Kooperativer Bibliotheksverbund

Berlin Brandenburg

and
and

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
  • Biology
Type of Medium
Language
Year
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Viruses, 01 November 2009, Vol.1(3), pp.760-779
    Description: The major immediate-early (IE) gene of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is believed to have a decisive role in acute infection and its activity is an important indicator of viral reactivation from latency. Although a variety of gene products are expressed from this region, the 72-kDa IE1 and the 86-kDa IE2 nuclear phosphoproteins are the most abundant and important. Both proteins have long been recognized as promiscuous transcriptional regulators. More recently, a critical role of the IE1 and IE2 proteins in counteracting nonadaptive host cell defense mechanisms has been revealed. In this review we will briefly summarize the available literature on IE1- and IE2-dependent mechanisms contributing to CMV evasion from intrinsic and innate immune responses.
    Keywords: Cytomegalovirus ; Cmv ; Innate Immunity ; Intrinsic Defense ; Interferon Response ; Nuclear Domain 10 ; Apoptosis ; Immediate-Early Genes ; Ie1 ; Ie2 ; Biology
    ISSN: 1999-4915
    E-ISSN: 1999-4915
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 2011, Vol.68(6), pp.1079-1090
    Description: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. Here, non-toxic concentrations of the anti-cancer kinase inhibitor sorafenib were shown to inhibit replication of different HCMV strains (including a ganciclovir-resistant strain) in different cell types. In contrast to established anti-HCMV drugs, sorafenib inhibited HCMV major immediate early promoter activity and HCMV immediate early antigen (IEA) expression. Sorafenib is known to inhibit Raf. Comparison of sorafenib with the MEK inhibitor U0126 suggested that sorafenib inhibits HCMV IEA expression through inhibition of Raf but independently of signaling through the Raf downstream kinase MEK 1/2. In concordance, siRNA-mediated depletion of Raf but not of MEK-reduced IEA expression. In conclusion, sorafenib diminished HCMV replication in clinically relevant concentrations and inhibited HCMV IEA expression, a pathophysiologically relevant event that is not affected by established anti-HCMV drugs. Moreover, we demonstrated for the first time that Raf activation is involved in HCMV IEA expression.
    Keywords: Human cytomegalovirus ; Sorafenib ; Kinase inhibitor ; Raf ; Immediate early antigen ; Cancer chemotherapy ; Oncomodulation ; Antiviral therapy
    ISSN: 1420-682X
    E-ISSN: 1420-9071
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS Pathogens, 2011, Vol.7(4), p.e1002016
    Description: Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) is a highly prevalent pathogen that, upon primary infection, establishes life-long persistence in all infected individuals. Acute hCMV infections cause a variety of diseases in humans with developmental or acquired immune deficits. In addition, persistent hCMV infection may contribute to various chronic disease conditions even in immunologically normal people. The pathogenesis of hCMV disease has been frequently linked to inflammatory host immune responses triggered by virus-infected cells. Moreover, hCMV infection activates numerous host genes many of which encode pro-inflammatory proteins. However, little is known about the relative contributions of individual viral gene products to these changes in cellular transcription. We systematically analyzed the effects of the hCMV 72-kDa immediate-early 1 (IE1) protein, a major transcriptional activator and antagonist of type I interferon (IFN) signaling, on the human transcriptome. Following expression under conditions closely mimicking the situation during productive infection, IE1 elicits a global type II IFN-like host cell response. This response is dominated by the selective up-regulation of immune stimulatory genes normally controlled by IFN-γ and includes the synthesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory chemokines. IE1-mediated induction of IFN-stimulated genes strictly depends on tyrosine-phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and correlates with the nuclear accumulation and sequence-specific binding of STAT1 to IFN-γ-responsive promoters. However, neither synthesis nor secretion of IFN-γ or other IFNs seems to be required for the IE1-dependent effects on cellular gene expression. Our results demonstrate that a single hCMV protein can trigger a pro-inflammatory host transcriptional response via an unexpected STAT1-dependent but IFN-independent mechanism and identify IE1 as a candidate determinant of hCMV pathogenicity. ; Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) is a leading cause of birth defects and severe disease in people with compromised immunity. Disease caused by hCMV is frequently linked to inflammation, and the virus has been shown to induce numerous host genes many of which encode pro-inflammatory proteins. However, little is known about the contributions of individual viral proteins to these changes in cellular transcription. We systematically analyzed the effects of the hCMV immediate-early 1 (IE1) protein, a major viral transcriptional activator, on expression of 〉28,000 human genes. Following expression under conditions mimicking the situation during hCMV infection, IE1 elicited a transcriptional response dominated by the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory and immune stimulatory genes normally induced by the secreted signaling protein interferon-γ. However, IE1-mediated gene expression was independent of interferon induction, yet required the activated form of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), a central mediator of interferon signaling. Indeed, STAT1 moved to the nucleus and became associated with IE1 target genes upon expression of the viral protein. Our results demonstrate that a single hCMV protein can trigger a pro-inflammatory host cell response via an unexpected mechanism and suggest that IE1 may contribute to hCMV disease in more direct ways than previously thought.