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  • Cadmium
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Biogeosciences, Jan 8, 2018, Vol.15(1), p.105
    Description: The exchange rate of inorganic phosphorus (P) between the soil solution and solid phase, also known as soil solution P turnover, is essential for describing the kinetics of bioavailable P. While soil solution P turnover (K.sub.m) can be determined by tracing radioisotopes in a soil-solution system, few studies have done so. We believe that this is due to a lack of understanding on how to derive K.sub.m from isotopic exchange kinetic (IEK) experiments, a common form of radioisotope dilution study. Here, we provide a derivation of calculating K.sub.m using parameters obtained from IEK experiments. We then calculated K.sub.m for 217 soils from published IEK experiments in terrestrial ecosystems, and also that of 18 long-term P fertilizer field experiments. Analysis of the global compilation data set revealed a negative relationship between concentrations of soil solution P and K.sub.m . Furthermore, K.sub.m buffered isotopically exchangeable P in soils with low concentrations of soil solution P. This finding was supported by an analysis of long-term P fertilizer field experiments, which revealed a negative relationship between K.sub.m and phosphate-buffering capacity. Our study highlights the importance of calculating K.sub.m for understanding the kinetics of P between the soil solid and solution phases where it is bioavailable. We argue that our derivation can also be used to calculate soil solution turnover of other environmentally relevant and strongly sorbing elements that can be traced with radioisotopes, such as zinc, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, and uranium.
    Keywords: Soil Phosphorus – Properties ; Chemical Kinetics – Models ; Biogeochemical Cycles – Models
    ISSN: 1726-4170
    ISSN: 17264189
    E-ISSN: 17264189
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 December 2017, Vol.599-600, pp.1330-1343
    Description: Zinc (Zn) deficiency in human populations depending on cereals as a main source of Zn is a global malnutrition problem. In this field study, we investigated the potential of green manure application to increase soil Zn availability and wheat grain Zn concentrations (biofortification) on a Luvisol with different long-term fertilizer management. We also studied cadmium (Cd), as wheat is a major contributor of this undesired non-essential element to human diets. Clover ( L.), mustard ( L.) or no green manure was grown on field plots which had been managed with farmyard manure or mineral fertilizers for 65 years in Switzerland. After green manure incorporation into the soil, spring wheat ( L.) was grown on all plots. The “diffusive gradients in thin films” (DGT) method and DTPA extraction were used to compare soil Zn and Cd availability among the treatments. In contrast to mustard, clover increased soil mineral nitrogen concentrations and wheat biomass; however, neither increased grain Zn concentrations. DGT-available Zn and Cd increased temporarily after both farmyard manure and mineral nitrogen fertilizer application. Higher DTPA-extractable soil Zn and Cd, lower wheat grain yields, but higher grain Zn concentrations were obtained with farmyard manure compared to mineral fertilizers, independent of the green manure treatment. Farmyard manure added Zn, Cd and organic matter that increased the soil binding capacity for Zn and Cd. The decomposition of clover residues caused higher wheat grain yields, but only marginally lower grain Zn concentrations. The absence of a stronger dilution of grain Zn was probably due to organic acid and nitrogen release from decomposing clover, which facilitated Zn uptake by wheat. The study revealed that both long- and short-term field management with organic matter alters soil Zn and Cd concentrations but that the long-term effects dominate their uptake by wheat, in Zn sufficient soil.
