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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP, April 2014, Vol.13(4), pp.969-89
    Description: Light and oxygen are factors that are very much entangled in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress response network in plants, algae and cyanobacteria. The first obligatory step in understanding the ROS network is to separate these responses. In this study, a LC-MS/MS based quantitative proteomic approach was used to dissect the responses of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to ROS, light and oxygen employing an interlinked experimental setup. Application of novel bioinformatics tools allow high quality retention time alignment to be performed on all LC-MS/MS runs increasing confidence in protein quantification, overall sequence coverage and coverage of all treatments measured. Finally advanced hierarchical clustering yielded 30 communities of co-regulated proteins permitting separation of ROS related effects from pure light effects (induction and repression). A community termed redox(II) was identified that shows additive effects of light and oxygen with light as the first obligatory step. Another community termed 4-down was identified that shows repression as an effect of light but only in the absence of oxygen indicating ROS regulation, for example, possibly via product feedback inhibition because no ROS damage is occurring. In summary the data demonstrate the importance of separating light, O₂ and ROS responses to define marker genes for ROS responses. As revealed in this study, an excellent candidate is DHAR with strong ROS dependent induction profiles.
    Keywords: Oxidative Stress ; Algal Proteins -- Metabolism ; Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii -- Physiology ; Chlorophyll -- Physiology
    ISSN: 15359476
    E-ISSN: 1535-9484
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Immunobiology, 2011, Vol.216(3), pp.334-342
    Description: Posttrauma apoptosis resistance of neutrophils (PMN) is related to overshooting immune responses, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ failure (MOF). Recently, we have shown that the apoptosis resistance in circulating PMN from severely injured patients which is known to be mediated by high serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines can be overcome by the activation of Fas death receptor. Here, we aimed to study whether stimulation of surface Fas leads to the inactivation of hyperactivated PMN from critically ill patients with SIRS. PMN from 23 multiple trauma patients (mean injury severity score (ISS) 34 ± 1.9) were isolated at day 1 after admission to the trauma center. PMN from 17 volunteer blood donors served as controls. Neutrophil activity has been determined after short (1 h) and long-term (4 h) stimulation of freshly isolated PMN with immobilized agonistic anti-Fas antibodies. We found neutrophil chemotactic migration in response to IL-8, phagocytosis and oxidative burst to be significantly inhibited in control cells already after short-term (1 h) Fas stimulation. In contrast, inactivation of trauma PMN by agonistic anti-Fas antibodies was found to be efficient only after long-term (4 h) incubation of cells with agonistic antibodies. Thus, in trauma PMN down-regulation of neutrophil activity seems to be delayed when compared to cells isolated from healthy controls, suggesting impaired susceptibility for Fas stimulation in these cells. Interestingly, whereas Fas-mediated inhibition of phagocytosis and oxidative burst could be prevented by the broad range caspase inhibitor t-butoxycarbonyl-aspartyl(O-methyl)-fluoromethyl ketone (BocD-fmk), the chemotactic activity in response to IL-8 was unaffected. In conclusion, we demonstrate that stimulation of neutrophil Fas does not only initiate apoptosis but also induces inhibition of neutrophil functions, partially by non-apoptotic signaling.
    Keywords: Caspases ; Chemotaxis ; Neutrophils ; Oxidative Burst ; Phagocytosis ; Sirs ; Biology
    ISSN: 0171-2985
    E-ISSN: 1878-3279
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Vaccine, 17 April 2014, Vol.32(19), pp.2231-2240
    Description: Currently, the need for cooled storage and the impossibility of terminal sterilisation are major drawbacks in vaccine manufacturing and distribution. To overcome current restrictions a preclinical safety and efficacy study was conducted to evaluate new influenza A vaccine formulations regarding thermal resistance, resistance against irradiation-mediated damage and storage stability. We evaluated the efficacy of novel antigen stabilizing and protecting solutions (SPS) to protect influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 split virus antigen under experimental conditions and . Original or SPS re-buffered vaccine (Pandemrix) was spray-dried and terminally sterilised by irradiation with 25 kGy (e-beam). Antigen integrity was monitored by SDS-PAGE, dynamic light scattering, size exclusion chromatography and functional haemagglutination assays. screening experiments revealed a number of highly stable compositions containing glycyrrhizinic acid (GA) and/or chitosan. The most stable composition was selected for storage tests and assessment of seroconversion in non-human primates (Macaca fascicularis) using a prime-boost strategy. Redispersed formulations with original adjuvant were administered intramuscularly. Storage data revealed high stability of protected vaccines at 4 °C and 25 °C, 60% relative humidity, for at least three months. Animals receiving original Pandemrix exhibited expected levels of seroconversion after 21 days (prime) and 48 days (boost) as assessed by haemagglutination inhibition and microneutralisation assays. Animals vaccinated with spray-dried and irradiated Pandemrix failed to exhibit seroconversion after 21 days whereas spray-dried and irradiated, SPS-protected vaccines elicited similar seroconversion levels to those vaccinated with original Pandemrix. Boost immunisation with SPS-protected vaccine resulted in a strong increase in seroconversion but had only minor effects in animals treated with non SPS-protected vaccine. In conclusion, utilising the SPS formulation technology, spray-drying and terminal sterilisation of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 split virus vaccine is feasible. Findings indicate the potential utility of such formulated vaccines e.g. for needle-free vaccination routes and delivery to countries with uncertain cold chain facilities.
