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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Applied and environmental microbiology, August 2012, Vol.78(16), pp.5520-8
    Description: Mangroves are complex ecosystems that regulate nutrient and sediment fluxes to the open sea. The importance of bacteria and fungi in regulating nutrient cycles has led to an interest in their diversity and composition in mangroves. However, very few studies have assessed Archaea in mangroves, and virtually nothing is known about whether mangrove rhizospheres affect archaeal diversity and composition. Here, we studied the diversity and composition of Archaea in mangrove bulk sediment and the rhizospheres of two mangrove trees, Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa, using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing of archaeal 16S rRNA genes with a nested-amplification approach. DGGE profiles revealed significant structural differences between bulk sediment and rhizosphere samples, suggesting that roots of both mangrove species influence the sediment archaeal community. Nearly all of the detected sequences obtained with pyrosequencing were identified as Archaea, but most were unclassified at the level of phylum or below. Archaeal richness was, furthermore, the highest in the L. racemosa rhizosphere, intermediate in bulk sediment, and the lowest in the R. mangle rhizosphere. This study shows that rhizosphere microhabitats of R. mangle and L. racemosa, common plants in subtropical mangroves located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, hosted distinct archaeal assemblages.
    Keywords: Biodiversity ; DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic ; Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis ; Archaea -- Classification ; Combretaceae -- Microbiology ; Plant Roots -- Microbiology ; Rhizophoraceae -- Microbiology
    ISSN: 00992240
    E-ISSN: 1098-5336
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2013, Vol.8(3), p.e59497
    Description: Natural scrublands in semi-arid deserts are increasingly being converted into fields. This results in losses of characteristic flora and fauna, and may also affect microbial diversity. In the present study, the long-term effect (50 years) of such a transition on soil bacterial communities was explored at two sites typical of semi-arid deserts. Comparisons were made between soil samples from alfalfa fields and the adjacent scrublands by two complementary methods based on 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses revealed significant effects of the transition on community composition of Bacteria, Actinobacteria, Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria at both sites. PhyloChip hybridization analysis uncovered that the transition negatively affected taxa such as Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidimicrobiales, Rubrobacterales, Deltaproteobacteria and Clostridia, while Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria increased in abundance. Redundancy analysis suggested that the community composition of phyla responding to agricultural use (except for Spirochaetes) correlated with soil parameters that were significantly different between the agricultural and scrubland soil. The arable soils were lower in organic matter and phosphate concentration, and higher in salinity. The variation in the bacterial community composition was higher in soils from scrubland than from agriculture, as revealed by DGGE and PhyloChip analyses, suggesting reduced beta diversity due to agricultural practices. The long-term use for agriculture resulted in profound changes in the bacterial community and physicochemical characteristics of former scrublands, which may irreversibly affect the natural soil ecosystem.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2012, Vol.7(1), p.e29380
    Description: Here, we use DGGE fingerprinting and barcoded pyrosequencing data, at six cut-off levels (85-100%), of all bacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria to assess composition in the rhizosphere of nursery plants and nursery-raised transplants, native plants and bulk sediment in a mangrove habitat. When comparing compositional data based on DGGE fingerprinting and barcoded pyrosequencing at different cut-off levels, all revealed highly significant differences in composition among microhabitats. Procrustes superimposition revealed that ordination results using cut-off levels from 85-100% and DGGE fingerprint data were highly congruent with the standard 97% cut-off level. The various approaches revealed a primary gradient in composition from nursery to mangrove samples. The affinity between the nursery and transplants was greatest when using Betaproteobacteria followed by Alphaproteobacteria data. There was a distinct secondary gradient in composition from transplants to bulk sediment with native plants intermediate, which was most prevalent using all bacteria at intermediate cut-off levels (92-97%). Our results show that PCR-DGGE provides a robust and cost effective exploratory approach and is effective in distinguishing among a priori defined groups.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2010, Vol. 76(14), p.4765
    Description: A novel PCR primer system that targets a wide range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHD(alpha)) genes of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was developed and used to study their abundance and diversity in two different soils in response to phenanthrene spiking. The specificities and target ranges of the primers predicted in silico were confirmed experimentally by cloning and sequencing of PAH-RHD(alpha) gene amplicons from soil DNA. Cloning and sequencing showed the dominance of phnAc genes in the contaminated Luvisol. In contrast, high diversity of PAH-RHD(alpha) genes of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was observed in the phenanthrene-spiked Cambisol. Quantitative real-time PCR based on the same primers revealed that 63 days after phenanthrene spiking, PAH-RHD(alpha) genes were 1 order of magnitude more abundant in the Luvisol than in the Cambisol, while they were not detected in both control soils. In conclusion, sequence analysis of the amplicons obtained confirmed the specificity of the novel primer system and revealed a soil type-dependent response of PAH-RHD(alpha) gene-carrying soil bacteria to phenanthrene spiking.
