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  • 1
    In: Journal of Ecology, May 2017, Vol.105(3), pp.761-774
    Description: Promoting mixed‐species forests is an important strategy for adaptation and risk reduction in the face of global change. Concurrently, a main challenge in ecology is to quantify the effects of species diversity on ecosystem functioning. In forests, the effects of individual tree species on ecosystem functions depend largely on their dimensions, which are commonly predicted using allometric equations. However, little is known about how diversity influences allometry or how to incorporate this effect into allometric equations. Ignoring the effects of interspecific interactions on allometric relationships may result in severely biased predictions. This study examined the effects of tree‐species diversity, competition and tree social status on crown‐projection area (cpa), height (h) and live‐crown length (lcl) of trees using a European‐wide data set containing 17 target species and 12 939 trees. The cpa, h and lcl were predicted as functions of stem diameter at 1·3 m, tree‐species diversity, tree height relative to the stand mean height (rh) and a competition index (CI) that accounted for stand density and interspecific differences in competitive ability based on species‐specific wood density or shade tolerance. Averaged across species, diameter had the greatest effect on cpa and lcl, followed by the competition index, while rh had the greatest effect on lcl. Tree‐species diversity had the smallest effect on cpa, h and lcl. Interspecific variability in cpa, h or lcl responses to diversity, CI, or rh was sometimes related to wood density or shade tolerance. Synthesis. This study shows the strong influence of stand structure and species composition on allometric relationships. These influences can be quantified using measures of competition, tree‐species diversity and relative tree height so that general equations can be developed for a given species to be applied to a wide range of species compositions and stand structures. This new approach will greatly improve predictions of biomass and carbon stocks in structurally and compositionally diverse forests. Tree allometry is influenced by, and influences, many forest functions. However, little is known about how allometry of a given species varies with forest structure and tree‐species composition, or whether any interspecific differences in allometric responses relate to species traits. Using a European wide data set, this study shows how stand structural characteristics and tree‐species diversity can influence tree allometry.
    Keywords: Biodiversity ; Biomass Partitioning ; Complementarity ; Plant Allometry ; Plant–Plant Interactions ; Stand Structure ; Tree Height
    ISSN: 0022-0477
    E-ISSN: 1365-2745
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 15 December 2016, Vol.382, pp.129-142
    Description: In forest ecosystems, deadwood is an important component that provides habitat and contributes to nutrient cycles, as well as to carbon and water storage. The change of wood constituents, nutrients and microbial species richness in the field over the whole time of decomposition has only rarely been studied, in particular not in relation to oxidative enzyme activities (mediating lignin degradation) and different forest management regimes. To describe wood decomposition, we selected coarse woody debris (CWD) in form of 197 logs of , and in forests with different management regimes across three regions in Germany. They were sampled and analyzed for wood density, water content, wood constituents (Klason and acid-soluble lignin, organic extractives, water-soluble lignin fragments), carbon, nitrogen and metals (Al, Ca, Cu, K, Mg, Mn and Zn). Furthermore, the activities of oxidative enzymes like laccase, manganese peroxidase, and general peroxidase were measured. Since filamentous fungi (Basidiomycota, Ascomycota) are the major biological agents of wood decomposition, fungal species richness based on sporocarps and molecular fingerprints was recorded. Higher forest management intensity had a negative effect on deadwood volume and in consequence on fungal species richness (sporocarps), but hardly to other analyzed variables. Furthermore, there were significant differences between the tree species for the concentrations of wood constituents and most nutrients as well as the activities of oxidative enzymes, although their course during decomposition was mostly similar among the tree species. We found that molecular species richness increased with the period of decomposition in contrast to the number of fruiting species, which was highest in the intermediate stage of decomposition. Both types of species richness increased with increasing volume of the CWD logs. Regarding the entire period of decomposition, white-rot fungi (WRF), based on identification of sporocarps, were the most abundant group of wood-decaying fungi in all three tree species. This corresponds well with the overall presence of laccase and peroxidases and the concomitant substantial loss of lignin, which points to the importance of these enzymes in deadwood decomposition. We found a continuous decomposition and decline of volume-related concentrations in wood constituents and nutrients with time of decomposition. Contrary to volume-related concentrations, the concentrations related to dry mass frequently increased.