    Keywords: Thermal Stability ; Viruses ; Irradiation ; Excipients ; Stabilising and Protecting Solution (Sps) ; Dry Powder Vaccine ; Medicine ; Biology ; Veterinary Medicine ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0264-410X
    E-ISSN: 1873-2518
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Nature Communications, 14 June 2016, Vol.7, p.11847
    Description: Calcium (Ca 2+ ) and redox signalling play important roles in acclimation processes from archaea to eukaryotic organisms. Herein we characterized a unique protein from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that has the competence to integrate Ca 2+ - and redox-related signalling. This protein, designated as calredoxin (CRX), combines four Ca 2+ -binding EF-hands and a thioredoxin (TRX) domain. A crystal structure of CRX, at 1.6 Å resolution, revealed an unusual calmodulin-fold of the Ca 2+ -binding EF-hands, which is functionally linked via an inter-domain communication path with the enzymatically active TRX domain. CRX is chloroplast-localized and interacted with a chloroplast 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (PRX1). Ca 2+ -binding to CRX is critical for its TRX activity and for efficient binding and reduction of PRX1. Thereby, CRX represents a new class of Ca 2+ -dependent ‘sensor-responder' proteins. Genetically engineered Chlamydomonas strains with strongly diminished amounts of CRX revealed altered photosynthetic electron transfer and were affected in oxidative stress response underpinning a function of CRX in stress acclimation. Calcium and redox signalling have important roles in acclimation processes. Here, the authors characterise a protein from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that can integrate calcium and redox-related signalling.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences ; Biochemistry, Molecular Biology ; Algae ; Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii ; Calcium ; Redox Signaling ; Protein ; Calredoxin ; Crx ; Subcellular Localization ; Chloroplast ; Crystal Structure ; Thioredoxin Domain ; Photosynthesis ; Electron Transfer ; Oxidative Stress ; Stress Acclimation ; Biology
    ISSN: 2041-1723
    E-ISSN: 2041-1723
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP, November 2013, Vol.12(11), pp.3160-83
    Description: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a green unicellular eukaryotic model organism for studying relevant biological and biotechnological questions. The availability of genomic resources and the growing interest in C. reinhardtii as an emerging cell factory for the industrial production of biopharmaceuticals require an in-depth analysis of protein N-glycosylation in this organism. Accordingly, we used a comprehensive approach including genomic, glycomic, and glycoproteomic techniques to unravel the N-glycosylation pathway of C. reinhardtii. Using mass-spectrometry-based approaches, we found that both endogenous soluble and membrane-bound proteins carry predominantly oligomannosides ranging from Man-2 to Man-5. In addition, minor complex N-linked glycans were identified as being composed of partially 6-O-methylated Man-3 to Man-5 carrying one or two xylose residues. These findings were supported by results from a glycoproteomic approach that led to the identification of 86 glycoproteins. Here, a combination of in-source collision-induced dissodiation (CID) for glycan fragmentation followed by mass tag-triggered CID for peptide sequencing and PNGase F treatment of glycopeptides in the presence of (18)O-labeled water in conjunction with CID mass spectrometric analyses were employed. In conclusion, our data support the notion that the biosynthesis and maturation of N-linked glycans in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus occur via a GnT I-independent pathway yielding novel complex N-linked glycans that maturate differently from their counterparts in land plants.
    Keywords: Algal Proteins -- Chemistry ; Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii -- Metabolism ; Glycoproteins -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 15359476
    E-ISSN: 1535-9484
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Central European Journal of Biology, 2009, Vol.4(2), pp.163-169
    Description: Squalene epoxidase catalyzes the formation of 2,3-oxidosqualene from squalene and in plants is the last enzyme common to all biosynthetic pathways leading to an array of triterpene derivatives like phytosterols, brassinosteroid phytohormones or saponins. In this work, we present a squalene epoxidase gene ( NSSQE1 ) from the triterpene saponin producing plant Nigella sativa . The gene product showed a high degree of homology to functional squalene epoxidases (SQEs) from Arabidopsis thaliana and was able to complement SQE deficient yeast that harboured a knockout mutation in the underlying erg1 gene. Moreover, the expression of the NSSQE1 gene in ERG1 wild type yeast revealed that NSSQE1 conferred resistance towards terbinafine, an inhibitor of fungal SQEs. The latter suggested that a terbinafine-dependent NSSQE1 selection marker system can be developed for yeast. The gene NSSQE1 was ubiquitously expressed in all plant tissues analysed, including roots where no triterpene saponins are produced. Therefore, we argue that NSSQE1 is a housekeeping gene for triterpene metabolism in Nigella sativa . Similar to triterpene saponins, NSSQE1 was up-regulated by methyl jasmonate in leaves and should also be functionally involved in saponin biosynthesis in Nigella sativa .
