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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, March 2013, Vol.66(3), pp.617-627
    Description: ► We provide the first exhaustive phylogeny of crocuses based on nuclear sequences. ► We reconstruct chromosome number evolution and polyploidization in . ► 8 out of 15 series of are monophyletic, as well as probably both sections. ► Chromosome numbers increased multiple times independently by polyploidization. ► Supernumerary B chromosomes evolved at least five times independently within consists of about 100 species distributed from western Europe and northern Africa to western China, with the center of diversity on the Balkan Peninsula and in Asia Minor. Our study focuses on clarifying phylogenetic relationships and chromosome number evolution within the genus using sequences of the chloroplast L-F region, the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, and a part of the nuclear single-copy gene . In a combined dataset of ITS and L-F sequences, 115 individuals representing 110 taxa from both subgenera and all sections and series of were analyzed with Bayesian phylogenetic inference. For 79 individuals representing 74 taxa were included, and for the majority of them PCR amplicons were cloned and up to eight clones per individual were sequenced to detect allopolyploidization events. species were included as outgroup in both analyses. Characteristics of seed surface structures were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS/ L-F data resulted in a monophyletic genus , probably monophyletic sections and , and inferred monophyly for eight of the 15 series of the genus. The aggregate, thought to be consisting of closely related subspecies, was found to be polyphyletic, the taxa occurring within three major clades in the phylogenetic tree. Cloning of resulted in the detection of homoeologous copies in about one third of the taxa of section , indicating an allotetraploid origin of this section. Reconstruction of chromosome number evolution along the phylogenetic tree using a probabilistic and a parsimony approach arrived at partly contradictory results. Both analyses agreed however on the occurrence of multiple polyploidization and dysploidy events. B chromosomes evolved at least five times independently within the genus, preferentially in clades characterized by karyotype changes.
    Keywords: B Chromosome ; Chromosome Number ; Crocus ; Evolution ; Internal Transcribed Spacer (Its) ; Pcosat103 ; Phylogeny ; Trnl-F ; Seed Testa ; Whole Genome Duplication ; Biology
    ISSN: 1055-7903
    E-ISSN: 1095-9513
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Biological Conservation, August 2017, Vol.212, pp.216-229
    Description: Responses of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) to climate change remain mostly unexplored. Here, for the first time, we investigate the impact of climate change on both presence/absence and abundances of hoverfly species. We used generalized linear models to analyse the relationships of climatic and soil variables with the occurrence and abundance of species on the Balkan Peninsula. Our results show that the ranges of all and the abundances of many species are projected to decrease in the future. Climatically suitable conditions for mountainous species are predicted to generally shift northwards. Species adapted to high mountains are projected to almost vanish from the Balkans and only regions of the Alps would remain suitable for them. We found climatic variables were more important in determining abundance than occurrence. Given that environmental factors differed in terms of their impact on abundance and occurrence, we highlight the importance of monitoring both parameters to ensure effective conservation. Considering the different projected responses of hoverflies to future climate change, as well as their value as pollinators and the increasing threats they currently face, knowledge on their responses to the major drivers of their life-histories is indispensable for proper management and conservation action. We reveal that nationally-designated protected areas are insufficient to conserve the species considered here, both currently and under projected climate change. We recommend implementation of an integrated conservation management plan that can provide a continuum of protected areas along the Dinaric mountain chain to facilitate movement of species to enhance species survival.
    Keywords: Abundance ; Climate Change ; Species Distribution Modeling ; Syrphids ; Pollinator Conservation ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0006-3207
    E-ISSN: 18732917
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, October 2018, Vol.127, pp.891-897
    Description: Phylogenetic relationships among the taxa of series are still unclear, preventing the understanding of species diversity and the evolution of the important spice saffron ( ). Therefore, we analyzed sequences of two chloroplast ( L- F, K- K) and three nuclear (TOPO6, ribosomal DNA ETS and ITS) marker regions to infer phylogenetic relationships among all species belonging to series . Our phylogenetic analyses resolved the relationships among all taxa of the series. and the former subspecies appeared polyphyletic. The latter deserve elevating the subspecies to species rank, while for a detailed study of species boundaries is necessary. Multi-locus and also genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data obtained through genotyping-by-sequencing placed within with no indication that other species contributed to the evolution of the triploid. Our analyses thus made an autotriploid origin of from very likely.
    Keywords: Crocus Series Crocus ; Evolution ; GBS ; Multi-Locus Analysis ; Phylogeny ; Saffron ; Biology
    ISSN: 1055-7903
    E-ISSN: 1095-9513
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 2006, Vol.41(3), pp.579-593
    Description: Molecular studies of 21 species of the large Cactaceae genus representing a variety of intrageneric taxonomic levels revealed a high degree of intra-individual polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2). Only a few of these ITS copies belong to apparently functional genes, whereas most are probably non-functional (pseudogenes). As a multiple gene family, the ITS region is subjected to concerted evolution. However, the high degree of intra-individual polymorphism of up to 36% in ITS1 and up to 35% in ITS2 suggests a non-concerted evolution of these loci in . Conserved angiosperm motifs of ITS1 and ITS2 were compared between genomic and cDNA ITS clones of . Some of these motifs (e.g., ITS1 motif 1, ‘TGGT’ within ITS2) in combination with the determination of GC-content, length comparisons of the spacers and ITS2 secondary structure (helices II and III) are helpful in the identification of pseudogene rDNA regions.