    Keywords: Saproxylic Fungi ; Oxidative Enzyme ; Nutrients ; Lignin ; Forest Management Intensity ; Coarse Woody Debris ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 01 June 2013, Vol.28(4), pp.346-357
    Description: Coarse woody debris (CWD) is critical for forest ecosystem carbon (C) storage in many ecosystems. Since the turnover of CWD is mostly driven by mineralization, changes in temperature and precipitation may influence its pools and functions. Therefore, we analysed, under controlled conditions,...
    Keywords: Coarse Woody Debris ; Carbon ; Respiration ; Decomposition ; Forestry
    ISSN: 0282-7581
    E-ISSN: 1651-1891
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecosystems, 2018, Vol.5(1), pp.1-15
    Description: Abstract Background Coarse woody debris (CWD) is very important for forest ecosystems, particularly for biodiversity and carbon storage. Its relevance as a possible reservoir and source of nutrients is less clear, especially in central Europe. Methods Based on a chronosequence of known ages of logs, we analyzed the nutrients stored in CWD of Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies, and Pinus sylvestris at different sites in Germany. To quantify nutrient concentrations, we assessed the use of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) to determine the chemical properties of CWD. Results NIRS models were suitable to predict concentrations of C, N, P, lignin and extractives. Concentrations of most nutrients increased with mass loss, with the exception of potassium, which decreased for beech and pine and remained relatively constant for spruce. The highest nutrient concentrations (N, P, S, Ca and Mn, except Mg and K) were generally observed in highly decomposed spruce logs. The net effect of decreasing CWD mass and increasing nutrient concentrations was either a decreasing (N, P and K in beech; P, Mg, K and Mn in pine), constant (S, Ca and Mg in beech; N, S and Ca in pine) or increasing amount of nutrients (N, P, S and Ca in spruce; Mn in beech) in the logs over the course of decomposition. The C/N ratio decreased for all tree species, most markedly for spruce from ca. 1000 at the beginning of the decomposition process to 180 at 36 years. The N/P ratio converged to a value of about 30 for all three species. Lignin concentrations increased for spruce and beech and remained constant for pine. Conclusions Our results indicate that most nutrients remain in CWD for long periods. Nutrients may be used and cycled by microorganisms within CWD, but with the exception of P (in beech), Mg (in pine) and K (in beech and pine), there appears to be little net nutrient export until two thirds of the mass is lost. Instead, N, P, S and Ca were accumulated in spruce logs, indicating that CWD became a net sink rather than a net source of some nutrients for several decades.
    Keywords: CWD ; NIRS ; Decay ; Carbon ; F. sylvatica ; P. abies ; P. sylvestris
    ISSN: 20956355
    E-ISSN: 2197-5620
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecosystems, 2015, Vol.2(1), pp.1-14
    Description: Background Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important element of forest structure that needs to be considered when managing forests for biodiversity, carbon storage or bioenergy. To manage it effectively, dynamics of CWD decomposition should be known. Methods Using a chronosequence approach, we assessed the decomposition rates of downed CWD of Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris, which was sampled from three different years of tree fall and three different initial diameter classes (〉10 - [less than or equal to] 20 cm, 〉20 - [less than or equal to]40 cm, 〉40 cm). Samples originating from wind throws in 1999 were collected along a temperature and precipitation gradient. Based on the decay class and associated wood densities, log volumes were converted into CWD mass and C content. Log fragmentation was assessed over one year for log segments of intermediate diameters (〉20 - 40 cm) after 8 and 18 years of decomposition. Results Significantly higher decomposition constants (k) were found in logs of F. sylvatica (0.054 year^sup -1^) than in P. abies (0.033 year^sup -1^) and P. sylvestris (0.032 year^sup -1^). However, mass loss of P. sylvestris occurred mainly in sapwood and hence k for the whole wood may be overestimated. Decomposition rates generally decreased with increasing log diameter class except for smaller dimensions in P. abies. About 74 % of the variation in mass remaining could be explained by decomposition time (27 %), tree species (11 %), diameter (17 %), the interactive effects between tree species and diameter (4 %) as well as between decomposition time and tree species (3 %) and a random factor (site and tree; 9.5 %), whereas temperature explained only 2 %. Wood fragmentation may play a more important role than previously thought. Here, between 14 % and 30 % of the decomposition rates (for the first 18 years) were attributable to this process. Carbon (C) density (mgC·cm^sup -3^), which was initially highest for F. sylvatica, followed by P. sylvestris and P. abies, decreased with increasing decay stage to similar values for all species. Conclusions The apparent lack of climate effects on decomposition of logs in the field indicates that regional decomposition models for CWD may be developed on the basis of information on decomposition time, tree species and dimension only. These can then be used to predict C dynamics in CWD as input for C accounting models and for habitat management.
