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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Quarterly Review of Biology, 01 December 2015, Vol.90(4), pp.381-415
    Description: ABSTRACT Organisms adapt developmental and physiological features to local and transient conditions in part by modulating transcription, translation, and protein functions, usually without changing DNA sequences. Remarkably, these epigenetic changes sometimes endure through meiosis and gametogenesis, thereby affecting phenotypic variation across generations, long after epigenetic changes were triggered. Transgenerational effects challenge our traditional understanding of inheritance. In this review, we focus on patterns of inheritance, molecular features, mechanisms that lead from environmental and genetic perturbations to phenotypic variation in later generations, and issues about study design and replication.
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 00335770
    E-ISSN: 15397718
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  • 2
    In: PLoS ONE, 2013, Vol.8(8)
    Description: Maintenance and maturation of primordial germ cells is controlled by complex genetic and epigenetic cascades, and disturbances in this network lead to either infertility or malignant aberration. Transcription factor TFAP2C has been described to be essential for primordial germ cell maintenance and to be upregulated in several human germ cell cancers. Using global gene expression profiling, we identified genes deregulated upon loss of Tfap2c in embryonic stem cells and primordial germ cell-like cells. We show that loss of Tfap2c affects many aspects of the genetic network regulating germ cell biology, such as downregulation of maturation markers and induction of markers indicative for somatic differentiation, cell cycle, epigenetic remodeling and pluripotency. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated binding of TFAP2C to regulatory regions of deregulated genes ( Sfrp1, Dmrt1 , Nanos3 , c-Kit , Cdk6 , Cdkn1a , Fgf4 , Klf4 , Dnmt3b and Dnmt3l ) suggesting that these genes are direct transcriptional targets of TFAP2C in primordial germ cells. Since Tfap2c deficient primordial germ cell-like cells display cancer related deregulations in epigenetic remodeling, cell cycle and pluripotency control, the Tfap2c -knockout allele was bred onto 129S2/Sv genetic background. There, mice heterozygous for Tfap2c develop with high incidence germ cell cancer resembling human pediatric germ cell tumors. Precursor lesions can be observed as early as E16.5 in developing testes displaying persisting expression of pluripotency markers. We further demonstrate that mice with a heterozygous deletion of the TFAP2C target gene Nanos3 are also prone to develop teratomas. These data highlight TFAP2C as a critical and dose-sensitive regulator of germ cell fate.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2013, Vol.8(5), p.e64544
    Description: C/EBPβ (CCAAT enhancer binding protein) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in survival and transformation of ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). The aim of this study was to identify the downstream targets of C/EBPβ responsible for ALK-mediated oncogenesis. C/EBPβ was knocked down in ALK+ ALCL cell lines with a C/EBPβ-shRNA, followed by gene expression profiling (GEP). GEP analysis revealed a reproducible signature of genes that were significantly regulated by C/EBPβ. Classification into biological categories revealed overrepresentation of genes involved in the immune response, apoptosis and cell proliferation. Transcriptional regulation by C/EBPβ was found in 6 of 11 (BCL2A1, G0S2, TRIB1, S100A9, DDX21 and DDIT4) genes investigated by chromatin immunoprecipitation. We demonstrated that BCL2A1, G0S2 and DDX21 play a crucial role in survival and proliferation of ALK+ ALCL cells. DDX21, a gene involved in rRNA biogenesis, was found differentially overexpressed in primary ALK+ ALCL cases. All three candidate genes were validated in primary ALCL cases by either immunohistochemistry or RT-qPCR. In conclusion, we identified and validated several key C/EBPβ-regulated genes with major impact on survival and cell growth in ALK+ ALCL, supporting the central role of C/EBPβ in ALK-mediated oncogenesis.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Marine Environmental Research, 2011, Vol.71(1), pp.70-78
    Description: Female and male individuals of the same species often differ with respect to their susceptibility to toxicant stress. In the present study, sea urchins ( ) of both sexes were exposed to high (150 μg L ) and environmentally relevant (5 μg L ) concentrations of phenanthrene over 10 days. While food intake was significantly decreased following exposure to 150 μg L phenanthrene, histological indices (lipofuscin accumulation, fibrosis, oocyte atresia), energetic status (energy charge, sum adenylates, AMP/ATP ratio) as well as ascorbate levels in the gonads showed either little or no effect upon phenanthrene exposure. However, most parameters (vitamin C, energy charge, sum adenylates, AMP/ATP ratio, ATP and ADP concentrations, lipofuscin content, fibrosis) significantly differed between male and female animals. This study illustrates the difficulties to identify toxic injury in reproductive tissue as it may be superimposed by gametogenesis and spawning of gametes.