    Keywords: Bioavailability ; Biofortification ; Dgt ; Farmyard Manure ; Legume ; Non-Legume ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 3
    In: New Phytologist, July 2018, Vol.219(1), pp.195-205
    Description: Remobilization of zinc (Zn) from shoot to grain contributes significantly to Zn grain concentrations and thereby to food quality. On the other hand, strong accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in grain is detrimental for food quality. Zinc concentrations and isotope ratios were measured in wheat shoots (Triticum aestivum) at different growth stages to elucidate Zn pathways and processes in the shoot during grain filling. Zinc mass significantly decreased while heavy Zn isotopes accumulated in straw during grain filling (Δ66Znfull maturity–flowering = 0.21–0.31‰). Three quarters of the Zn mass in the shoot moved to the grains, which were enriched in light Zn isotopes relative to the straw (Δ66Zngrain–straw −0.21 to −0.31‰). Light Zn isotopes accumulated in phloem sinks while heavy isotopes were retained in phloem sources likely because of apoplastic retention and compartmentalization. Unlike for Zn, an accumulation of heavy Cd isotopes in grains has previously been shown. The opposing isotope fractionation of Zn and Cd might be caused by distinct affinities of Zn and Cd to oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur ligands. Thus, combined Zn and Cd isotope analysis provides a novel tool to study biochemical processes that separate these elements in plants.
    Keywords: Cadmium Cd ; Element Speciation ; Isotope Ratios ; Remobilization ; Wheat ; Zinc Zn
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 20 February 2018, Vol.52(4), pp.1919-1928
    Description: The application of mineral phosphate (P) fertilizers leads to an unintended Cd input into agricultural systems, which might affect soil fertility and quality of crops. The Cd fluxes at three arable sites in Switzerland were determined by a detailed analysis of all inputs (atmospheric deposition, mineral P fertilizers, manure, and weathering) and outputs (seepage water, wheat and barley harvest) during one hydrological year. The most important inputs were mineral P fertilizers (0.49 to 0.57 g Cd ha yr) and manure (0.20 to 0.91 g Cd ha yr). Mass balances revealed net Cd losses for cultivation of wheat (-0.01 to -0.49 g Cd ha yr) but net accumulations for that of barley (+0.18 to +0.71 g Cd ha yr). To trace Cd sources and redistribution processes in the soils, we used natural variations in the Cd stable isotope compositions. Cadmium in seepage water (δCd = 0.39 to 0.79‰) and plant harvest (0.27 to 0.94‰) was isotopically heavier than in soil (-0.21 to 0.14‰). Consequently, parent material weathering shifted bulk soil isotope compositions to lighter signals following a Rayleigh fractionation process (ε ≈ 0.16). Furthermore, soil-plant cycling extracted isotopically heavy Cd from the subsoil and moved it to the topsoil. These long-term processes and not anthropogenic inputs determined the Cd distribution in our soils.
    Keywords: Soil ; Soil Pollutants
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 06 September 2016, Vol.50(17), pp.9223-31
    Description: Analyses of stable metal isotope ratios constitute a novel tool in order to improve our understanding of biogeochemical processes in soil-plant systems. In this study, we used such measurements to assess Cd uptake and transport in wheat grown on three agricultural soils under controlled conditions. Isotope ratios of Cd were determined in the bulk C and A horizons, in the Ca(NO3)2-extractable Cd soil pool, and in roots, straw, and grains. The Ca(NO3)2-extractable Cd was isotopically heavier than the Cd in the bulk A horizon (Δ(114/110)Cdextract-Ahorizon = 0.16 to 0.45‰). The wheat plants were slightly enriched in light isotopes relative to the Ca(NO3)2-extractable Cd or showed no significant difference (Δ(114/110)Cdwheat-extract = -0.21 to 0.03‰). Among the plant parts, Cd isotopes were markedly fractionated: straw was isotopically heavier than roots (Δ(114/110)Cdstraw-root = 0.21 to 0.41‰), and grains were heavier than straw (Δ(114/110)Cdgrain-straw = 0.10 to 0.51‰). We suggest that the enrichment of heavy isotopes in the wheat grains was caused by mechanisms avoiding the accumulation of Cd in grains, such as the chelation of light Cd isotopes by thiol-containing peptides in roots and straw. These results demonstrate that Cd isotopes are significantly and systematically fractionated in soil-wheat systems, and the fractionation patterns provide information on the biogeochemical processes in these systems.
