Neurosurgery, 2000, Vol.46(2), pp.419-419
OBJECTIVE:: Retinoids are known to exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities, and they participate in the onset of differentiation and the inhibition of growth in a wide variety of cancer cells. Some of these vitamin A derivatives are already in clinical use. However, data on retinoid actions in glial tumors are rather sparse. Therefore, we studied the effects of the natural retinoic acid (RA) forms all-trans-RA, 9-cis-RA, and 13-cis-RA on glioma cell lines and primary cultures from patients with glioblastomas multiforme. METHODS:: Six human glioma cell lines, one rat glioma cell line, and 20 primary cultures established from biopsies from patients with glioblastomas multiforme were investigated. Tumor cell proliferation was assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and cell-counting assays. Random migration out of tumor spheroids was quantified using a video-morphometry system. Invasion was investigated using a confrontational coculture test system. Retinoid receptor (RA receptor [RAR]α, -β, and -γ and retinoid X receptor [RXR]α, -β, and -γ) expression status was determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction studies. RESULTS:: Treatment of five human glioma cell lines with the different retinoids at concentrations up to 10 mol/L produced no reduction of proliferation, using various incubation times. For one human glioma cell line (U343MG-A) and one rat glioma cell line (C6), which were previously reported to be sensitive to retinoids, we could confirm strong inhibitory effects on proliferation and clear changes in morphological features after retinoid treatment. Application of the different retinoids to low-passage primary cultures of human glioblastomas resulted in marked inhibition of proliferation (30–95%) for all tested samples. Using three-dimensional spheroid cultures, we detected retinoid-induced decreases in cell migration (24–65%). Invasion was not affected by these vitamin A derivatives. In an analysis of the expression patterns for retinoid receptors (RARs and RXRs), all primary culture samples yielded positive results for RARγ and RXRα and negative results for RARα, RARβ, and RXRγ, whereas the results of RXRβ expression were heterogeneous among different patients. The cell lines, irrespective of their RA sensitivities, did not exhibit any major differences in receptor expression. CONCLUSION:: Retinoids strongly inhibit proliferation and migration in primary cultures of human glioblastomas multiforme. Our data support a clinical trial of retinoids for the treatment of human malignant gliomas. We observed that most established cell lines were not sensitive to RA. This difference between long-term cell lines and primary cultures cannot be explained by different retinoid receptor expression patterns.
Brain Neoplasms -- Pathology ; Cell Division -- Drug Effects ; Glioblastoma -- Pathology ; Retinoids -- Pharmacology ; Tumor Cells, Cultured -- Drug Effects;
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