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  • Cell Proliferation
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Biochemical journal, 01 July 2008, Vol.413(1), pp.143-50
    Description: HDACs (histone deacetylases) are considered to be among the most important enzymes that regulate gene expression in eukaryotic cells. In general, increased levels of histone acetylation are associated with increased transcriptional activity, whereas decreased levels are linked to repression of gene expression. HDACs associate with a number of cellular oncogenes and tumour-suppressor genes, leading to an aberrant recruitment of HDAC activity, which results in changes of gene expression, impaired differentiation and excessive proliferation of tumour cells. Therefore HDAC inhibitors are efficient anti-proliferative agents in both in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical models of cancer, making them promising anticancer therapeutics. In the present paper, we present the results of a medium-throughput screening programme aiming at the identification of novel HDAC inhibitors using HDAH (HDAC-like amidohydrolase) from Bordetella or Alcaligenes strain FB188 as a model enzyme. Within a library of 3719 compounds, several new classes of HDAC inhibitor were identified. Among these hit compounds, there were also potent inhibitors of eukaryotic HDACs, as demonstrated by an increase in histone H4 acetylation, accompanied by a decrease in tumour cell metabolism in both SHEP neuroblastoma and T24 bladder carcinoma cells. In conclusion, screening of a compound library using FB188 HDAH as model enzyme identified several promising new lead structures for further development.
    Keywords: Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors ; Enzyme Inhibitors -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 02646021
    E-ISSN: 1470-8728
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Cancer, 01 May 2013, Vol.132(9), pp.2200-2208
    Description: Inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity as stand‐alone or combination therapy represents a promising therapeutic approach in oncology. The pan‐ or class I HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) currently approved or in clinical studies for oncology give rise to dose‐limiting toxicities, presumably because of the inhibition of several HDACs. This could potentially be overcome by selective blockade of single HDAC family members. Here we report that HDAC11, the most recently identified zinc‐dependent HDAC, is overexpressed in several carcinomas as compared to corresponding healthy tissues. HDAC11 depletion is sufficient to cause cell death and to inhibit metabolic activity in HCT‐116 colon, PC‐3 prostate, MCF‐7 breast and SK‐OV‐3 ovarian cancer cell lines. The antitumoral effect induced can be mimicked by enforced expression of a catalytically impaired HDAC11 variant, suggesting that inhibition of the enzymatic activity of HDAC11 by small molecules could trigger the desired phenotypic changes. HDAC11 depletion in normal cells causes no changes in metabolic activity and viability, strongly suggesting that tumor‐selective effects can be achieved. Altogether, our data show that HDAC11 plays a critical role in cancer cell survival and may represent a novel drug target in oncology. What's new? Histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes influence the regulation of numerous cellular processes, and their inhibition by small molecules has been shown to provide benefits against multiple cancer types. Here, HDAC11, a recently identified member of the HDAC family, was found to play an important role in the control of proliferation and survival pathways in several carcinoma cell lines. The high incidence of the tumors represented suggests that HDAC11 could be a valuable drug target in oncology.
    Keywords: Chromatin Modulation ; Targeted Therapy ; Histone Deacetylase ; Colon Cancer ; Prostate Cancer
    ISSN: 0020-7136
    E-ISSN: 1097-0215
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 15 June 2010, Vol.16(12), pp.3240-52
    Description: Medulloblastomas are the most common malignant brain tumors in childhood. Survivors suffer from high morbidity because of therapy-related side effects. Thus, therapies targeting tumors in a specific manner with small molecules such as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are urgently warranted. This study investigated the expression levels of individual human HDAC family members in primary medulloblastoma samples, their potential as risk stratification markers, and their roles in tumor cell growth. Gene expression arrays were used to screen for HDAC1 through HDAC11. Using quantitative real time reverse transcriptase-PCR and immunohistochemistry, we studied the expression of HDAC5 and HDAC9 in primary medulloblastoma samples. In addition, we conducted functional studies using siRNA-mediated knockdown of HDAC5 and HDAC9 in medulloblastoma cells. HDAC5 and HDAC9 showed the highest expression in prognostically poor subgroups. This finding was validated in an independent set of medulloblastoma samples. High HDAC5 and HDAC9 expression was significantly associated with poor overall survival, with high HDAC5 and HDAC9 expression posing an independent risk factor. Immunohistochemistry revealed a strong expression of HDAC5 and HDAC9 proteins in most of all primary medulloblastomas investigated. siRNA-mediated knockdown of HDAC5 or HDAC9 in medulloblastoma cells resulted in decreased cell growth and cell viability. HDAC5 and HDAC9 are significantly upregulated in high-risk medulloblastoma in comparison with low-risk medulloblastoma, and their expression is associated with poor survival. Thus, HDAC5 and HDAC9 may be valuable markers for risk stratification. Because our functional studies point toward a role in medulloblastoma cell growth, HDAC5 and HDAC9 may potentially be novel drug targets.