    Keywords: Biodiversity ; Metagenome ; Soil Microbiology ; Bacteria -- Classification ; Bacterial Proteins -- Genetics ; Dioxygenases -- Genetics ; Phenanthrenes -- Metabolism;
    ISSN: 0099-2240
    ISSN: 00992240
    E-ISSN: 10985336
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  • 5
    In: PLoS ONE, 2014, Vol.9(9)
    Description: The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil is determined by a suite of biotic and abiotic factors, and disentangling their role in the complex soil interaction network remains challenging. Here, we investigate the influence of soil composition on the microbial community structure and its response to the spiked model PAH compound phenanthrene and plant litter. We used long-term matured artificial soils differing in type of clay mineral (illite, montmorillonite) and presence of charcoal or ferrihydrite. The soils received an identical soil microbial fraction and were incubated for more than two years with two sterile manure additions. The matured artificial soils and a natural soil were subjected to the following spiking treatments: (I) phenanthrene, (II) litter, (III) litter + phenanthrene, (IV) unspiked control. Total community DNA was extracted from soil sampled on the day of spiking, 7, 21, and 63 days after spiking. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer amplicons were quantified by qPCR and subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DGGE analysis revealed that the bacterial community composition, which was strongly shaped by clay minerals after more than two years of incubation, changed in response to spiked phenanthrene and added litter. DGGE and qPCR showed that soil composition significantly influenced the microbial response to spiking. While fungal communities responded only in presence of litter to phenanthrene spiking, the response of the bacterial communities to phenanthrene was less pronounced when litter was present. Interestingly, microbial communities in all artificial soils were more strongly affected by spiking than in the natural soil, which might indicate the importance of higher microbial diversity to compensate perturbations. This study showed the influence of soil composition on the microbiota and their response to phenanthrene and litter, which may increase our understanding of complex interactions in soils for bioremediation applications.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    In: PLoS ONE, 2013, Vol.8(4)
    Description: Background The development of Tuber melanosporum mycorrhizal symbiosis is associated with the production of an area devoid of vegetation (commonly referred to by the French word ‘brûlé’) around the symbiotic plants and where the fruiting bodies of T. melanosporum are usually collected. The extent of the ecological impact of such an area is still being discovered. While the relationship between T. melanosporum and the other fungi present in the brûlé has been assessed, no data are available on the relationship between this fungus and the bacteria inhabiting the brûlé. Methodology/Principal Findings We used DGGE and DNA microarrays of 16S rRNA gene fragments to compare the bacterial and archaeal communities inside and outside of truffle brûlés. Soil samples were collected in 2008 from four productive T. melanosporum/Quercus pubescens truffle-grounds located in Cahors, France, showing characteristic truffle brûlé. All the samples were analyzed by DGGE and one truffle-ground was analyzed also using phylogenetic microarrays. DGGE profiles showed differences in the bacterial community composition, and the microarrays revealed a few differences in relative richness between the brûlé interior and exterior zones, as well as differences in the relative abundance of several taxa. Conclusions/Significance The different signal intensities we have measured for members of bacteria and archaea inside versus outside the brûlé are the first demonstration, to our knowledge, that not only fungal communities, but also other microorganisms are affected by T. melanosporum . Firmicutes (e.g., Bacillus ), several genera of Actinobacteria , and a few Cyanobacteria had greater representation inside the brûlé compared with outside, whereas Pseudomonas and several genera within the class Flavobacteriaceae had higher relative abundances outside the brûlé. The findings from this study may contribute to future searches for microbial bio-indicators of brûlés.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Earth Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    In: Microbial Biotechnology, November 2014, Vol.7(6), pp.487-495
    Description: The highly diverse microbiomes of vegetables are reservoirs for opportunistic and emerging pathogens. In recent years, an increased consumption, larger scale production and more efficient distribution of vegetables together with an increased number of immunocompromised individuals resulted in an enhanced number of documented outbreaks of human infections associated with the consumption of vegetables. Here we discuss the occurrence of potential pathogens in vegetable microbiomes, the impact of farming and processing practices, and plant and human health issues. Based on these results, we discuss the question if vegetables can serve as a source of infection for immunocompromised individuals as well as possible solutions to avoid outbreaks. Moreover, the potentially positive aspects of the vegetables microbiome for the gut microbiota and human health are presented. We discuss the occurrence of potential pathogens in vegetable microbiomes, the impact of farming and processing practices, and plant and human health issues.