    Keywords: Sea Urchin ; Gonad ; Lipofuscin ; Energy Charge ; Phenanthrene ; Ascorbate ; Sex-Specific Differences ; ATP ; ATP/Amp Ratio ; Gametogenesis ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Oceanography ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0141-1136
    E-ISSN: 1879-0291
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Developmental Dynamics, March 2010, Vol.239(3), pp.1027-1033
    Description: Extensive development of the mammary gland occurs during puberty, when rising levels of ovarian hormones induce the formation of highly proliferative terminal end buds (TEBs) at the tips of mammary ducts. TEBs consist of an outer layer of cap cells and of inner body cells. TEBs invade the adipose stroma and bifurcate while extending the ducts to generate an arborized ductal network. We show that in murine mammary glands transcription factor AP‐2γ is strongly expressed in the cap cell layer and in a subset of body cells of TEBs. To decipher AP‐2γ functions during mammary development we generated AP‐2γ‐deficient mice. Their mammary glands displayed impaired ductal branching and elongation. Cellular proliferation within TEBs was reduced. Although estrogen receptor was expressed, exogenously administered ovarian hormones could not restore normal development. Therefore, AP‐2γ is functionally involved in branching morphogenesis of the mammary epithelium, possibly by controlling genetic processes downstream of ovarian hormones. Developmental Dynamics 239:1027–1033, 2010. © 2010 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.
    Keywords: Ap‐2 ; Tfap2c ; Mammary ; Branching Morphogenesis ; Transgenic Mice
    ISSN: 1058-8388
    E-ISSN: 1097-0177
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(9), p.e23890
    Description: Plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of chronic inflammation, have been associated with cognitive impairment in old age. However, it is unknown whether CRP is causally linked to cognitive decline. ; Within the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) trial, with 5680 participants with a mean age of 75 years, we examined associations of CRP levels and its genetic determinants with cognitive performance and decline over 3.2 years mean follow-up. Higher plasma CRP concentrations were associated with poorer baseline performance on the Stroop test (P = 0.001) and Letter Digit Tests (P0.5). In the prospective analyses, higher CRP concentrations associated with increased rate of decline in the immediate PLT (P = 0.016), but not in other cognitive tests (all p〉0.11). Adjustment for prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and disease did not change the baseline associations nor associations with cognitive decline during follow-up. Four haplotypes of CRP were used and, compared to the common haplotype, carrierships associated strongly with levels of CRP (all P〈0.007). In comparison to strong associations of apolipoprotein E with cognitive measures, associations of CRP haplotypes with such measures were inconsistent. ; Plasma CRP concentrations associate with cognitive performance in part through pathways independent of (risk factors for) cardiovascular disease. However, lifelong exposure to higher CRP levels does not associate with poorer cognitive performance in old age. The current data weaken the argument for a causal role of CRP in cognitive performance, but further study is warranted to draw definitive conclusions.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Immunology ; Public Health And Epidemiology ; Mental Health ; Neurological Disorders ; Biochemistry
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Genome biology, 19 June 2014, Vol.15(6), pp.R79
    Description: RNA editing encompasses a post-transcriptional process in which the genomically templated sequence is enzymatically altered and introduces a modified base into the edited transcript. Mammalian C-to-U RNA editing represents a distinct subtype of base modification, whose prototype is intestinal apolipoprotein B mRNA, mediated by the catalytic deaminase Apobec-1. However, the genome-wide identification, tissue-specificity and functional implications of Apobec-1-mediated C-to-U RNA editing remain incompletely explored. Deep sequencing, data filtering and Sanger-sequence validation of intestinal and hepatic RNA from wild-type and Apobec-1-deficient mice revealed 56 novel editing sites in 54 intestinal mRNAs and 22 novel sites in 17 liver mRNAs, all within 3' untranslated regions. Eleven of 17 liver RNAs shared editing sites with intestinal RNAs, while 6 sites are unique to liver. Changes in RNA editing lead to corresponding changes in intestinal mRNA and protein levels for 11 genes. Analysis of RNA editing in vivo following tissue-specific Apobec-1 adenoviral or transgenic Apobec-1 overexpression reveals that a subset of targets identified in wild-type mice are restored in Apobec-1-deficient mouse intestine and liver following Apobec-1 rescue. We find distinctive polysome profiles for several RNA editing targets and demonstrate novel exonic editing sites in nuclear preparations from intestine but not hepatic apolipoprotein B RNA. RNA editing is validated using cell-free extracts from wild-type but not Apobec-1-deficient mice, demonstrating that Apobec-1 is required. These studies define selective, tissue-specific targets of Apobec-1-dependent RNA editing and show the functional consequences of editing are both transcript- and tissue-specific.