    Keywords: Biomarkers, Tumor -- Metabolism ; Brain Neoplasms -- Metabolism ; Histone Deacetylases -- Metabolism ; Medulloblastoma -- Metabolism ; Repressor Proteins -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 1078-0432
    E-ISSN: 15573265
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2010, Vol.78(1), pp.237-245
    Description: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) can enhance the sensitivity of cells to photon radiation treatment (XRT) by altering numerous molecular pathways. We investigated the effect of pan-HDACIs such as suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) on radiation response in two osteosarcoma (OS) and two rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cell lines. Clonogenic survival, cell cycle analysis, and apoptosis were examined in OS (KHOS-24OS, SAOS2) and RMS (A-204, RD) cell lines treated with HDACI and HDACI plus XRT, respectively. Protein expression was investigated via immunoblot analysis, and cell cycle analysis and measurement of apoptosis were performed using flow cytometry. SAHA induced an inhibition of cell proliferation and clonogenic survival in OS and RMS cell lines and led to a significant radiosensitization of all tumor cell lines. Other HDACI such as M344 and valproate showed similar effects as investigated in one OS cell line. Furthermore, SAHA significantly increased radiation-induced apoptosis in the OS cell lines, whereas in the RMS cell lines radiation-induced apoptosis was insignificant with and without SAHA. In all investigated sarcoma cell lines, SAHA attenuated radiation-induced DNA repair protein expression (Rad51, Ku80). Our results show that HDACIs enhance radiation action in OS and RMS cell lines. Inhibition of DNA repair, as well as increased apoptosis induction after exposure to HDACIs, can be mechanisms of radiosensitization by HDACIs.
    Keywords: Sarcoma ; Histone Deacetylase Inhibition ; Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid (Saha) ; Radiosensitization ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0360-3016
    E-ISSN: 1879-355X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: BMC cancer, 08 June 2012, Vol.12, pp.226
    Description: Treatment options for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are limited. Histone deacetylase inhibitors are a new and promising drug family with strong anticancer activity. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of in vitro and in vivo treatment with the novel pan-HDAC inhibitor belinostat on the growth of human PDAC cells. The proliferation of tumour cell lines (T3M4, AsPC-1 and Panc-1) was determined using an MTT assay. Apoptosis was analysed using flow cytometry. Furthermore, p21Cip1/Waf1 and acetylated histone H4 (acH4) expression were confirmed by immunoblot analysis. The in vivo effect of belinostat was studied in a chimeric mouse model. Antitumoural activity was assessed by immunohistochemistry for Ki-67. Treatment with belinostat resulted in significant in vitro and in vivo growth inhibition of PDAC cells. This was associated with a dose-dependent induction of tumour cell apoptosis. The apoptotic effect of gemcitabine was further enhanced by belinostat. Moreover, treatment with belinostat increased expression of the cell cycle regulator p21Cip1/Waf1 in Panc-1, and of acH4 in all cell lines tested. The reductions in xenograft tumour volumes were associated with inhibition of cell proliferation. Experimental treatment of human PDAC cells with belinostat is effective in vitro and in vivo and may enhance the efficacy of gemcitabine. A consecutive study of belinostat in pancreatic cancer patients alone, and in combination with gemcitabine, could further clarify these effects in the clinical setting.
