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  • Biocontrol
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2012, Vol.361(1), pp.343-357
    Description: Co-inoculation of biocontrol agents with different modes of action is assumed to improve biocontrol activity. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of single or co-inoculation of Trichoderma viride strain GB7 and Serratia plymuthica strain 3Re4-18 on microbial communities in the rhizosphere of lettuce and their ability to suppress Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB.Growth chamber experiments with two different application modes were performed with single or co-inoculation of GB7 and 3Re4-18 in the presence or absence of R. solani. Biocontrol efficacy and plant growth parameters were assessed. Bacterial and fungal communities were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene and ITS fragments PCR-amplified from total community DNA of rhizosphere samples and analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.Compared to the single application, the co-inoculation of 3Re4-18 and GB7 resulted in an improved biocontrol efficacy. DGGE analysis revealed more pronounced effect on microbial community in co-inoculation treatment. The abundance of 3Re4-18 in the rhizosphere seemed to be increased in the presence of R. solani.The applied cultivation-independent methods provided insights into the complex interaction in response to the pathogen and the antagonists. Co-inoculation resulted in an improved biocontrol efficacy and an increased evenness of the microbial communities.
    Keywords: Biocontrol ; Co-inoculation ; Rhizosphere community ; 16S rRNA gene and ITS-based fingerprints
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2013, Vol.97(3), pp.1361-1371
    Description: Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a serious threat for agricultural production in China. Eight soil bacterial isolates with activity against R. solanacearum TM15 (biovar 3) were tested in this study for their in vitro activity towards ten genetically diverse R. solanacearum isolates from China. The results indicated that each antagonist showed remarkable differences in its ability to in vitro antagonize the ten different R. solanacearum strains. Strain XY21 (based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing affiliated to Serratia ) was selected for further studies based on its in vitro antagonistic activity and its excellent rhizocompetence on tomato plants. Under greenhouse conditions XY21 mediated biocontrol of tomato wilt caused by seven different R. solanacearum strains ranged from 19 to 70 %. The establishment of XY21 and its effects on the bacterial community in the tomato rhizosphere were monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments PCR-amplified from total community DNA. A positive correlation of the in vitro antagonistic activities of XY21 and the actual biocontrol efficacies towards seven genetically different R. solanacearum strains was found and further confirmed by the efficacy of XY21 in controlling bacterial wilt under field conditions.
    Keywords: Ralstonia solanacearum ; Biocontrol ; sp. ; Rhizocompetence ; Pathogen diversity ; DGGE
    ISSN: 0175-7598
    E-ISSN: 1432-0614
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in microbiology, 2014, Vol.5, pp.491
    Description: To study plant-associated microorganisms has a long history that reaches back to Lorenz Hiltner's definition of the rhizosphere in 1904 (Hartmann et al., 2008). Today, we know that microorganisms colonizing plant surfaces and inner tissues play an eminent role in shaping of our planet—from our natural vegetation to intense agricultural production systems up to human health. Plant-associated microorganisms have to be considered as key drivers for plant health, productivity, community composition, and ecosystem functioning.
    Keywords: FISH Technology ; Bacterial Communities ; Biocontrol ; Endophytes ; Omics Technologies ; Plant Microbiome ; Plant-Microbe Interaction ; Stress Control
    ISSN: 1664-302X
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Microbiology, 01 February 2018, Vol.9
    Description: Biocontrol inoculants often show inconsistency in their efficacy at field scale and the reason for this remains often unclear. A high rhizosphere competence of inoculant strains is assumed to be a key factor for successful biocontrol effects as the biocontrol strain has to compete with the indigenous microbial community in the rhizosphere. It is known that many factors, among them plant species and soil type shape the rhizosphere microbial community composition. However, microbial community composition in the rhizosphere can also be influenced by the presence of a pathogen. We hypothesized that plant species, soil type, and a pathogen affect the rhizosphere competence of a biocontrol strain and its biocontrol effect against a soil-borne pathogen. To test the hypothesis, we used an experimental plot system with three soil types (diluvial sand, alluvial loam, loess loam) kept under similar agricultural management at the same field site for 12 years. We investigate the rhizosphere competence of Pseudomonas sp. RU47 in two plant species (potato and lettuce) and its biocontrol effect against Rhizoctonia diseases. The colonization density of a rifampicin resistant mutant of RU47 in the rhizosphere of both crops was evaluated by plate counts. Bacterial community compositions were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA. The inoculant RU47 was able to colonize the rhizosphere of both model crops in a sufficient density and to reduce disease severity of black scurf on potato and bottom rot on lettuce in all three soils. DGGE indicated that RU47 affected the bacterial community composition stronger in the rhizosphere of lettuce than in the potato rhizosphere. In contrast, the effect of the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani on the bacterial community was much stronger in the rhizosphere of potato than in the lettuce rhizosphere. A significant effect of RU47 on the Pseudomonas-specific gacA fingerprints of the rhizosphere was only observed in lettuce in alluvial soil. The soil type and plant species independent biocontrol effects of RU47 and its minor influence on the indigenous bacterial community composition might be important criteria for the registration and use of RU47 as biocontrol strain.