    Keywords: Dead wood ; Carbon ; Decay rate ; Beech ; Spruce ; Pine
    ISSN: 20956355
    E-ISSN: 2197-5620
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 05 October 2018, Vol.362(6410), pp.80-83
    Description: Biodiversity experiments have shown that species loss reduces ecosystem functioning in grassland. To test whether this result can be extrapolated to forests, the main contributors to terrestrial primary productivity, requires large-scale experiments. We manipulated tree species richness by planting more than 150,000 trees in plots with 1 to 16 species. Simulating multiple extinction scenarios, we found that richness strongly increased stand-level productivity. After 8 years, 16-species mixtures had accumulated over twice the amount of carbon found in average monocultures and similar amounts as those of two commercial monocultures. Species richness effects were strongly associated with functional and phylogenetic diversity. A shrub addition treatment reduced tree productivity, but this reduction was smaller at high shrub species richness. Our results encourage multispecies afforestation strategies to restore biodiversity and mitigate climate change.
    Keywords: Biodiversity ; Climate Change ; Extinction, Biological ; Forests ; Trees -- Classification
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Écoscience, 01 December 2012, Vol.19(4), pp.364-373
    Description: The flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from aboveground litter into the soil is generally considered an important pathway for carbon transport. However, the extent to which dead wood, a highly concentrated source of carbon (C), may contribute not only to this flux but also to the accumulation...
    Keywords: Coarse Woody Debris ; Dendrochronology ; Paired T-Test ; Stable Carbon Isotopes ; Tension Lysimeter ; Unmanaged Forest ; Débris Ligneux Grossiers ; Dendrochronologie ; Forêt Non Aménagée ; Isotopes Stables Du Carbone ; Lysimètre À Tension ; Test T Pour Échantillons Appariés ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology
    ISSN: 1195-6860
    E-ISSN: 2376-7626
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Soil Science Society of America Journal, 2014, Vol.78(S1), p.S23
    Description: Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and partial least squares regression were used to develop prediction models for identifying the species of origin of soil organic C (SOC) in semiarid montane forests of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and mixed conifers in Utah. Artificial mixtures of mineral soils (0–15 cm) sampled under pure aspen and pure conifer cover (n = 415) at four locations were divided into a calibration–validation set (n = 265) for model development and an independent validation set (n = 150) to test model robustness. Models in the 10,000 to 4000 cm−1 spectral region were developed separately with original soil spectra (OS) and organic matter spectra (OM) using the full and truncated (10th–90th percentile) sample sets. The OS models performed better than OM models, and the best OS models showed good prediction ability at the validation step, with R2 = 76%, ratio of standard deviation of reference value to standard error of prediction (RPD) = 2.1 for aspen SOC, and R2 = 74%, RPD = 2.0 for conifer SOC. Model performance decreased at independent validation (R2 = 33– 49%, RPD = 1.2–1.6), probably due to unaccounted variability of site-specific factors in SOC chemical composition within and among aspen and conifer soils. Current models are still somewhat limited for accurately predicting contributions of aspen vs. conifers in independent samples. More detailed site information, such as texture, mineralogy, geology, and land use history is needed to improve models so that they can be used to provide insight into SOC properties changes along a continuum of aspen to conifer forests in the western United States.