    Keywords: Antineoplastic Agents -- Pharmacology ; Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal -- Metabolism ; Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors -- Pharmacology ; Hydroxamic Acids -- Pharmacology ; Sulfonamides -- Pharmacology
    E-ISSN: 1471-2407
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Neuro-Oncology, 2012, Vol.110(3), pp.335-348
    Description: Medulloblastomas are the most common malignant brain tumors in childhood. Emerging evidence suggests that medulloblastoma comprises at least four distinct diseases (WNT, SHH, Group 3 and 4) with different biology, clinical presentation, and outcome, with especially poor prognosis in Group 3. The tight connection of biology and clinical behavior in patients emphasizes the need for subgroup-specific preclinical models in order to develop treatments tailored to each subgroup. Herein we report on the novel cell line HD-MB03, isolated from tumor material of a patient with metastasized Group 3 medulloblastoma, and preclinical testing of different histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) in this model. HD-MB03 cells grow long term in vitro and form metastatic tumors in vivo upon orthotopic transplantation. HD-MB03 cells reflect the original Group 3 medulloblastoma at the histological and molecular level, showing large cell morphology, similar expression patterns for markers Ki67, p53, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a gene expression profile most closely matching Group 3 medulloblastomas, and persistence of typical molecular alterations, i.e., isochromosome 17q [i(17q)] and MYC amplification. Protein expression analysis of HDACs 2, 5, 8, and 9 as well as the predictive marker HR23B showed intermediate to strong expression, suggesting sensitivity to HDACis. Indeed, treatment with HDACis Helminthosporium carbonum (HC)-toxin, vorinostat, and panobinostat revealed high sensitivity to this novel drug class, as well as a radiation-sensitizing effect with significantly increased cell death upon concomitant treatment. In summary, our data indicate that HD-MB03 is a suitable preclinical model for Group 3 medulloblastoma, and HDACis could represent a therapeutic option for this subgroup.
    Keywords: Medulloblastoma ; Group 3 ; MYC ; HC-toxin ; Vorinostat ; Panobinostat ; Irradiation
    ISSN: 0167-594X
    E-ISSN: 1573-7373
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  • 7
    In: Cell Death and Disease, 2017, Vol.8(8), p.e3013
    Description: Current preclinical models in tumor biology are limited in their ability to recapitulate relevant (patho-) physiological processes, including autophagy. Three-dimensional (3D) growth cultures have frequently been proposed to overcome the lack of correlation between two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cell cultures and human tumors in preclinical drug testing. Besides 3D growth, it is also advantageous to simulate shear stress, compound flux and removal of metabolites, e.g., via bioreactor systems, through which culture medium is constantly pumped at a flow rate reflecting physiological conditions. Here we show that both static 3D growth and 3D growth within a bioreactor system modulate key hallmarks of cancer cells, including proliferation and cell death as well as macroautophagy, a recycling pathway often activated by highly proliferative tumors to cope with metabolic stress. The autophagy-related gene expression profiles of 2D-grown cells are substantially different from those of 3D-grown cells and tumor tissue. Autophagy-controlling transcription factors, such as TFEB and FOXO3, are upregulated in tumors, and 3D-grown cells have increased expression compared with cells grown in 2D conditions. Three-dimensional cultures depleted of the autophagy mediators BECN1, ATG5 or ATG7 or the transcription factor FOXO3, are more sensitive to cytotoxic treatment. Accordingly, combining cytotoxic treatment with compounds affecting late autophagic flux, such as chloroquine, renders the 3D-grown cells more susceptible to therapy. Altogether, 3D cultures are a valuable tool to study drug response of tumor cells, as these models more closely mimic tumor (patho-)physiology, including the upregulation of tumor relevant pathways, such as autophagy.
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 2041-4889
    E-ISSN: 2041-4889
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  • 8
    In: Neuro-Oncology, 2017, Vol. 19(12), pp.1607-1617
    Description: BackgroundEmbryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes (ETMR) is a rare and aggressive embryonal brain tumor that solely occurs in infants and young children and has only recently been recognized as a separate brain tumor entity in the World Health Organization classification for CNS tumors. Patients have a very dismal prognosis with a median survival of 12 months upon diagnosis despite aggressive treatment. The aim of this study was to develop novel treatment regimens in a preclinical drug screen in order to inform potentially more active clinical trial protocols. MethodsWe have carried out an in vitro and in vivo drug screen using the ETMR cell line BT183 and its xenograft model. Furthermore, we have generated the first patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model for ETMR and evaluated our top drug candidates in an in vitro drug screen using this model. ResultsBT183 cells are very sensitive to the topoisomerase inhibitors topotecan and doxorubicin, to the epigenetic agents decitabine and panobinostat, to actinomycin D, and to targeted drugs such as the polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) inhibitor volasertib, the aurora kinase A inhibitor alisertib, and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor MLN0128. In xenograft mice, monotherapy with topotecan, volasertib, and actinomycin D led to a temporary response in tumor growth and a significant increase in survival. Finally, using multi-agent treatment regimens of topotecan or doxorubicin combined with methotrexate and vincristine, the response in tumor growth and survival was further increased compared with mice receiving single treatments. ConclusionsWe have identified several promising candidates for combination therapies in future clinical trials for ETMR patients.