    Keywords: Engineering;
    ISSN: 1751-7915
    E-ISSN: 1751-7915
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Microbiological Methods, 2010, Vol.80(1), pp.63-69
    Description: and its teleomorphic stage play a key role for ecosystem functioning in terrestrial habitats. However, little is known about the ecology of the fungus. In this study we developed a novel -specific primer pair for diversity analysis. Based on a broad range master alignment, specific primers (ITS F/ITS R) were designed that comprise an approximate 650 bp fragment of the internal transcribed spacer region from all taxonomic clades of the genus This amplicon is suitable for identification with Key and BLAST. Moreover, this primer system was successfully applied to study the communities in the rhizosphere of different potato genotypes grown at two field sites in Germany. Cloning and sequencing confirmed the specificity of the primer and revealed a site-dependent composition. Based on the new primer system a semi-nested approach was used to generate amplicons suitable for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and applied to analyse communities in the rhizosphere of potatoes. High field heterogeneity of communities was revealed by both DGGE. Furthermore, qPCR showed significantly different copy numbers between the sites
    Keywords: Trichoderma ; Its Region ; Diversity ; Rhizosphere ; Biology
    ISSN: 0167-7012
    E-ISSN: 1872-8359
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  • 9
    In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 2011, Vol. 75(3), pp.507-519
    Description: Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a serious threat to crop production in China. A collection of 319 R. solanacearum strains isolated from 14 different diseased host plants collected in 15 Chinese provinces was investigated by BOX fingerprints in order to test the influence of the site and the host plant on their genetic diversity. Phylotype, fliC -RFLP patterns and biovar were determined for all strains and the sequevar for 39 representative strains. The majority of strains belonged to the Asian phylotype I, shared identical fliC -RFLP patterns and were assigned to four biovars (bv3:123; bv4:162; bv5:3; and bv6:11). Twenty strains were phylotype II, assigned to biovar 2, and had distinct fliC -RFLP patterns. BOX-PCR fingerprints generated from the genomic DNA of each strain revealed a high diversity of the phylotype I strains, where 28 types of BOX fingerprints could be distinguished. While many BOX clusters comprised isolates from different provinces and several host plants, some groups contained isolates that were plant or site specific. All phylotype II isolates originating from 10 provinces belonged to sequevar 1 and displayed identical BOX patterns as the potato brown rot strains from various regions of the world.
    Keywords: 〈Kwd〉〈Italic〉Ralstonia Solanacearum〈/Italic〉〈/Kwd〉 ; Genetic Diversity ; Box Fingerprints ; Host Plants ; Biogeography
    ISSN: 01686496
    E-ISSN: 1574-6941
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Microbiology (Reading, England), November 2013, Vol.159(Pt 11), pp.2303-15
    Description: Broad-host-range plasmids play a critical role in the spread of antibiotic resistance and other traits. In spite of increasing information about the genomic diversity of closely related plasmids, the relationship between sequence divergence and host range remains unclear. IncP-1 plasmids are currently classified into six subgroups based on the genetic distance of backbone genes. We investigated whether plasmids from two subgroups exhibit a different host range, using two IncP-1γ plasmids, an IncP-1β plasmid and their minireplicons. Efficiencies of plasmid establishment and maintenance were compared using five species that belong to the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. The IncP-1β plasmid replicated and persisted in all five hosts in the absence of selection. Of the two IncP-1γ plasmids, both were unable to replicate in alphaproteobacterial host Sphingobium japonicum, and one established itself in Agrobacterium tumefaciens but was very unstable. In contrast, both IncP-1γ minireplicons, which produced higher levels of replication initiation protein than the wild-type plasmids, replicated in all strains, suggesting that poor establishment of the native plasmids is in part due to suboptimal replication initiation gene regulation. The findings suggest that host ranges of distinct IncP-1 plasmids only partially overlap, which may limit plasmid recombination and thus result in further genome divergence.
    Keywords: Host Specificity ; Plasmids ; Alphaproteobacteria -- Genetics ; Betaproteobacteria -- Genetics ; Gammaproteobacteria -- Genetics
    ISSN: 13500872
    E-ISSN: 1465-2080
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