    Keywords: Rhizoctonia Solani ; Plant Health ; Biocontrol ; Plant Disease ; Bacterial Community ; Dgge ; Biology
    E-ISSN: 1664-302X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in microbiology, 2014, Vol.5, pp.148
    Description: Most eukaryotes develop close interactions with microorganisms that are essential for their performance and survival. Thus, eukaryotes and prokaryotes in nature can be considered as meta-organisms or holobionts. Consequently, microorganisms that colonize different plant compartments contain the plant's second genome. In this respect, many studies in the last decades have shown that plant-microbe interactions are not only crucial for better understanding plant growth and health, but also for sustainable crop production in a changing world. This mini-review acting as editorial presents retrospectives and future perspectives for plant microbiome studies as well as information gaps in this emerging research field. In addition, the contribution of this research topic to the solution of various issues is discussed.
    Keywords: Biocontrol ; Meta-Organisms ; Plant Growth Promotion ; Plant Microbiome ; Plant-Microbe Interaction ; Stress Protection
    ISSN: 1664-302X
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  • 6
    In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 2014, Vol. 90(3), pp.718-730
    Description: Bacterial biocontrol strains used as an alternative to chemical fungicides may influence bacterial communities in the rhizosphere and effects might differ depending on the soil type. Here we present baseline data on the effects of Pseudomonas jessenii RU47 on the bacterial community composition in the rhizosphere of lettuce grown in diluvial sand, alluvial loam and loess loam at the same field site. 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. DGGE fingerprints revealed that in three consecutive years (2010–2012) RU47 had a slight but statistically significant effect on the bacterial community composition in one (2010), two (2011) or all the three soils (2012). However, these effects were much less pronounced compared with the influence of soil types. Additional pyrosequence analysis of samples from 2011 showed that significant changes in bacterial community compositions in response to RU47 inoculation occurred only in alluvial loam. Different taxonomic groups responded to the RU47 application depending on the soil type. Most remarkable was the increased relative abundance of OTUs belonging to the genera Bacillus and Paenibacillus in alluvial loam. Pyrosequencing allowed side-effects of the application of bacterial inoculants into the rhizosphere to be identified. The introduction of the potential biocontrol inoculant Pseudomonas jessenii RU47 into three soil types at the same field site had a negligible effect on the bacterial community in the rhizosphere of field-grown lettuce. The introduction of the potential biocontrol inoculant Pseudomonas jessenii RU47 into three soil types at the same field site had a negligible effect on the bacterial community in the rhizosphere of field-grown lettuce.
    Keywords: 16s Rrna Gene ; Biocontrol ; Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis ; Ru47 ; Pyrosequencing ; Total Community Dna
    ISSN: 01686496
    E-ISSN: 1574-6941
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Biotechnology, 10 September 2018, Vol.281, pp.183-192
    Description: sp. RU47 (RU47) is a rhizosphere-competent strain showing plant growth-promoting and biocontrol activities. In this study, the genome sequence of strain RU47 was obtained and phylogenetic and comparative genome analyses were performed. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) coupled with the calculation of average nucleotide identity (ANI) and DNA–DNA hybridization (DDH) values suggested that strain RU47 belongs to the group of the complex, but cannot be assigned to any known species. Multiple genes and operons encoding functions that likely contribute to its previously reported high rhizosphere competence, biocontrol of and plant growth promotion in soils with reduced fertilization were identified. Putative genes and gene clusters for the production of hydrogen cyanide, cyclic lipopeptides, bacteriocins, siderophores, indole-3-acetic acid, spermidine, alkaline protease A, chitinase and ß-1,3-glucanase were identified, as well as loci associated with solubilization of inorganic phosphate. Several of these functions were also confirmed by testing. Distribution of putative genes and gene clusters that may contribute to the plant growth-promoting and biocontrol activities was largely similar among strains belonging to group, as revealed by comparative genome analysis. Data presented in this study further support the potential of RU47 for its application in agriculture and may be a valuable resource for further studies.