    Keywords: RNA Editing ; Cytidine Deaminase -- Genetics ; Intestine, Small -- Enzymology ; Liver -- Enzymology
    E-ISSN: 1474-760X
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Biology of Reproduction, 2010, Vol.82(1), pp.214-223
    Description: textabstractFormation of the germ cell lineage involves multiple processes, including repression of somatic differentiation and reacquisition of pluripotency as well as a unique epigenetic constitution. The transcriptional regulator Prdm1 has been identified as a main coordinator of this process, controlling...
    Keywords: Ap-2γ ; B Lymphocyte Induced Maturation Protein 1 ; Dna Glycosylase Muty ; Dazl Protein ; Developmental Biology ; Gamete Biology ; Gene Regulation ; Hoxb1 ; Myod1 Protein ; Nanos 3 Protein ; Prdm1 ; Prdm1 Protein ; Primordial Germ Cells ; Somatic Differentiation ; Tcfap2c ; Tcam-2 ; Tcfap2c Protein ; Aminomethyltransferase ; Animal ; Animal Experiment ; Animal Tissue ; Apoptosis ; Article ; Binding Protein ; Biological Marker ; Cell Differentiation ; Controlled Study ; Development And Aging ; Dipeptide Binding Protein ; Embryo ; Embryo Cell ; Embryo Development ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Germ Cell ; Growth ; Homeobox B1 Protein ; In Vitro Study ; Male ; Membrane Protein ; Mesoderm ; Metabolism ; Mouse ; Mutant ; Nonhuman ; Primordial Germ Cell ; Priority Journal ; Protein Function ; Reproduction ; Transcription Factor ; Transcription Factor Ap 2 ; Transcription Factor Hand 1 ; Transcription Factor Hoxa 1 ; Transcription Factor Tcfap2c ; Transgenic Mouse ; Unclassified Drug ; Upregulation
    ISSN: 00063363
    E-ISSN: 15297268
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Virology, 1991, Vol.184(2), pp.786-790
    Description: Replication of the single-stranded DNA genome of wheat dwarf virus (WDV) leads to the accumulation of covalently closed double-stranded DNA of genome length in infected cells. By studying the replication properties of a naturally occurring deletion mutant of WDV isolated from infected plants and of deletion mutants constructed in vitro, we have defined cis-acting regions required for viral DNA replication. The results show that two distinct regions are required in cis to yield the normal replicative forms of WDV-DNA.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 0042-6822
    E-ISSN: 1096-0341
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(12), p.e27811
    Description: Radiation therapy treatment of breast cancer, Hodgkin's disease or childhood cancers expose the heart to high local radiation doses, causing an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the survivors decades after the treatment. The mechanisms that underlie the radiation damage remain poorly understood so far. Previous data show that impairment of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism is directly linked to the development of cardiovascular disease. ; In this study, the radiation-induced effects on cardiac mitochondrial proteome and function were investigated. C57BL/6N mice were exposed to local irradiation of the heart with doses of 0.2 Gy or 2 Gy (X-ray, 200 kV) at the age of eight weeks, the control mice were sham-irradiated. After four weeks the cardiac mitochondria were isolated and tested for proteomic and functional alterations. Two complementary proteomics approaches using both peptide and protein quantification strategies showed radiation-induced deregulation of 25 proteins in total. Three main biological categories were affected: the oxidative phophorylation, the pyruvate metabolism, and the cytoskeletal structure. The mitochondria exposed to high-dose irradiation showed functional impairment reflected as partial deactivation of Complex I (32%) and Complex III (11%), decreased succinate-driven respiratory capacity (13%), increased level of reactive oxygen species and enhanced oxidation of mitochondrial proteins. The changes in the pyruvate metabolism and structural proteins were seen with both low and high radiation doses. ; This is the first study showing the biological alterations in the murine heart mitochondria several weeks after the exposure to low- and high-dose of ionizing radiation. Our results show that doses, equivalent to a single dose in radiotherapy, cause long-lasting changes in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and mitochondria-associated cytoskeleton. This prompts us to propose that these first pathological changes lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease after radiation exposure.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Physiology ; Cell Biology ; Oncology ; Biophysics ; Biochemistry
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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