    Keywords: Nigella sativa ; Ranunculaceae ; Squalene epoxidase ; SQE ; Squalene monooxygenase ; SQMO ; Hederin ; Saponin ; Triterpenes
    ISSN: 1895-104X
    E-ISSN: 1644-3632
    E-ISSN: 23915412
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Trends in Microbiology, 2003, Vol.11(4), pp.171-178
    Description: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) retinitis frequently occurs in severely naturally and iatrogenically immunocompromised patients. It has been shown that the immune-privileged retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a major site of persistent HCMV. Recently, evidence has accumulated to show that HCMV immediate early (IE) gene expression in RPE cells deviates ocular antiviral inflammation via FasL. Moreover, unlike in other cell types, the HCMV major IE1/2 enhancer promoter (MIEP) resists activation by proinflammatory stimuli mediated by the transcription factor NF- Kappa B. However, tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF- alpha ) and interferon- gamma (IFN- gamma ) found at elevated levels in transplant recipients and AIDS patients with retinitis sensitize RPE cells and other retinal cells to FasL-mediated apoptosis, thus contributing to retina destruction and necrosis rather than inflammation. These specific features of RPE cells in conjunction with deregulated immune responses of immunocompromised patients seem to contribute to virus persistence and pathogenesis within the immune-privileged ocular retina.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 0966-842X
    E-ISSN: 1878-4380
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Cancer, 01 September 2008, Vol.7(1), p.72
    Description: Abstract Background Apart from genetic alterations, development and progression of colorectal cancer has been linked to influences from nutritional intake, hyperalimentation, and cellular metabolic changes that may be the basis for new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. However, in contrast...
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology
    ISSN: 1476-4598
    E-ISSN: 1476-4598
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(2), p.e30624
    Description: Whole genome sequencing allowed the development of a number of high resolution sequence based typing tools for Yersinia (Y.) pestis . The application of these methods on isolates from most known foci worldwide and in particular from China and the Former Soviet Union has dramatically improved our understanding of the population structure of this species. In the current view, Y. pestis including the non or moderate human pathogen Y. pestis subspecies microtus emerged from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis about 2,600 to 28,600 years ago in central Asia. The majority of central Asia natural foci have been investigated. However these investigations included only few strains from Mongolia. ; Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Prokaryotic Repeats (CRISPR) analysis and Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) with 25 loci was performed on 100 strains, isolated from 37 sampling areas in Mongolia. The resulting data were compared with previously published data from more than 500 plague strains, 130 of which had also been previously genotyped by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. The comparison revealed six main clusters including the three biovars Ulegeica, Altaica, and Xilingolensis. The largest cluster comprises 78 isolates, with unique and new genotypes seen so far in Mongolia only. Typing of selected isolates by key SNPs was used to robustly assign the corresponding clusters to previously defined SNP branches. ; We show that Mongolia hosts the most recent clade (Ulegeica). Interestingly no representatives of the ancestral subspecies nodes previously identified in North-western China were identified in this study. This observation suggests that the subsequent evolution steps within did not occur in Mongolia. Rather, Mongolia was most likely re-colonized by more recent clades coming back from China contemporary of the black death pandemic, or more recently in the past 600 years.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Computational Biology ; Evolutionary Biology ; Microbiology ; Medicine ; Infectious Diseases
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Trends in Molecular Medicine, 2004, Vol.10(1), pp.19-23
    Description: Recently, the term oncomodulation has been proposed to express the ability of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) to modify tumor cell biology, a phenomenon that is independent from transformation. Because past studies have failed to show that HCMV can transform normal human cells, HCMV has not been regarded as an oncogenic tumor virus. However, recent investigations have revealed a high frequency of HCMV in tumor cells of malignancies such as colon cancer, malignant glioma, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and carcinoma. Data from experiments with HCMV-infected tumor cell lines have highlighted the oncomodulatory potential of HCMV and provided important insights into the patho- mechanisms associated with aberrant signaling pathways and transcription factor and/or tumor suppressor function of the host cell.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology
    ISSN: 1471-4914
    E-ISSN: 1471-499X
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