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Genetics And Genomics ; Immunology ; Virology ; Infectious Diseases ; Microbiology ; Molecular Biology ; Computational Biology
    ISSN: 1553-7366
    E-ISSN: 1553-7374
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    In: The Journal of Virology, 2008, Vol. 82(22), p.11167
    Description: The genomes of herpesviruses, including human cytomegalovirus (CMV), are double-stranded DNA molecules maintained as episomes during infection. The viral DNA lacks histones when encapsidated in the virion. However, it has been found histone associated inside infected cells, implying unidentified chromatin assembly mechanisms. Our results indicate that components of the host cell nucleosome deposition machinery target intranuclear CMV DNA, resulting in stepwise viral-chromatin assembly. CMV genomes undergo limited histone association and nucleosome assembly as early as 30 min after infection via DNA replication-independent mechanisms. Low average viral-genome chromatinization is maintained throughout the early stages of infection. The late phase of infection is characterized by a striking increase in average histone occupancy coupled with the process of viral-DNA replication. While the initial chromatinization affected all analyzed parts of the CMV chromosome, a subset of viral genomic regions, including the major immediate-early promoter, proved to be largely resistant to replication-dependent histone deposition. Finally, our results predict the likely requirement for an unanticipated chromatin disassembly process that enables packaging of histone-free DNA into progeny capsids.
    Keywords: Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly ; Cytomegalovirus -- Physiology ; DNA, Viral -- Metabolism ; Histones -- Metabolism;
    ISSN: 0022-538X
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 10985514
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of virology, September 2012, Vol.86(18), pp.9817-27
    Description: In the nuclei of permissive cells, human cytomegalovirus genomes form nucleosomal structures initially resembling heterochromatin but gradually switching to a euchromatin-like state. This switch is characterized by a decrease in histone H3 K9 methylation and a marked increase in H3 tail acetylation and H3 K4 methylation across the viral genome. We used ganciclovir and a mutant virus encoding a reversibly destabilized DNA polymerase to examine the impact of DNA replication on histone modification dynamics at the viral chromatin. The changes in H3 tail acetylation and H3 K9 methylation proceeded in a DNA replication-independent fashion. In contrast, the increase in H3 K4 methylation proved to depend widely on viral DNA synthesis. Consistently, labeling of nascent DNA using "click chemistry" revealed preferential incorporation of methylated H3 K4 into viral (but not cellular) chromatin during or following DNA replication. This study demonstrates largely selective epigenetic tagging of postreplicative human cytomegalovirus chromatin.
    Keywords: Chromatin -- Genetics ; Cytomegalovirus -- Genetics ; Histones -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 1098-5514
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of virology, October 2013, Vol.87(19), pp.10763-76
    Description: In the canonical STAT3 signaling pathway, binding of agonist to receptors activates Janus kinases that phosphorylate cytoplasmic STAT3 at tyrosine 705 (Y705). Phosphorylated STAT3 dimers accumulate in the nucleus and drive the expression of genes involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, invasion, and proliferation. Here, we demonstrate that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection rapidly promotes nuclear localization of STAT3 in the absence of robust phosphorylation at Y705. Furthermore, infection disrupts interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 and expression of a subset of IL-6-induced STAT3-regulated genes, including SOCS3. We show that the HCMV 72-kDa immediate-early 1 (IE1) protein associates with STAT3 and is necessary to localize STAT3 to the nucleus during infection. Furthermore, expression of IE1 is sufficient to disrupt IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3, binding of STAT3 to the SOCS3 promoter, and SOCS3 gene expression. Finally, inhibition of STAT3 nuclear localization or STAT3 expression during infection is linked to diminished HCMV genome replication. Viral gene expression is also disrupted, with the greatest impact seen following viral DNA synthesis. Our study identifies IE1 as a new regulator of STAT3 intracellular localization and IL-6 signaling and points to an unanticipated role of STAT3 in HCMV infection.