    Keywords: Internal Transcribed Spacer ; Non-Concerted Evolution ; Mammillaria ; Pseudogene ; Its Motifs ; Its2 Secondary Structure ; Biology
    ISSN: 1055-7903
    E-ISSN: 1095-9513
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Organisms Diversity & Evolution, 2011, Vol.11(5), pp.387-407
    Description: A new region of speciation for the genus Gagea (Liliaceae) was investigated (Bogda-Shan and Urumqi; northwestern Xinjiang, China). Two species were recorded as new for the region ( G. rufidula , G. davlianidzeae ); three species are described as new to science ( G. angelae, G. jensii and G. huochengensis ). The description of G. nigra is emendated. Sequence data (cpDNA: trn L- trn F IGS+ psb A- trn H IGS, nrDNA: ITS), including representatives of all Gagea sections, were used to compare the new species with closely related taxa. A nuclear single copy gene region (pCOS At 103) was analysed for representatives of the Sects. Minimae and Gagea . Network analysis of cpDNA and nDNA indicates hybridization and recent speciation in Xinjiang. ITS and pCOS At 103 sequences reveal gene flow between G. davlianidzeae and G. nigra . A cpDNA haplotype network constructed from representatives of Sect. Gagea was highly informative phylogenetically. Gagea angelae and G . huochengensis , sharing gene flow, are related closely to a basal clade represented by G. ancestralis , G. xiphoidea and G. capusii , which may include the putative progenitor of all other taxa of the large Eurasian Sect. Gagea . Whereas speciation in Sect. Minimae seems to be driven mainly by hybridization, speciation in the Sect. Gagea may be influenced by both hybridization and geographical separation. We confirm the monophyly of Sects. Bulbiferae and Minimae .
    Keywords: cpDNA ; Gagea ; hybridization ; ITS ; Liliales ; At ; speciation
    ISSN: 1439-6092
    E-ISSN: 1618-1077
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  • 6
    In: Journal of Applied Ecology, April 2016, Vol.53(2), pp.501-510
    Description: The rapid expansion of systematic monitoring schemes necessitates robust methods to reliably assess species' status and trends. Insect monitoring poses a challenge where there are strong seasonal patterns, requiring repeated counts to reliably assess abundance. Butterfly monitoring schemes (BMSs) operate in an increasing number of countries with broadly the same methodology, yet they differ in their observation frequency and in the methods used to compute annual abundance indices. Using simulated and observed data, we performed an extensive comparison of two approaches used to derive abundance indices from count data collected via BMS, under a range of sampling frequencies. Linear interpolation is most commonly used to estimate abundance indices from seasonal count series. A second method, hereafter the regional generalized additive model (GAM), fits a GAM to repeated counts within sites across a climatic region. For the two methods, we estimated bias in abundance indices and the statistical power for detecting trends, given different proportions of missing counts. We also compared the accuracy of trend estimates using systematically degraded observed counts of the Gatekeeper Pyronia tithonus (Linnaeus 1767). The regional GAM method generally outperforms the linear interpolation method. When the proportion of missing counts increased beyond 50%, indices derived via the linear interpolation method showed substantially higher estimation error as well as clear biases, in comparison to the regional GAM method. The regional GAM method also showed higher power to detect trends when the proportion of missing counts was substantial. Synthesis and applications. Monitoring offers invaluable data to support conservation policy and management, but requires robust analysis approaches and guidance for new and expanding schemes. Based on our findings, we recommend the regional generalized additive model approach when conducting integrative analyses across schemes, or when analysing scheme data with reduced sampling efforts. This method enables existing schemes to be expanded or new schemes to be developed with reduced within‐year sampling frequency, as well as affording options to adapt protocols to more efficiently assess species status and trends across large geographical scales. Monitoring offers invaluable data to support conservation policy and management, but requires robust analysis approaches and guidance for new and expanding schemes. Based on our findings, we recommend the regional generalized additive model approach when conducting integrative analyses across schemes, or when analysing scheme data with reduced sampling efforts. This method enables existing schemes to be expanded or new schemes to be developed with reduced within‐year sampling frequency, as well as affording options to adapt protocols to more efficiently assess species status and trends across large geographical scales.
