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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Trends in Molecular Medicine, 2011, Vol.17(8), pp.433-441
    Description: Malignant gliomas (MGs) are deadly brain tumors with a median survival after resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy of only 12 months. The natural immunosuppressive state of MG patients and the locally restricted growth of MGs render this neoplasm an excellent target for immunotherapy. Consequently, several failed attempts were made to treat MGs with immune cells. Recent preclinical experimental studies, however, demonstrate that natural killer (NK) cells can kill MGs and therefore hold promise in immunotherapy of MGs. This review describes the experimental and clinical evidence that support the potential of NK cells in therapy of MGs as well as the limitations to NK therapy. Finally, we propose strategies that could circumvent mitigating factors and enhance NK cell therapy for MG patients.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology
    ISSN: 1471-4914
    E-ISSN: 1471-499X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(5), p.e36506
    Description: Oncolytic influenza A viruses with deleted NS1 gene (delNS1) replicate selectively in tumour cells with defective interferon response and/or activated Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signalling pathway. To develop a delNS1 virus with specific immunostimulatory properties, we used an optimised technology to insert the interleukin-15 (IL-15) coding sequence into the viral NS gene segment (delNS1-IL-15). DelNS1 and delNS1-IL-15 exerted similar oncolytic effects. Both viruses replicated and caused caspase-dependent apoptosis in interferon-defective melanoma cells. Virus replication was required for their oncolytic activity. Cisplatin enhanced the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses. The cytotoxic drug increased delNS1 replication and delNS1-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. Interference with MEK/ERK signalling by RNAi-mediated depletion or the MEK inhibitor U0126 did not affect the oncolytic effects of the delNS1 viruses. In oncolysis sensitive melanoma cells, delNS1-IL-15 (but not delNS1) infection resulted in the production of IL-15 levels ranging from 70 to 1140 pg/mL in the cell culture supernatants. The supernatants of delNS1-IL-15-infected (but not of delNS1-infected) melanoma cells induced primary human natural killer cell-mediated lysis of non-infected tumour cells. In conclusion, we constructed a novel oncolytic influenza virus that combines the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses with immunostimulatory properties through production of functional IL-15. Moreover, we showed that the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses can be enhanced in combination with cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Virology ; Infectious Diseases ; Molecular Biology ; Oncology ; Dermatology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 2011, Vol.68(6), pp.1079-1090
    Description: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. Here, non-toxic concentrations of the anti-cancer kinase inhibitor sorafenib were shown to inhibit replication of different HCMV strains (including a ganciclovir-resistant strain) in different cell types. In contrast to established anti-HCMV drugs, sorafenib inhibited HCMV major immediate early promoter activity and HCMV immediate early antigen (IEA) expression. Sorafenib is known to inhibit Raf. Comparison of sorafenib with the MEK inhibitor U0126 suggested that sorafenib inhibits HCMV IEA expression through inhibition of Raf but independently of signaling through the Raf downstream kinase MEK 1/2. In concordance, siRNA-mediated depletion of Raf but not of MEK-reduced IEA expression. In conclusion, sorafenib diminished HCMV replication in clinically relevant concentrations and inhibited HCMV IEA expression, a pathophysiologically relevant event that is not affected by established anti-HCMV drugs. Moreover, we demonstrated for the first time that Raf activation is involved in HCMV IEA expression.
    Keywords: Human cytomegalovirus ; Sorafenib ; Kinase inhibitor ; Raf ; Immediate early antigen ; Cancer chemotherapy ; Oncomodulation ; Antiviral therapy
    ISSN: 1420-682X
    E-ISSN: 1420-9071
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(4), p.e18577
    Description: H5N1 influenza vaccines, including live intranasal, appear to be relatively less immunogenic compared to seasonal analogs. The main influenza virus surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) was shown to be more susceptible to acidic pH treatment than that of human or low pathogenic avian influenza viruses. The acidification machinery of the human nasal passageway in response to different irritation factors starts to release protons acidifying the mucosal surface (down to pH of 5.2). We hypothesized that the sensitivity of H5 HA to the acidic environment might be the reason for the low infectivity and immunogenicity of intranasal H5N1 vaccines for mammals. ; We demonstrate that original human influenza viruses infect primary human nasal epithelial cells at acidic pH (down to 5.4), whereas H5N1 HPAIVs lose infectivity at pH≤5.6. The HA of A/Vietnam/1203/04 was modified by introducing the single substitution HA2 58K→I, decreasing the pH of the HA conformational change. The H5N1 reassortants containing the indicated mutation displayed an increased resistance to acidic pH and high temperature treatment compared to those lacking modification. The mutation ensured a higher viral uptake as shown by immunohistochemistry in the respiratory tract of mice and 25 times lower mouse infectious dose. Moreover, the reassortants keeping 58K→I mutation designed as a live attenuated vaccine candidate lacking an NS1 gene induced superior systemic and local antibody response after the intranasal immunization of mice. ; Our finding suggests that an efficient intranasal vaccination with a live attenuated H5N1 virus may require a certain level of pH and temperature stability of HA in order to achieve an optimal virus uptake by the nasal epithelial cells and induce a sufficient immune response. The pH of the activation of the H5 HA protein may play a substantial role in the infectivity of HPAIVs for mammals.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Virology ; Immunology ; Infectious Diseases
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: BMC research notes, 28 September 2015, Vol.8, pp.484