    Keywords: Agriculture;
    ISSN: Soil Science Society of America Journal
    E-ISSN: 0361-5995
    E-ISSN: 14350661
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 2006, Vol.233(2), pp.275-284
    Description: Aboveground biomass was twice as high in mixtures of and when compared to monocultures after 11 years. This was attributed to increased nutrient availability and accelerated rates of N and P cycling in mixtures. This study examined whether the increase in aboveground biomass production was associated with an increase in total productivity (both above- and belowground), a change in C partitioning (from below to aboveground) or both. Total annual belowground C allocation (TBCA) was determined during year 11 in a mixed-species trial near Cann River, southeastern Australia. Monocultures of (100%E) and (100%A) and mixtures of these species (50%E:50%A) were planted in a replacement series. Using a conservation of mass approach, TBCA was estimated as soil carbon dioxide (CO ) efflux C minus the C input from aboveground litter plus changes in the C stored in soil, roots and the forest floor litter layer. Aboveground net primary production (ANPP) was also estimated to enable comparison of ratios of above and belowground fluxes between treatments. TBCA ranged from 14.6 to 16.3 Mg C ha year and was not significantly different in 100%E, 50%E:50%A and 100%A. Higher ratios of ANPP:TBCA in the mixtures (0.41) than in either monoculture (100%A:0.28 100%E:0.31) indicated that trees in mixture partitioned a lower proportion of assimilated C belowground than those in monocultures. Since the mixture was as productive as monocultures belowground but more productive aboveground, it appears to be more productive overall and thus have the potential to increase C sequestration above that of monocultures.
    Keywords: Acacia Mearnsii ; Carbon Allocation ; Carbon Sequestration ; Eucalyptus Globulus ; Mixed-Species Plantation ; Soil Respiration ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 2005, Vol.220(1), pp.75-87
    Description: Soil organic matter (SOM) has been adopted as an indicator of soil fertility based on the rationale that SOM contributes significantly to soil physical, chemical, and biological properties that affect vital ecosystem processes of forests in Australia. A study was undertaken to evaluate the utility of SOM as an indicator of SFM at two long-term experimental sites in native eucalypt forests, including Silvertop Ash ( L. Johnson) and Mountain Ash ( F. Muell.) in Victoria. This study examines the relative contributions made by various sources of carbon in soil profiles (0–30 cm) of forest soils, viz. mineral soil (〈2 mm), plant residues, charcoal (〉2 mm), and rock fragments (〉2 mm). The long-term changes in these fractions in response to management-induced soil physical disturbance and fire (unburnt, moderate and high intensity) were evaluated. After 10 years, carbon levels in the fine soil fraction (soil 〈2 mm including fine charcoal) were similar across the range of fire disturbance classes in Mountain Ash forest (20–25 kg/m ) and Silvertop Ash forest (7–8 kg/m ). Likewise differences in carbon associated with other fractions, viz. microbial biomass, labile carbon, plant residues and rock fragments were comparatively small and could not be attributed to fire disturbance. Burning increased the charcoal carbon fraction from 5 to 23 kg/m in Mountain Ash forest and from 1 to 3 kg/m in Silvertop Ash forest. Taking into account, the percentage area affected by fire, increases in total soil carbon in these forests were estimated at 25 and 7 t/ha, respectively. The effects of physical disturbance of soils were examined at one site in Mountain Ash forest where soil cultivation was used as site preparation rather than the standard practice of burning of logging residues. Total carbon in soil profiles decreased from 29 to 21 kg/m where soil disturbance was severe, i.e. topsoil removed and subsoil disturbed. This was mainly due to a decrease in charcoal carbon from 6.8 to 1.7 kg/m but severe soil disturbance also increased the amount of carbon associated with rock fragments from 1.6 to 3.5 kg/m . Management-induced fire increased the coarse charcoal content of soil profiles substantially, thus increasing total carbon content as well as the proportion of recalcitrant carbon in SOM. In contrast, there was little change in the carbon content of the fine soil fraction including the labile and biologically active fractions indicating that these SOM fractions most relevant to ecosystem processes showed little long-term impact from soil disturbance and fire. Conventional sampling of the fine soil fraction (〈2 mm) only represented between 50% and 70% of total carbon in the soil profiles. In contrast, total nitrogen in this fraction represented between 75% and 90% of the nitrogen in soil profiles and was less affected by changes in the contributions of N made by coarse fractions. Monitoring of soil N rather than C as an indicator of soil fertility and SFM may be more appropriate for forest soils with significant charcoal content.
    Keywords: Carbon ; Soil Organic Matter ; Nitrogen ; Forest Soil ; Charcoal ; Rock Fragments ; Eucalypt Forest ; Sustainability Indicator ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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