genes were captured by co-immunoprecipitation with RNase III mutant proteins. Thus, in addition to gene regulation, RNase III is associated with RNA quality control of pervasive transcription. Overall, this study illustrates the complexity of post-transcriptional regulation mediated by RNase III. ; Control of mRNA stability is crucial for bacteria to survive and rapidly adapt to environmental changes and stress conditions. The molecular players and the degradation pathways involved in these adaptive processes are poorly understood in . The universally conserved double-strand-specific endoribonuclease III (RNase III) in is known to repress the synthesis of several virulence factors and was recently implicated in genome-wide mRNA processing mediated by antisense transcripts. We present here the first global map of direct RNase III targets in . Deep sequencing was used to identify RNAs associated with epitope-tagged wild-type RNase III and two catalytically impaired but binding-competent mutant proteins . Experimental validation revealed an unexpected variety of structured RNA transcripts as novel RNase III substrates. In addition to rRNA operon maturation, autoregulation, degradation of structured RNAs, and antisense regulation, we propose novel mechanisms by which RNase III increases mRNA translation. Overall, this study shows that RNase III has a broad function in gene regulation of . We can now address more specifically the roles of this universally conserved enzyme in gene regulation in response to stress and during host infection.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Genetics And Genomics ; Microbiology
    ISSN: 1553-7390
    E-ISSN: 1553-7404
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Proteomics, 03 August 2015, Vol.126, pp.34-45
    Description: ( ) is a ε-proteobacterium that colonizes the stomach of about half of the world's population. Persistent infections have been associated with several gastric diseases. Mainly rod- or spiral shaped but also coccoid forms have been isolated from mucus layer biopsies of patients. It is still being debated whether the coccoid form can be transformed back into the spiral form or whether this morphology is a result of bacterial cell death or persistence. We established stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) for quantitative proteomics of and applied it to investigate differences between the spiral and the coccoid morphology. We detected 72% and were able to relatively quantify 47% of the proteome. Proteins involved in cell division and transcriptional and translational processes showed a lower abundance in coccoid cells. Additionally, proteins related to host colonization, including CagA, the arginase RocF, and the TNF-α inducing protein were down-regulated. The fact that outer membrane proteins were observed at higher abundances might represent a mechanism for immune evasion but also preserves adherence to host cells. The established protocol for relative protein quantification of samples offers new possibilities for research on . Our study shows that SILAC can be employed to study protein abundance changes in . We have chosen to establish SILAC for because it facilitates fractionation on both, protein and peptide level and thus enables deep proteome coverage. Furthermore, SILAC allows robust and highly accurate protein quantification. The manuscript includes a detailed description of the applied method, suggestions for further improvement as well as a practical application. The investigation of differences between the coccoid and infectious spiral morphology of with SILAC revealed the regulation of proteins that are involved in host colonization, motility, cell division as well as transcriptional and translational processes. The data will help molecular biologist to focus on relevant pathways that were found to be regulated in response to morphological changes. Furthermore, the application of SILAC offers new possibilities to study the biology of . It enables to monitor protein abundance changes in response to certain stimuli such as oxygen stress or antibiotics. Moreover, SILAC raises the possibility to study co-cultures of host cells and on protein level. Additionally, pulsed SILAC experiments enable the quantification of protein turnover.
    Keywords: Helicobacter Pylori ; Silac ; Cell Morphology ; Quantitative Proteomics ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 1874-3919
    E-ISSN: 18767737
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  • 10
    In: Nature Communications, 2016, Vol.7
    Description: The widespread CsrA/RsmA protein regulators repress translation by binding GGA motifs in bacterial mRNAs. CsrA activity is primarily controlled through sequestration by multiple small regulatory RNAs. Here we investigate CsrA activity control in the absence of antagonizing small RNAs by examining the CsrA regulon in the human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. We use genome-wide co-immunoprecipitation combined with RNA sequencing to show that CsrA primarily binds flagellar mRNAs and identify the major flagellin mRNA ( flaA ) as the main CsrA target. The flaA mRNA is translationally repressed by CsrA, but it can also titrate CsrA activity. Together with the main C. jejuni CsrA antagonist, the FliW protein, flaA mRNA controls CsrA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation of other flagellar genes. RNA-FISH reveals that flaA mRNA is expressed and localized at the poles of elongating cells. Polar flaA mRNA localization is translation dependent and is post-transcriptionally regulated by the CsrA-FliW network. Overall, our results suggest a role for CsrA-FliW in spatiotemporal control of flagella assembly and localization of a dual-function mRNA. The CsrA protein binds to and represses translation of certain bacterial mRNAs. Here, Dugar et al . show for the human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni that the major flagellin mRNA acts as both a target and a regulatory 'sponge' for CsrA, and is localized at the cell poles in a translation-dependent manner.
    Keywords: Article;
    ISSN: 2041-1723
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