    Description: Recently, we have shown that the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCB1 interferes with the anti-cancer activity of the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor tozasertib (VX680, MK-0457) but not of the aurora kinase A and B inhibitor alisertib (MLN8237). Preliminary data had suggested tozasertib also to be a substrate of the ABC transporter ABCG2, another ABC transporter potentially involved in cancer cell drug resistance. Here, we studied the effect of ABCG2 on the activity of tozasertib and alisertib. The tozasertib concentration that reduces cell viability by 50% (IC50) was dramatically increased in ABCG2-transduced UKF-NB-3(ABCG2) cells (48.8-fold) compared to UKF-NB-3 cells and vector-transduced control cells. The ABCG2 inhibitor WK-X-34 reduced tozasertib IC50 to the level of non-ABCG2-expressing UKF-NB-3 cells. Furthermore, ABCG2 depletion from UKF-NB-3(ABCG2) cells using another lentiviral vector expressing an shRNA against the bicistronic mRNA of ABCG2 and eGFP largely re-sensitised these cells to tozasertib. In contrast, alisertib activity was not affected by ABCG2 expression. Tozasertib but not alisertib activity is affected by ABCG2 expression. This should be considered within the design and analysis of experiments and clinical trials investigating these compounds.
    Keywords: ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters -- Metabolism ; Aurora Kinases -- Antagonists & Inhibitors ; Azepines -- Pharmacology ; Neoplasm Proteins -- Metabolism ; Piperazines -- Pharmacology ; Protein Kinase Inhibitors -- Pharmacology ; Pyrimidines -- Pharmacology
    E-ISSN: 1756-0500
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Biochemical Society transactions, August 2014, Vol.42(4), pp.752-7
    Description: Various experimental strategies aim to (re)activate p53 signalling in cancer cells. The most advanced clinically are small-molecule inhibitors of the autoregulatory interaction between p53 and MDM2 (murine double minute 2). Different MDM2 inhibitors are currently under investigation in clinical trials. As for other targeted anti-cancer therapy approaches, relatively rapid resistance acquisition may limit the clinical efficacy of MDM2 inhibitors. In particular, MDM2 inhibitors were shown to induce p53 mutations in experimental systems. In the present article, we summarize what is known about MDM2 inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs with a focus on the acquisition of resistance to these compounds.
    Keywords: Antineoplastic Agents -- Therapeutic Use ; Neoplasms -- Drug Therapy ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins C-Mdm2 -- Antagonists & Inhibitors
    ISSN: 03005127
    E-ISSN: 1470-8752
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  • 7
    In: BMC Research Notes, 2014, Vol.7, p.384-384
    Description: Background Different flavonoids are known to interfere with influenza A virus replication. Recently, we showed that the structurally similar flavonoids baicalein and biochanin A inhibit highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza A virus replication by different mechanisms in A549 lung cells. Here, we investigated the effects of both compounds on H5N1-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and the role of ROS formation during H5N1 replication. Findings Baicalein and biochanin A enhanced H5N1-induced ROS formation in A549 cells and primary human monocyte-derived macrophages. Suppression of ROS formation induced by baicalein and biochanin A using the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine strongly increased the anti-H5N1 activity of both compounds in A549 cells but not in macrophages. Conclusions These findings emphasise that flavonoids induce complex pharmacological actions some of which may interfere with H5N1 replication while others may support H5N1 replication. A more detailed understanding of these actions and the underlying structure-activity relationships is needed to design agents with optimised anti-H5N1 activity.
    Keywords: Short Report ; H5n1 ; Biochanin A ; Baicalein ; Antiviral ; Reactive Oxygen Species ; N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine
    E-ISSN: 1756-0500
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Antiviral Research, January 2013, Vol.97(1), pp.41-48
    Description: ► 22 Flavonoids were examined for activity against H5N1 influenza A viruses. ► Biochanin A and baicalein exerted the highest potency. ► Biochanin A and baicalein interfered with H5N1 replication. ► Biochanin A and baicalein interfered with virus-induced cytokine expression. ► Biochanin A and baicalein differ in their molecular antiviral mechanisms. From a panel of 22 flavonoids, we identified six compounds (apigenin, baicalein, biochanin A, kaempferol, luteolin, naringenin) that inhibited influenza A nucleoprotein production in human lung epithelial (A549) cells infected with the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus strain A/Thailand/Kan-1/04 in non-toxic concentrations. Baicalein ( : 18.79 ± 1.17 μM, selectivity index 5.82) and biochanin A ( 8.92 ± 1.87 μM, selectivity index 5.60) were selected for further experiments. Both compounds reduced H5N1 infectious titres (baicalein 40 μM: 29-fold reduction, biochanin A 40 μM: 55-fold reduction after infection at MOI 0.01), virus-induced caspase 3 cleavage, nuclear export of viral RNP complexes, and enhanced the effects of the neuraminidase inhibitor zanamivir. Biochanin A and baicalein also inhibited the replication of the H5N1 strain A/Vietnam/1203/04. Time of addition experiments indicated that both compounds interfere with H5N1 replication after the adsorption period. Further mechanistic investigations revealed clear differences between these two flavonoids. Only baicalein interfered with the viral neuraminidase activity (39 ± 7% inhibition at 100 μM, the maximum concentration tested). In contrast to baicalein, biochanin A affected cellular signalling pathways resulting in reduced virus-induced activation of AKT, ERK 1/2, and NF-kB. Moreover, biochanin A inhibited the virus-induced production of IL-6, IL-8, and IP-10 while baicalein inhibited IL-6 and IL-8 production without affecting IP-10 levels. In primary human monocyte-derived macrophages, only baicalein but not biochanin A impaired H5N1 virus replication. Both flavonoids interfered with the H5N1-induced production of IL-6, IP-10, and TNF-α but not of IL-8 in macrophages. These findings indicate that closely related flavonoids can exert anti-H5N1 effects by different molecular mechanisms.
