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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Veterinary Microbiology, 28 June 2013, Vol.164(3-4), pp.212-221
    Description: Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is an acute and highly contagious enteric disease of swine caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). The porcine intestinal epithelial cell is the PEDV target cell. In this study, we established a porcine intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) line which can stably express PEDV N protein. We also investigate the subcellular localization and function of PEDV N protein by examining its effects on cell growth, cycle progression, interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression, and survival. The results show that the PEDV N protein localizes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), inhibits the IEC growth and prolongs S-phase cell cycle. The S-phase is prolonged which is associated with a decrease of cyclin A transcription level and an increase of cyclin A degradation. The IEC expressing PEDV N protein can express higher levels of IL-8 than control cells. Further studies show that PEDV N protein induces ER stress and activates NF-κB, which is responsible for the up-regulation of IL-8 and Bcl-2 expression. This is the first report to demonstrate that PEDV N protein can induce cell cycle prolongation at the S-phase, ER stress and up-regulation interleukin-8 expression. These findings provide novel information on the function of the PEDV N protein and are likely to be very useful in understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for PEDV pathogenesis.
    Keywords: Pedv ; N Protein ; S-Phase ; Er Stress ; Il-8 ; Nf-Κb ; Biology ; Veterinary Medicine
    ISSN: 0378-1135
    E-ISSN: 1873-2542
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(5), p.e20506
    Description: There are at least 250 enzymes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M. tuberculosis ) involved in lipid metabolism. Some of the enzymes are required for bacterial survival and full virulence. The esterase Rv0045c shares little amino acid sequence similarity with other members of the esterase/lipase family. Here, we report the 3D structure of Rv0045c. Our studies demonstrated that Rv0045c is a novel member of α/β hydrolase fold family. The structure of esterase Rv0045c contains two distinct domains: the α/β fold domain and the cap domain. The active site of esterase Rv0045c is highly conserved and comprised of two residues: Ser154 and His309. We proposed that Rv0045c probably employs two kinds of enzymatic mechanisms when hydrolyzing C-O ester bonds within substrates. The structure provides insight into the hydrolysis mechanism of the C-O ester bond, and will be helpful in understanding the ester/lipid metabolism in M. tuberculosis .
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Infectious Diseases ; Biophysics ; Biochemistry
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Scientific reports, 23 August 2018, Vol.8(1), pp.12698
    Description: This clinical retrospective study explored factors associated with distal tibiofibular syndesmosis ossification (TFSO) after ankle fracture fixation. Between August 2012 and January 2015, 172 patients with ankle fractures (121 men) with an average age of 46.6 years (range, 22-71 years) were treated surgically...
    Keywords: Fracture Fixation, Internal ; Ankle Fractures -- Surgery ; Ankle Joint -- Pathology ; Osteogenesis -- Physiology
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Virology Journal, 01 January 2013, Vol.10(1), p.26
    Description: Abstract Background Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an important pathogen in swine and is responsible for substantial economic losses. Previous studies suggest that the PEDV E protein plays an important role in the viral assembly process. However, the subcellular localization and other functions of PEDV E protein still require more research. Methods The subcellular localization and function of PEDV E protein were investigated by examining its effects on cell growth, cell cycle progression, interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression and cell survival. Results The results show that plenty of PEDV E protein is localized in the ER, with small quantities localized in the nucleus. The PEDV E protein has no effect on the intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) growth, cell cycle and cyclin A expression. The cells expressing PEDV E protein express higher levels of IL-8 than control cells. Further studies show that PEDV E protein induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activated NF-κB which is responsible for the up-regulation of IL-8 and Bcl-2 expression. Conclusions This study shows that the PEDV E protein is localized in the ER and the nucleus and it can cause ER stress. The PEDV E protein had no effect on the IEC growth and cell cycle. In addition, the PEDV E protein is able to up-regulate IL-8 and Bcl-2 expression.