    Keywords: Cadmium ; Soil
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Agronomy, April 2012, Vol.38, pp.12-21
    Description: ► We investigated how the diversity of fertilization practices between and within urban vegetable sites affect soil and crop quality. ► We sampled soil and lettuce leaves in urban vegetables gardens and we collected information about farmer's fertilization practices. ► Site identity determined the fertilization practices and soil and crop quality. ► The use of solid and liquid waste increased soil nutrient and metal contents while use of mineral fertilizers increased soil available P, decreased soil pH and increased crop metal uptake. In this study we wanted to know whether diversity in fertilization practices between and within urban vegetable sites exists and how does this diversity affect soil and crop quality. We sampled soils (at 0–15 and 15–30 cm depth) and lettuce leaves ( ) at four vegetable growing sites in Ouagadougou called Boulmiougou, Hopital, Tanghin and Wayalguin. We determined the pH, total carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and inorganic P contents, and available P and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, and Ni) contents in these soils. We evaluated also the lettuce leaves yields and we analyzed them for their N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na and Cd, Cu, and Zn contents. We also interviewed farmers about their fertilization practices. We observed a large diversity of fertilization practices between and within sites. We found that site identity explained a very large fraction of the variability of fertilization practices, soil chemical properties and lettuce leaves production and element contents. The effect of the site was explained by the proximity to nutrient sources, the location of the site in the landscape, the presence of farmers’ association, and farmers’ skills. Solid waste and waste water were major sources of nutrients at the sites located inside the city (Hopital, Tanghin, and Wayalguin) while at Boulmiougou which is located in the periphery, manure and mineral fertilizers were the preferred sources of nutrients. The proximity of the site Tanghin to a major road led to the highest soil Pb content which was attributed to atmospheric pollution. The higher lettuce leaves yields in site Boulmiougou was attributed to good technical skill of farmers. The use of solid waste and waste water led to N, P and metals accumulation in soil. Zn and Cu content in the lettuce leaves were negatively correlated to soil pH, while Cd content in lettuce leaves was correlated to the use of water soluble P fertilizers.
    Keywords: Urban Agriculture ; Vegetable Gardens ; Lettuce ; Phosphates ; Organic Matter ; Heavy Metals ; Ouagadougou ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 1161-0301
    E-ISSN: 1873-7331
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 January 2019, Vol.648, pp.779-786
    Description: Applications of mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer can lead to cadmium (Cd) accumulation in soils and can increase Cd concentrations in edible crop parts. To determine the fate of freshly applied Cd, a Cd source tracing experiment was conducted in three soil-fertilizer-wheat systems by using a mineral P fertilizer labeled with the radio isotope Cd and by exploiting natural differences in Cd stable isotope compositions (δ Cd). Source tracing with stable isotopes overestimated the proportion of Cd in plants derived from the P fertilizer, because the isotope ratios of the sources were not sufficiently distinct from those of the soils. Despite indistinguishable extractable Cd pools between control and treatments, the addition of P fertilizer resulted in a more negative apparent isotope fractionation between soil and wheat. Overall, the radio isotope approach provided more robust results and revealed that 6.5 to 15% of the Cd in the shoot derived from the fertilizer. From the introduced Cd, a maximum of 2.2% reached the wheat shoots, whilst 97.8% remained in the roots and soils. The low recoveries of the fertilizer derived Cd suggest that continuous P fertilizer application in the past decades can lead to a build-up of a residual Cd pool in soils.