    Keywords: Actinomycin D ; Brain Tumor ; Etmr ; Topotecan ; Volasertib
    ISSN: 1522-8517
    E-ISSN: 1523-5866
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Cell death and differentiation, December 2018, Vol.25(12), pp.2053-2070
    Description: The prognosis of advanced stage neuroblastoma patients remains poor and, despite intensive therapy, the 5-year survival rate remains less than 50%. We previously identified histone deacetylase (HDAC) 8 as an indicator of poor clinical outcome and a selective drug target for differentiation therapy in vitro and in vivo. Here, we performed kinome-wide RNAi screening to identify genes that are synthetically lethal with HDAC8 inhibitors. These experiments identified the neuroblastoma predisposition gene ALK as a candidate gene. Accordingly, the combination of the ALK/MET inhibitor crizotinib and selective HDAC8 inhibitors (3-6 µM PCI-34051 or 10 µM 20a) efficiently killed neuroblastoma cell lines carrying wildtype ALK (SK-N-BE(2)-C, IMR5/75), amplified ALK (NB-1), and those carrying the activating ALK F1174L mutation (Kelly), and, in cells carrying the activating R1275Q mutation (LAN-5), combination treatment decreased viable cell count. The effective dose of crizotinib in neuroblastoma cell lines ranged from 0.05 µM (ALK-amplified) to 0.8 µM (wildtype ALK). The combinatorial inhibition of ALK and HDAC8 also decreased tumor growth in an in vivo zebrafish xenograft model. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that the mRNA expression level of HDAC8 was significantly correlated with that of ALK in two independent patient cohorts, the Academic Medical Center cohort (n = 88) and the German Neuroblastoma Trial cohort (n = 649), and co-expression of both target genes identified patients with very poor outcome. Mechanistically, HDAC8 and ALK converge at the level of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling and their downstream survival pathways, such as ERK signaling. Combination treatment of HDAC8 inhibitor with crizotinib efficiently blocked the activation of growth receptor survival signaling and shifted the cell cycle arrest and differentiation phenotype toward effective cell death of neuroblastoma cell lines, including sensitization of resistant models, but not of normal cells. These findings reveal combined targeting of ALK and HDAC8 as a novel strategy for the treatment of neuroblastoma.
    Keywords: RNA Interference ; Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase -- Genetics ; Antineoplastic Agents -- Pharmacology ; Neuroblastoma -- Drug Therapy ; Protein Kinase Inhibitors -- Pharmacology ; Repressor Proteins -- Antagonists & Inhibitors
    ISSN: 13509047
    E-ISSN: 1476-5403
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 01 January 2009, Vol.15(1), pp.91-9
    Description: The effects of pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors on cancer cells have shown that HDACs are involved in fundamental tumor biological processes such as cell cycle control, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, because of the unselective nature of these compounds, little is known about the contribution of individual HDAC family members to tumorigenesis and progression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of individual HDACs in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis. We have investigated the mRNA expression of all HDAC1-11 family members in a large cohort of primary neuroblastoma samples covering the full spectrum of the disease. HDACs associated with disease stage and survival were subsequently functionally evaluated in cell culture models. Only HDAC8 expression was significantly correlated with advanced disease and metastasis and down-regulated in stage 4S neuroblastoma associated with spontaneous regression. High HDAC8 expression was associated with poor prognostic markers and poor overall and event-free survival. The knockdown of HDAC8 resulted in the inhibition of proliferation, reduced clonogenic growth, cell cycle arrest, and differentiation in cultured neuroblastoma cells. The treatment of neuroblastoma cell lines as well as short-term-culture neuroblastoma cells with an HDAC8-selective small-molecule inhibitor inhibited cell proliferation and clone formation, induced differentiation, and thus reproduced the HDAC8 knockdown phenotype. Global histone 4 acetylation was not affected by HDAC8 knockdown or by selective inhibitor treatment. Our data point toward an important role of HDAC8 in neuroblastoma pathogenesis and identify this HDAC family member as a specific drug target for the differentiation therapy of neuroblastoma.
    Keywords: Histone Deacetylases -- Physiology ; Neuroblastoma -- Enzymology ; Repressor Proteins -- Physiology
    ISSN: 1078-0432
    E-ISSN: 15573265
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