    Keywords: Pedv ; E Protein ; Er Stress ; Il-8 ; Nf-Κb ; Bcl-2 ; Medicine ; Biology
    ISSN: 1743-422X
    E-ISSN: 1743-422X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Connective Tissue Research, 02 January 2015, Vol.56(1), pp.9-17
    Description: Purpose of the study: Gluteal muscle contracture (GMC) is a chronic fibrotic disease of gluteal muscles which is characterized by excessive deposition of collagen in the extracellular matrix. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-βs have been shown to play an important role in the progression of...
    Keywords: Gluteal Muscle Contracture ; Pai-1 ; Smad2/3 ; Smad7 ; Tgf-Β/Smad Pathway ; Biology ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0300-8207
    E-ISSN: 1607-8438
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Virology Journal, 01 September 2012, Vol.9(1), p.202
    Description: Abstract Background Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) is an important pathogen in cattle that is responsible for substantial economic losses. Previous studies suggest that BHV-1 may induce apoptosis in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells via a mechanism only involving caspases and p53. However, the mechanism for BHV-1-induced MDBK cell apoptosis still requires more research. Methods MDBK was used as a model to study the precise signaling pathways of apoptosis induced by BHV-1 infection. Results BHV-1 infection activated a Fas/FasL-mediated apoptotic pathway, resulting in activation of caspase-8 and cleavage of Bid. In addition, BHV-1 infection down-regulated Bcl-2 and up-regulated Bax expression, thereby initiating the release of cytochrome c followed by caspase-9 activation. The combined activation of the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways resulted in activation of downstream effecter caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), leading to apoptosis. Furthermore, blocking apoptosis using caspase inhibitors improved BHV-1-infected MDBK cell viability to different extent. BHV-1 infection did not induce significant DNA fragmentation in MDBK cells pretreated with ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) or cells infected with UV-inactivated BHV-1. Blocking caspases activation increased BHV-1 replication. Conclusions BHV-1 induces apoptosis in MDBK cells through extrinsic and intrinsic pathways and there might be cross-talk between the two pathways. In addition, BHV-1 replication may be necessary for the induction of apoptosis in BHV-1-infected cells, and prolonged cell viability benefits BHV-1 replication.
    Keywords: Bhv-1 ; Mdbk Cells ; Apoptosis ; Caspase Cascades ; Fas ; Mitochondria ; Medicine ; Biology
    ISSN: 1743-422X
    E-ISSN: 1743-422X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, 20 August 2012, Vol.39(8), pp.385-396
    Description: Albino mutants are useful genetic resource for studying chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast development and cloning genes involved in these processes in plants. Here we report a novel rice mutant ( ) that showed albino leaves before 4-leaf stage when grown under temperature lower than 20°C, but developed normal green leaves under temperature higher than 24°C or similar morphological phenotypes in dark as did the wild-type (WT). Our analysis showed that the contents of chlorophylls and chlorophyll precursors were remarkably decreased in the mutant under low temperature compared to WT. Transmission electron microscope observation revealed that chloroplasts were defectively developed in the albino leaves, which lacked of well-stacked granum and contained less stroma lamellae. These results suggested that the mutation may delay the light-induced thylakoid assembly under low temperature. Genetic analysis indicated that the albino phenotype was controlled by a single recessive locus. Through map-based approach, we finally located the gene to a region of 40.3 kb on the short arm of chromosome 11. There are 8 predicted open reading frames (ORFs) in this region and two of them were deleted in genome compared with the WT genome. The further characterization of the gene would provide a good approach to uncover the novel molecular mechanisms involved in chloroplast development under low temperature stress.
