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  • Doerr, Hans  (7)
  • Cinatl, J.
  • Biology
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(5), p.e36506
    Description: Oncolytic influenza A viruses with deleted NS1 gene (delNS1) replicate selectively in tumour cells with defective interferon response and/or activated Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signalling pathway. To develop a delNS1 virus with specific immunostimulatory properties, we used an optimised technology to insert the interleukin-15 (IL-15) coding sequence into the viral NS gene segment (delNS1-IL-15). DelNS1 and delNS1-IL-15 exerted similar oncolytic effects. Both viruses replicated and caused caspase-dependent apoptosis in interferon-defective melanoma cells. Virus replication was required for their oncolytic activity. Cisplatin enhanced the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses. The cytotoxic drug increased delNS1 replication and delNS1-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. Interference with MEK/ERK signalling by RNAi-mediated depletion or the MEK inhibitor U0126 did not affect the oncolytic effects of the delNS1 viruses. In oncolysis sensitive melanoma cells, delNS1-IL-15 (but not delNS1) infection resulted in the production of IL-15 levels ranging from 70 to 1140 pg/mL in the cell culture supernatants. The supernatants of delNS1-IL-15-infected (but not of delNS1-infected) melanoma cells induced primary human natural killer cell-mediated lysis of non-infected tumour cells. In conclusion, we constructed a novel oncolytic influenza virus that combines the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses with immunostimulatory properties through production of functional IL-15. Moreover, we showed that the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses can be enhanced in combination with cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Virology ; Infectious Diseases ; Molecular Biology ; Oncology ; Dermatology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 2011, Vol.68(6), pp.1079-1090
    Description: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. Here, non-toxic concentrations of the anti-cancer kinase inhibitor sorafenib were shown to inhibit replication of different HCMV strains (including a ganciclovir-resistant strain) in different cell types. In contrast to established anti-HCMV drugs, sorafenib inhibited HCMV major immediate early promoter activity and HCMV immediate early antigen (IEA) expression. Sorafenib is known to inhibit Raf. Comparison of sorafenib with the MEK inhibitor U0126 suggested that sorafenib inhibits HCMV IEA expression through inhibition of Raf but independently of signaling through the Raf downstream kinase MEK 1/2. In concordance, siRNA-mediated depletion of Raf but not of MEK-reduced IEA expression. In conclusion, sorafenib diminished HCMV replication in clinically relevant concentrations and inhibited HCMV IEA expression, a pathophysiologically relevant event that is not affected by established anti-HCMV drugs. Moreover, we demonstrated for the first time that Raf activation is involved in HCMV IEA expression.
    Keywords: Human cytomegalovirus ; Sorafenib ; Kinase inhibitor ; Raf ; Immediate early antigen ; Cancer chemotherapy ; Oncomodulation ; Antiviral therapy
    ISSN: 1420-682X
    E-ISSN: 1420-9071
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  • 3
    In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2008, Vol. 46(6), p.2122
    Description: Here we describe for the first time the productive in vitro infection of human retinal pigment epithelial cells by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), resulting in a typical cytopathic effect (CPE) that is characterized by enlarged cells with increased granularity. Depending on the CPE dissemination, high titers of up to 1.6 x 10 super(6) PFU of cell-free and cryostable VZV/ml can be recovered.
    Keywords: Retinal Pigment Epithelium ; Retina ; Replication ; Pigments ; Infection ; Varicella-Zoster Virus ; Replication;
    ISSN: 0095-1137
    ISSN: 00951137
    E-ISSN: 1098660X
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  • 4
    In: The Journal of Virology, 2004, Vol. 78(17), p.9007
    Description: The worldwide outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was shown to be associated with a novel coronavirus (CoV) now called SARS CoV. We report here the generation of SARS CoV S protein-pseudotyped murine leukemia virus (MLV) vector particles. The wild-type S protein pseudotyped MLV vectors, although at a low efficiency. Partial deletion of the cytoplasmic tail of S dramatically increased infectivity of pseudotypes, with titers only two- to threefold lower than those of pseudotypes generated in parallel with the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein. S-pseudotyped MLV particles were used to analyze viral tropism. MLV(SARS) pseudotypes and wild-type SARS CoV displayed similar cell types and tissue and host restrictions, indicating that the expression of a functional receptor is the major restraint in permissiveness to SARS CoV infection. Efficient gene transfer could be detected in Vero and CaCo2 cells, whereas the level of gene marking of 293T, HeLa, and HepG2 cells was only slightly above background levels. A cat cell line and a dog cell line were not susceptible. Interestingly, PK-15, a porcine kidney cell line, and primary porcine kidney cells were also highly permissive for SARS S pseudotypes and wild-type SARS CoV. This finding suggests that swine may be susceptible to SARS infection and may be a source for infection of humans. Taken together, these results indicate that MLV(SARS) pseudotypes are highly valuable for functional studies of viral tropism and entry and, in addition, can be a powerful tool for the development of therapeutic entry inhibitors without posing a biohazard to human beings.
    Keywords: Sars Coronavirus ; Murine Leukemia Virus ; Vesicular Stomatitis Virus ; Sars Coronavirus ; Murine Leukemia Virus ; Vesicular Stomatitis Virus ; Expression Vectors ; Infection ; Host Range ; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome ; Kidney ; Tropism ; Leukemia ; Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Protein ; Gene Transfer ; Deletion ; Tails ; Infectivity ; Vesicular Stomatitis ; Background Levels ; Expression Vectors ; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome ; Kidney ; Tropism ; Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Protein ; Gene Transfer ; Deletion ; Infectivity ; Viral Genetics Including Virus Reactivation ; Cloning Vectors ; S Protein ; S Protein;
    ISSN: 0022-538X
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 10985514
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Cancer, 01 September 2009, Vol.8(1), p.80
    Description: Abstract Background Chemoresistance acquisition may influence cancer cell biology. Here, bioinformatics analysis of gene expression data was used to identify chemoresistance-associated changes in neuroblastoma biology. Results Bioinformatics analysis of gene expression data revealed that expression of angiogenesis-associated genes significantly differs between chemosensitive and chemoresistant neuroblastoma cells. A subsequent systematic analysis of a panel of 14 chemosensitive and chemoresistant neuroblastoma cell lines in vitro and in animal experiments indicated a consistent shift to a more pro-angiogenic phenotype in chemoresistant neuroblastoma cells. The molecular mechanims underlying increased pro-angiogenic activity of neuroblastoma cells are individual and differ between the investigated chemoresistant cell lines. Treatment of animals carrying doxorubicin-resistant neuroblastoma xenografts with doxorubicin, a cytotoxic drug known to exert anti-angiogenic activity, resulted in decreased tumour vessel formation and growth indicating chemoresistance-associated enhanced pro-angiogenic activity to be relevant for tumour progression and to represent a potential therapeutic target. Conclusion A bioinformatics approach allowed to identify a relevant chemoresistance-associated shift in neuroblastoma cell biology. The chemoresistance-associated enhanced pro-angiogenic activity observed in neuroblastoma cells is relevant for tumour progression and represents a potential therapeutic target.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology
    ISSN: 1476-4598
    E-ISSN: 1476-4598
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Animal, 1992, Vol.28(3), pp.147-148
    Keywords: Biological sciences -- Biology -- Cytology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Cytology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Cytology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Cytology ; Applied sciences -- Laboratory techniques -- Culture techniques ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds;
    ISSN: 0883-8364
    E-ISSN: 1543-706X
    E-ISSN: 2327431X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology, 1990, Vol.26(9), pp.841-842
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 0883-8364
    E-ISSN: 1475-2689
    E-ISSN: 2327431X
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