    Keywords: H5n1 ; Biochanin A ; Baicalein ; Antiviral ; Anti-Inflammatory ; Flavonoid ; Medicine ; Biology
    ISSN: 0166-3542
    E-ISSN: 1872-9096
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of infectious diseases, 01 February 2010, Vol.201(3), pp.354-62
    Description: BACKGROUND. The nonstructural protein NS1 of influenza virus counteracts the interferon-mediated immune response of the host. By deleting the open reading frame of NS1, we have generated a novel type of influenza vaccine. We studied the safety and immunogenicity of an influenza strain lacking the NS1 gene (DeltaNS1-H1N1) in healthy volunteers. METHODS. Healthy seronegative adult volunteers were randomized to receive either a single intranasal dose of the DeltaNS1-H1N1 A/New Caledonia vaccine at 1 of 5 dose levels (6.4, 6.7, 7.0, 7.4, and 7.7 log(10) median tissue culture infective dose) (n = 36 recipients) or placebo (n = 12 recipients). RESULTS. Intranasal vaccination with the replication-deficient DeltaNS1-H1N1 vaccine was well tolerated. Rhinitis-like symptoms and headache were the most common adverse events identified during the 28-day observation period. Adverse events were similarly distributed between the treatment and placebo groups. Vaccine-specific local and serum antibodies were induced in a dose-dependent manner. In the highest dose group, vaccine-specific antibodies were detected in 10 of 12 volunteers. Importantly, the vaccine also induced neutralizing antibodies against heterologous drift variants. CONCLUSIONS. We show that vaccination with an influenza virus strain lacking the viral interferon antagonist NS1 induces statistically significant levels of strain-specific and cross-neutralizing antibodies despite the highly attenuated replication-deficient phenotype. Further studies are warranted to determine whether these results translate into protection from influenza virus infection. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00724997 .
    Keywords: Influenza A Virus, H1n1 Subtype -- Immunology ; Influenza Vaccines -- Immunology ; Influenza, Human -- Prevention & Control ; Vaccines, Attenuated -- Immunology ; Viral Nonstructural Proteins -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00221899
    E-ISSN: 1537-6613
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: BMC research notes, 10 October 2014, Vol.7, pp.710
    Description: Various kinase inhibitors are known to be ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter substrates and resistance acquisition to kinase inhibitors has been associated to increased ABC transporter expression. Here, we investigated the role of the ABC transporters ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCG2 during melanoma cell resistance acquisition to the V600-mutant BRAF inhibitors PLX4032 (vemurafenib) and PLX4720. PLX4032 had previously been shown to interfere with ABCB1 and ABCG2. PLX4720 had been demonstrated to interact with ABCB1 but to a lower extent than PLX4032. PLX4032 and PLX4720 affected ABCC1- and ABCG2-mediated drug transport in a similar fashion. In a panel of 16 V600E BRAF-mutated melanoma cell lines consisting of four parental cell lines and their sub-lines with acquired resistance to PLX4032, PLX4720, vincristine (cytotoxic ABCB1 and ABCC1 substrate), or mitoxantrone (cytotoxic ABCG2 substrate), we detected enhanced ABC transporter expression in 4/4 cytotoxic ABC transporter substrate-resistant, 3/4 PLX4720-resistant, and 1/4 PLX4032-resistant melanoma cell lines. PLX4032 has the potential to induce ABC transporter expression but this potential is lower than that of PLX4720 or cytotoxic ABC transporter substrates. Since ABC transporters confer multi-drug resistance, this is of relevance for the design of next-line therapies.
    Keywords: Drug Resistance, Multiple ; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm ; ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters -- Drug Effects ; Antineoplastic Agents -- Pharmacology ; Indoles -- Pharmacology ; Protein Kinase Inhibitors -- Pharmacology ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-Raf -- Antagonists & Inhibitors ; Sulfonamides -- Pharmacology
    E-ISSN: 1756-0500
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