    Keywords: Abundance Indices ; Butterfly Monitoring Scheme ; Butterfly Count ; Citizen Science ; Flight Period ; Insect Conservation ; Missing Data ; Pollard Walk ; Sampling Effort ; Seasonal Pattern
    ISSN: 0021-8901
    E-ISSN: 1365-2664
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, July 2019, Vol.136, pp.14-20
    Description: , the saffron crocus, is the source of saffron, which is made from the dried stigmas of the plant. It is a male-sterile triploid lineage that ever since its origin has been propagated vegetatively. Its mode of evolution and area of origin are matters of long-lasting debates. Here we analyzed chloroplast genomes and genome-wide DNA polymorphisms obtained through genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to infer the parent and area of origin of . These data were complemented by genome size measurements and analyses of nuclear single-copy genes. We could place 99.3% of saffron GBS alleles in , a species occurring in southeastern mainland Greece and on Aegean islands, identifying it as the sole progenitor of the saffron crocus. Phylogenetic and population assignment analyses together with chloroplast polymorphisms indicated the population in the vicinity of Athens as most similar to . We conclude that the crop is an autotriploid that evolved in Attica by combining two different genotypes of . Triploid sterility and vegetative propagation prevented afterwards segregation of the favorable traits of saffron, resulting in worldwide cultivation of a unique clonal lineage.
    Keywords: Autotriploidy ; Crocus ; Crop Evolution ; Domestication ; Genotyping-By-Sequencing ; Saffron ; Biology
    ISSN: 1055-7903
    E-ISSN: 1095-9513
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Basic and Applied Ecology, December 2015, Vol.16(8), pp.661-664
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2015.10.003 Byline: Josef Settele, Joachim H. Spangenberg, Kong Luen Heong, Benjamin Burkhard, Jesus Victor Bustamante, Jimmy Cabbigat, Ho Van Chien, Monina Escalada, Volker Grescho, Le Huu Hai, Alexander Harpke, Finbarr G. Horgan, Stefan Hotes, Reinhold Jahn, Ingolf Kuhn, Leonardo Marquez, Martin Schadler, Vera Tekken, Doris Vetterlein, Sylvia "Bong" Villareal, Catrin Westphal, Martin Wiemers Author Affiliation: (a) UFZ -- Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Theodor-Lieser-Str. 4, 06120 Halle, Germany (b) iDiv, German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research, Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5e, 04103 Leipzig, Germany (c) Sustainable Europe Research Institute SERI Germany e.V., Vorsterstr. 97-99, 51103 Cologne, Germany (d) IRRI -- International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, DAPO, 7777 Metro Manila, Philippines (e) Institute for Natural Resource Conservation, Kiel University, Olshausenstra[sz]e 40, 24098 Kiel, Germany (f) Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research ZALF, Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374 Muncheberg, Germany (g) LEGATO Office, 3601 Banaue, Ifugao, Philippines (h) Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Vietnam, Tien Giang, Vietnam (i) Department of Development Communication, Visayas State University, Visca, Baybay 6521, Leyte, Philippines (j) OLANIS GmbH, Pittlerstra[sz]e 33, 04159 Leipzig, Germany (k) Tien Giang University, My Tho, Vietnam (l) General and Animal Ecology, Biology, Philipps-University Marburg, Karl-v.-Frisch-Str. 8, 35043 Marburg, Germany (m) Chair of Soil Science, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Von-Seckendorff-Platz 3, 06120 Halle, Germany (n) Crop Protection Division, Philippine Rice Research Institute, Maligaya, Munoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines (o) Institute for Geography and Geology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Greifswald, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Str. 16, 17487 Greifswald, Germany (p) Agorecology, Georg-August University Gottingen, Grisebachstrasse 6, 37077 Gottingen, Germany (q) Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, PR China Article History: Received 13 October 2015; Accepted 17 October 2015
    Keywords: Ecological Engineering ; Landscape Structure ; Media Campaigns ; Nutrients ; Pest Control ; Philippines ; Pollination ; Silicon ; Sustainable Land Use ; Vietnam ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Ecology
    ISSN: 1439-1791
    E-ISSN: 16180089
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  • 9
    In: Nature Communications, 2016, Vol.7
    Description: Impacts of climate change on individual species are increasingly well documented, but we lack understanding of how these effects propagate through ecological communities. Here we combine species distribution models with ecological network analyses to test potential impacts of climate change on 〉700 plant and animal species in pollination and seed-dispersal networks from central Europe. We discover that animal species that interact with a low diversity of plant species have narrow climatic niches and are most vulnerable to climate change. In contrast, biotic specialization of plants is not related to climatic niche breadth and vulnerability. A simulation model incorporating different scenarios of species coextinction and capacities for partner switches shows that projected plant extinctions under climate change are more likely to trigger animal coextinctions than vice versa. This result demonstrates that impacts of climate change on biodiversity can be amplified via extinction cascades from plants to animals in ecological networks.
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Ecosystem ; Extinction, Biological ; Plants -- Metabolism;
    ISSN: 2041-1723
    E-ISSN: 2041-1723
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