    Keywords: Cell Nucleus -- Metabolism ; Cytomegalovirus -- Physiology ; Cytomegalovirus Infections -- Virology ; Immediate-Early Proteins -- Metabolism ; Interleukin-6 -- Metabolism ; Stat3 Transcription Factor -- Metabolism
    E-ISSN: 1098-5514
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    In: The Journal of Virology, 2009, Vol. 83(24), p.12854
    Description: Our previous work has shown that efficient evasion from type I interferon responses by human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) requires expression of the 72-kDa immediate-early 1 (IE1) protein. It has been suggested that IE1 inhibits interferon signaling through intranuclear sequestration of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2) protein. Here we show that physical association and subnuclear colocalization of IE1 and STAT2 depend on short acidic and serine/proline-rich low-complexity motifs in the carboxy-terminal region of the 491-amino-acid viral polypeptide. These motifs compose an essential core (amino acids 373 to 420) and an adjacent ancillary site (amino acids 421 to 445) for STAT2 interaction that are predicted to form part of a natively unstructured domain. The presence of presumably "disordered" carboxy-terminal domains enriched in low-complexity motifs is evolutionarily highly conserved across all examined mammalian IE1 orthologs, and the murine cytomegalovirus IE1 protein appears to interact with STAT2 just like the human counterpart. A recombinant hCMV specifically mutated in the IE1 core STAT2 binding site displays hypersensitivity to alpha interferon, delayed early viral protein accumulation, and attenuated growth in fibroblasts. However, replication of this mutant virus is specifically restored by knockdown of STAT2 expression. Interestingly, complex formation with STAT2 proved to be entirely separable from disruption of nuclear domain 10 (ND10), another key activity of IE1. Finally, our results demonstrate that IE1 counteracts the antiviral interferon response and promotes viral replication by at least two distinct mechanisms, one depending on sequestration of STAT2 and the other one likely involving ND10 interaction.
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 0022-538X
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 10985514
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    In: The Journal of Virology, 2006, Vol. 80(4), p.1773
    Description: Mammalian alphaherpesviruses normally establish latent infections in ganglia of the peripheral nervous system in their natural hosts. Occasionally, however, these viruses spread to the central nervous system (CNS), where they cause damaging, often fatal, infections. Attenuated alphaherpesvirus derivatives have been used extensively as neuronal circuit tracers in a variety of animal models. Their circuit-specific spread provides a unique paradigm to study the local and global CNS response to infection. Thus, we systematically analyzed the host gene expression profile after acute pseudorabies virus (PRV) infection of the CNS using Affymetrix GeneChip technology. Rats were injected intraocularly with one of three selected virulent and attenuated PRV strains. Relative levels of cellular transcripts were quantified from hypothalamic and cerebellar tissues at various times postinfection. The number of cellular genes responding to infection correlated with the extent of virus dissemination and relative virulence of the PRV strains. A total of 245 out of 8,799 probe sets, corresponding to 182 unique cellular genes, displayed increased expression ranging from 2- to more than 100-fold higher than in uninfected tissue. Over 60% thereof were categorized as immune, proinflammatory, and other cellular defense genes. Additionally, a large fraction of infection-induced transcripts represented cellular stress responses, including glucocorticoid- and redox-related pathways. This is the first comprehensive in vivo analysis of the global transcriptional response of the mammalian CNS to acute alphaherpesvirus infection. The differentially regulated genes reported here are likely to include potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets for viral encephalitides and other neurodegenerative or neuroinflammatory diseases.