    Keywords: Plant Beneficial ; Pseudomonas ; Biocontrol ; Genome Sequence ; P. Koreensis Group ; Comparative Genomics ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0168-1656
    E-ISSN: 1873-4863
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  • 8
    In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 2017, Vol. 93(5)
    Description: The microbiome of plants plays a crucial role in both plant and ecosystem health. Rapid advances in multi-omics tools are dramatically increasing access to the plant microbiome and consequently to the identification of its links with diseases and to the control of those diseases. Recent insights reveal a close, often symbiotic relationship between microorganisms and plants. Microorganisms can stimulate germination and plant growth, prevent diseases, and promote stress resistance and general fitness. Plants and their associated microorganisms form a holobiont and have to be considered as co-evolved species assemblages consisting of bacterial, archaeal and diverse eukaryotic species. The beneficial interplay of the host and its microbiome is responsible for maintaining the health of the holobiont, while diseases are often correlated with microbial dysbioses. Microbial diversity was identified as a key factor in preventing diseases and can be implemented as a biomarker in plant protection strategies. Targeted and predictive biocontrol approaches are possible by developing microbiome-based solutions. Moreover, combined breeding and biocontrol strategies maintaining diversity and ecosystem health are required. The analysis of plant microbiome data has brought about a paradigm shift in our understanding of its role in health and disease and has substantial consequences for biocontrol and health issues. To our opinion, new insights into the plant microbiome have brought about a paradigm shift in our understanding of its role in health and disease and have substantial consequences for biocontrol and health issues.
    Keywords: Plant - Associated Diversity ; Plant Microbiome ; Plant Pathogens ; Biocontrol ; Plant Protection ; Breeding
    E-ISSN: 1574-6941
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2007, Vol.39(11), pp.2818-2828
    Description: A cultivation-based approach was used to determine the antagonistic potential of soil bacteria towards AG3 and f. sp. (Foln3). Four composite soil samples were collected from four agricultural sites with previous documentation of disease suppression, located in France (FR), the Netherlands (NL), Sweden (SE) and the United Kingdom (UK). Similarly, two sites from Germany (Berlin, G-BR; and Braunschweig, G-BS) without documentation of disease suppression were sampled. Total bacterial counts were determined by plating serial dilutions from the composite soil samples onto R2A, AGS and King's B media. A total of 1,788 isolates (approximately 100 isolates per medium and site) was screened for antifungal activity, and antagonists (327 isolates) were found amongst the dominant culturable bacteria isolated from all six soils. The overall proportion of antagonists and the number of isolates with inhibitory activity against were highest in three of the suppressive soils (FR, NL and SE). Characterization of antagonistic bacteria revealed a high phenotypic and genotypic diversity. Siderophore and protease activity were the most prominent phenotypic traits amongst the antagonists. The composition and diversity of antagonists in each soil was site-specific. Nevertheless, none of the antimicrobial traits of bacteria potentially contributing to soil suppressiveness analyzed in this study could be regarded as specific to a given site.
    Keywords: Suppressive Soils ; Biocontrol ; Rhizoctonia Solani ; Fusarium Oxysporum ; Siderophores ; Lytic Enzymes ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 2018, Vol.125(2), pp.121-125
    Description: In their opinion paper "The unpredictable risk imposed by microbial secondary metabolites: how safe is biological control of plant diseases?" (J. Plant Dis. Prot. 124, 413-419; https://doi.org/10.1007/s41348-017-0109-5 ), H.B. Deising, I. Gase and Y. Kubo criticize the use of microbial pesticides in plant protection. They point to the ability of microorganisms to form toxic metabolites and fear severe health problems when antagonistic microorganisms are increasingly released into agro-ecosystems. In our opinion, this view fails to reflect the reality because it largely ignores the ecology of microorganisms. In this contribution, we state reasons why biocontrol of plant diseases is a safe technology.
    Keywords: Biocontrol ; Safety ; Registration ; Metabolites
    ISSN: 1861-3829
    E-ISSN: 1861-3837
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