Nitric Oxide, 2009, Vol.20(4), pp.298-303
This study investigated the effects of extracorporeal shockwave treatment (ESWT) on bone healing and the systemic concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), TGF-β1, VEGF and BMP-2 in long bone non-unions. Forty-two patients with 42 established non-unions of the femur and tibia were enrolled in this study. Each long bone non-union was treated with 6000 impulses of shockwave at 28 kV in a single session. Ten milliliters of peripheral blood were obtained for measurements of serum NO level and osteogenic growth factors including TGF-β1, VEGF and BMP-2; serum levels of calcium, alkaline phosphatase, calcitonin and parathyroid hormone before treatment and at 1 day, 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment. The evaluations for bone healing included clinical assessments and serial radiographic examinations. At 6 months, bony union was radiographically confirmed in 78.6%, and persistent non-union in 21.4%. Patients with bony union showed significantly higher serum NO level, TGF-β1, VEGF and BMP-2 at 1 month after treatment as compared to patients with persistent non-union. Shockwave-promoted bone healing was associated with significant increases in serum NO level and osteogenic growth factors. The elevations of systemic concentration of NO level and the osteogenic factors may reflect a local stimulation of shockwave in bone healing in long bone non-unions.
Shockwave ; Non-Union ; Bone Healing ; Nitric Oxide (No) ; Tgf-Β1 ; Vegf ; Bmp-2 ; Biology ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
View record in ScienceDirect (Access to full text may be restricted)