    Keywords: Rice ; Low Temperature Albino ; Mutant ; Chloroplast Development ; Gene Mapping ; Biology
    ISSN: 1673-8527
    E-ISSN: 18735533
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Virologica Sinica, 2016, Vol.31(2), pp.176-179
    Description: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12250-016-3778-5 Byline: Chenglin Deng (1), Siqing Liu (1), Qiuyan Zhang (1,2), Mingyue Xu (1,2), Honglei Zhang (1,2), Dayong Gu (3), Lei Shi (3), Jian'an He (3), Gengfu Xiao (4), Bo Zhang (1) Abstract: Author Affiliation: (1) Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China (2) University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China (3) The Central Laboratory of Health Quarantine, Shenzhen Travel Healthcare Center, Shenzhen Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Shenzhen, 518033, China (4) State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China Article History: Registration Date: 22/04/2016 Online Date: 22/04/2016 Article note: ORCID: 0000-0002-8895-3679
    Keywords: Biosafety ; Quarantine ; Mosquitoes ; Zika Virus;
    ISSN: 1674-0769
    E-ISSN: 1995-820X
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(1), p.e29347
    Description: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus has been widely reported and was considered the main cause of death in critically ill patients with 2009 H1N1 infection. However, no animal model has been developed for ARDS caused by infection with 2009 H1N1 virus. Here, we present a mouse model of ARDS induced by 2009 H1N1 virus. ; Mice were inoculated with A/swine/Shandong/731/2009 (SD/09), which was a 2009 H1N1 influenza variant with a G222D mutation in the hemagglutinin. Clinical symptoms were recorded every day. Lung injury was assessed by lung water content and histopathological observation. Arterial blood gas, leukocyte count in the bronchial alveolar lavage fluid and blood, virus titers, and cytokine levels in the lung were measured at various times post-inoculation. Mice infected with SD/09 virus showed typical ARDS symptoms characterized by 60% lethality on days 8–10 post-inoculation, highly edematous lungs, inflammatory cellular infiltration, alveolar and interstitial edema, lung hemorrhage, progressive and severe hypoxemia, and elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. ; These results suggested that we successfully established an ARDS mouse model induced by a virulent 2009 H1N1 variant without previous adaptation, which may be of benefit for evaluating the pathogenesis or therapy of human ARDS caused by 2009 H1N1 virus.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Virology ; Infectious Diseases ; Physiology ; Respiratory Medicine
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Genetics and Genomics, 2018, Vol.293(4), pp.895-906
    Description: The high-risk of tumor initiation in patients with Turner syndrome (TS) characterized by X chromosome monosomy in women has been well established and aneuploidy, defined as an abnormal number of chromosomes, is a common feature in human cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms of X chromosome aneuploidy promoting tumorigenesis remain obscure. We propose that chromosome-wide gene dosage imbalance (CDI) may serve as an important mechanism. Here, we assess the relative expression ratios of X chromosome and autosomes (expression ratios of X:AA) between tumor samples and adjacent normal samples across 16 tumor types using expression datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Our results show that the expression ratios of X:AA in tumor samples are frequently rebalanced to a lower level compared to those in adjacent normal samples, which is termed chromosome-wide gene dosage rebalance (CDR) thereafter. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of differentially expression genes from X chromosome reveals that downregulation of multicellularity-related genes and upregulation of unicellularity-related genes in tumors form a distinctive feature and enrichment analysis shows that downregulated genes are enriched in tumor suppressor genes, which indicate that CDR benefits tumor progression. Further experimental results prove that disturbance of X chromosome expression by knocking down of XIST in breast cancer cells, which functions in initiation phase of X chromosome inactivation (XCI), inhibits tumor progression. Our results demonstrate that the prevalent CDRs across tumor types serve as an important mechanism in promoting tumor progression, which partially explains the high risk of tumor in patients with TS and also provides a new cancer therapy from the CDR perspective.
    Keywords: Turner syndrome ; Chromosome-wide gene dosage imbalance (CDI) ; Expression ratios of X:AA ; Chromosome-wide gene dosage rebalance (CDR) ; XIST ; TCGA
    ISSN: 1617-4615
    E-ISSN: 1617-4623
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