    Keywords: Central Nervous System ; Latent Infection ; Hypothalamus ; Brain ; Cerebellum ; Animal Models ; Transcription ; Stress ; Glucocorticoids ; Inflammation ; Gene Expression ; Pseudorabies ; Virulence ; Tracers ; Peripheral Nervous System ; Ganglia ; Pseudorabies Virus ; Alphaherpesvirus ; Effects on Host Cell Metabolism ; Gene Regulation;
    ISSN: 0022-538X
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 10985514
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Language: English
    In: PLoS Pathogens, 01 July 2016, Vol.12(7), p.e1005748
    Description: The human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) major immediate-early 1 protein (IE1) is best known for activating transcription to facilitate viral replication. Here we present transcriptome data indicating that IE1 is as significant a repressor as it is an activator of host gene expression. Human cells induced to express IE1 exhibit global repression of IL6- and oncostatin M-responsive STAT3 target genes. This repression is followed by STAT1 phosphorylation and activation of STAT1 target genes normally induced by IFNγ. The observed repression and subsequent activation are both mediated through the same region (amino acids 410 to 445) in the C-terminal domain of IE1, and this region serves as a binding site for STAT3. Depletion of STAT3 phenocopies the STAT1-dependent IFNγ-like response to IE1. In contrast, depletion of the IL6 receptor (IL6ST) or the STAT kinase JAK1 prevents this response. Accordingly, treatment with IL6 leads to prolonged STAT1 instead of STAT3 activation in wild-type IE1 expressing cells, but not in cells expressing a mutant protein (IE1dl410-420) deficient for STAT3 binding. A very similar STAT1-directed response to IL6 is also present in cells infected with a wild-type or revertant hCMV, but not an IE1dl410-420 mutant virus, and this response results in restricted viral replication. We conclude that IE1 is sufficient and necessary to rewire upstream IL6-type to downstream IFNγ-like signaling, two pathways linked to opposing actions, resulting in repressed STAT3- and activated STAT1-responsive genes. These findings relate transcriptional repressor and activator functions of IE1 and suggest unexpected outcomes relevant to viral pathogenesis in response to cytokines or growth factors that signal through the IL6ST-JAK1-STAT3 axis in hCMV-infected cells. Our results also reveal that IE1, a protein considered to be a key activator of the hCMV productive cycle, has an unanticipated role in tempering viral replication.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 1553-7366
    E-ISSN: 1553-7374
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of virology, 15 October 2016, Vol.90(20), pp.9543-55
    Description: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of commonly fatal malignancies of immunocompromised individuals, including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). A hallmark of all herpesviruses is their biphasic life cycle-viral latency and the productive lytic cycle-and it is well established that reactivation of the KSHV lytic cycle is associated with KS pathogenesis. Therefore, a thorough appreciation of the mechanisms that govern reactivation is required to better understand disease progression. The viral protein replication and transcription activator (RTA) is the KSHV lytic switch protein due to its ability to drive the expression of various lytic genes, leading to reactivation of the entire lytic cycle. While the mechanisms for activating lytic gene expression have received much attention, how RTA impacts cellular function is less well understood. To address this, we developed a cell line with doxycycline-inducible RTA expression and applied stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. Using this methodology, we have identified a novel cellular protein (AT-rich interacting domain containing 3B [ARID3B]) whose expression was enhanced by RTA and that relocalized to replication compartments upon lytic reactivation. We also show that small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown or overexpression of ARID3B led to an enhancement or inhibition of lytic reactivation, respectively. Furthermore, DNA affinity and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that ARID3B specifically interacts with A/T-rich elements in the KSHV origin of lytic replication (oriLyt), and this was dependent on lytic cycle reactivation. Therefore, we have identified a novel cellular protein whose expression is enhanced by KSHV RTA with the ability to inhibit KSHV reactivation. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of fatal malignancies of immunocompromised individuals, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Herpesviruses are able to establish a latent infection, in which they escape immune detection by restricting viral gene expression. Importantly, however, reactivation of productive viral replication (the lytic cycle) is necessary for the pathogenesis of KS. Therefore, it is important that we comprehensively understand the mechanisms that govern lytic reactivation, to better understand disease progression. In this study, we have identified a novel cellular protein (AT-rich interacting domain protein 3B [ARID3B]) that we show is able to temper lytic reactivation. We showed that the master lytic switch protein, RTA, enhanced ARID3B levels, which then interacted with viral DNA in a lytic cycle-dependent manner. Therefore, we have added a new factor to the list of cellular proteins that regulate the KSHV lytic cycle, which has implications for our understanding of KSHV biology.
    Keywords: DNA-Binding Proteins -- Genetics ; Herpesvirus 8, Human -- Genetics ; Sarcoma, Kaposi -- Virology ; Viral Proteins -- Genetics
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 1098-5514
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. Further information can be found on the KOBV privacy pages