    Keywords: Cadmium ; Mineral P Fertilizer ; Radio Isotopes ; Source Tracing ; Stable Isotopes ; Wheat ; Pot Experiment ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISBN: 4070200262
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 June 2019, Vol.669, pp.608-620
    Description: Wheat is a staple food crop and a major source of both the essential micronutrient zinc (Zn) and the toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd) for humans. Since Zn and Cd are chemically similar, increasing Zn concentrations in wheat grains (biofortification), while preventing Cd accumulation, is an agronomic challenge. We used two Swiss agricultural long-term field trials, the “Dynamic-Organic-Conventional System Comparison Trial” (DOK) and the “Zurich Organic Fertilization Experiment” (ZOFE), to investigate the impact of long-term organic, mineral and combined fertilizer inputs on total and phytoavailable concentrations of soil Zn and Cd and their accumulation in winter wheat ( L.). “Diffusive gradients in thin films” (DGT) and diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extraction were used as proxies for plant available soil metals. Compared to unfertilized controls, long-term organic fertilization with composted manure or green waste compost led to higher soil organic carbon, cation exchange capacity and pH, while DGT-available Zn and Cd concentrations were reduced. The DGT method was a strong predictor of shoot and grain Cd, but not Zn concentrations. Shoot and grain Zn concentrations correlated with DTPA-extractable and total soil Zn concentrations in the ZOFE, but not the DOK trial. Long-term compost fertilization led to lower accumulation of Cd in wheat grains, but did not affect grain Zn. Therefore, Zn/Cd ratios in the grains increased. High Zn and Cd inputs with organic fertilizers and high Cd inputs with phosphate fertilizers led to positive Zn and Cd mass balances when taking into account atmospheric deposition and fertilizer inputs. On the other hand, mineral fertilization led to the depletion of soil Zn due to higher yields and thus higher Zn exports than under organic management. The study supports the use of organic fertilizers for reducing Cd concentrations of wheat grains in the long-term, given that the quality of the fertilizers is guaranteed.
    Keywords: Cropping System ; Dgt ; Long-Term Field Trials ; Plant Available Soil Metals ; Zn Biofortification ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, January 2019, Vol.244, pp.834-844
    Description: Cd in soils might be taken up by plants, enter the food chain and endanger human health. This study investigates the isotopic fractionation of major processes during the Cd transfer from soils to cereal grains. Thereto, soil, soil solution, wheat and barley plants (roots, straw and grains) were sampled in the field at three study sites during two vegetation periods. Cd concentrations and δ Cd values were determined in all samples. The composition of the soil solution was analyzed and the speciation of the dissolved Cd was modelled. Isotopic fractionation between soils and soil solutions (Δ Cd  = −0.61 to −0.68‰) was nearly constant among the three soils. Cd isotope compositions in plants were heavier than in soils (Δ Cd  = −0.55 to −0.31‰) but lighter than in soil solutions (Δ Cd  = 0.06–0.36‰) and these differences correlated with Cd plant-uptake rates. In a conceptual model, desorption from soil, soil solution speciation, adsorption on root surfaces, diffusion, and plant uptake were identified as the responsible processes for the Cd isotope fractionation between soil, soil solution and plants whereas the first two processes dominated over the last three processes. Within plants, compartments with lower Cd concentrations were enriched in light isotopes which might be a consequence of Cd retention mechanisms, following a Rayleigh fractionation, in which barley cultivars were more efficient than wheat cultivars. The isotopic fractionation between soil and soil solution is mainly driven by shorter bond length of aqueous than sorped Cd, while the fractionation between soil and plant depend on pool size effects and the plant internal fractionation is controlled by Cd retention mechanisms which are more efficient in barley than wheat plants.
    Keywords: Cadmium ; Cereal ; Plant Metal Uptake ; Soil ; Soil Solution ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Soil Science, 2008, Vol.59, pp.716-729
    Description: Correct characterization of heavy metal availability is a prerequisite for the management of polluted soils. Our objective was to describe zinc (Zn) availability in polluted soils by measuring the isotopic exchangeability of Zn in soil/solution...
    Keywords: Sciences of the Universe ; Continental Interfaces, Environment ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 1351-0754
    E-ISSN: 1365-2389
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