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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • Cell Survival  (8)
  • Apoptosis
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(5), p.e36506
    Description: Oncolytic influenza A viruses with deleted NS1 gene (delNS1) replicate selectively in tumour cells with defective interferon response and/or activated Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signalling pathway. To develop a delNS1 virus with specific immunostimulatory properties, we used an optimised technology to insert the interleukin-15 (IL-15) coding sequence into the viral NS gene segment (delNS1-IL-15). DelNS1 and delNS1-IL-15 exerted similar oncolytic effects. Both viruses replicated and caused caspase-dependent apoptosis in interferon-defective melanoma cells. Virus replication was required for their oncolytic activity. Cisplatin enhanced the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses. The cytotoxic drug increased delNS1 replication and delNS1-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. Interference with MEK/ERK signalling by RNAi-mediated depletion or the MEK inhibitor U0126 did not affect the oncolytic effects of the delNS1 viruses. In oncolysis sensitive melanoma cells, delNS1-IL-15 (but not delNS1) infection resulted in the production of IL-15 levels ranging from 70 to 1140 pg/mL in the cell culture supernatants. The supernatants of delNS1-IL-15-infected (but not of delNS1-infected) melanoma cells induced primary human natural killer cell-mediated lysis of non-infected tumour cells. In conclusion, we constructed a novel oncolytic influenza virus that combines the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses with immunostimulatory properties through production of functional IL-15. Moreover, we showed that the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses can be enhanced in combination with cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Virology ; Infectious Diseases ; Molecular Biology ; Oncology ; Dermatology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Neoplasia, March 2018, Vol.20(3), pp.263-279
    Description: Target-specific treatment modalities are currently not available for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), and acquired chemotherapy resistance is a primary obstacle for the treatment of these tumors. Here we employed derivatives of BT-549 and MDA-MB-468 TNBC cell lines that were adapted to grow in the presence of either 5-Fluorouracil, Doxorubicin or Docetaxel in an aim to identify molecular pathways involved in the adaptation to drug-induced cell killing. All six drug-adapted BT-549 and MDA-MB-468 cell lines displayed cross resistance to chemotherapy and decreased apoptosis sensitivity. Expression of the anti-apoptotic co-chaperone BAG3 was notably enhanced in two thirds (4/6) of the six resistant lines simultaneously with higher expression of HSP70 in comparison to parental controls. Doxorubicin-resistant BT-549 (BT-549 DOX ) and 5-Fluorouracil-resistant MDA-MB-468 (MDA-MB-468 5-FU ) cells were chosen for further analysis with the autophagy inhibitor Bafilomycin A1 and lentiviral depletion of ATG5, indicating that enhanced cytoprotective autophagy partially contributes to increased drug resistance and cell survival. Stable lentiviral BAG3 depletion was associated with a robust down-regulation of Mcl-1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, restoration of drug-induced apoptosis and reduced cell adhesion in these cells, and these death-sensitizing effects could be mimicked with the BAG3/Hsp70 interaction inhibitor YM-1 and by KRIBB11, a selective transcriptional inhibitor of HSF-1. Furthermore, BAG3 depletion was able to revert the EMT-like transcriptional changes observed in BT-549 DOX and MDA-MB-468 5-FU cells. In summary, genetic and pharmacological interference with BAG3 is capable to resensitize TNBC cells to treatment, underscoring its relevance for cell death resistance and as a target to overcome therapy resistance of breast cancer.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 1476-5586
    E-ISSN: 1476-5586
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 15 October 2008, Vol.14(20), pp.6531-7
    Description: Neuroblastomas frequently show expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and may therefore be susceptible to EGFR-targeted therapies. Here, EGFR expression and functionality was investigated in parental chemosensitive neuroblastoma cell lines (UKF-NB-3, IMR-32, NLF, SH-SY5Y) and their cisplatin-resistant sublines (UKF-NB-3(r)CDDP(1000), IMR-32(r)CDDP(1000), NLF(r)CDDP(1000), and SH-SY5Y(r)CDDP(500)). Moreover, the EGFR antibody cetuximab, the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor Tyrphostin B46, and recombinant EGFR-targeted toxins were investigated for their influence on the viability and growth of neuroblastoma cells. EGFR expression and function was measured by flow cytometry or Western blot. Cell viability was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptosis was examined by immunostaining for active caspase-3 or cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Cellular binding of FITC-labeled immunotoxins was studied by flow cytometry, and cellular uptake was studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The EGFR-targeted antibody and growth factor toxins scFv(14E1)- Pseudomonas exotoxin A (ETA) and TGF-alpha-ETA exerted anti-cancer effects in neuroblastoma cell lines that were insensitive to cetuximab or EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Furthermore, adaptation of chemosensitive neuroblastoma cells to cisplatin increased EGFR expression and sensitivity to both recombinant toxins. Treatment of chemosensitive neuroblastoma cells with cisplatin reversibly increased EGFR expression, whereas cisplatin-resistant cells showed enhanced EGFR expression independent of the presence of cisplatin. Combination treatment with scFv(14E1)-ETA or TGF-alpha-ETA and cisplatin exerted significantly improved anticancer effects compared with either single treatment in parental neuroblastoma cells, cisplatin-resistant sublines, and primary cultures. EGFR-targeted cytotoxic reagents such as scFv(14E1)-ETA and TGF-alpha-ETA represent promising candidates for further development as antineuroblastoma agents, especially in combination with cisplatin.
    Keywords: Drug Resistance, Neoplasm ; Adp Ribose Transferases -- Therapeutic Use ; Antineoplastic Agents -- Pharmacology ; Bacterial Toxins -- Therapeutic Use ; Cell Proliferation -- Drug Effects ; Cisplatin -- Pharmacology ; Erbb Receptors -- Antagonists & Inhibitors ; Exotoxins -- Therapeutic Use ; Neuroblastoma -- Drug Therapy ; Virulence Factors -- Therapeutic Use
    ISSN: 1078-0432
    E-ISSN: 15573265
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Apoptosis, 2008, Vol.13(1), pp.119-131
    Description: Myrtucommulone (MC) is a unique, nonprenylated acylphloroglucinol contained in the leaves of myrtle ( Myrtus communis ). Here, we addressed the potential of MC to induce apoptosis of cancer cells. MC potently induced cell death of different cancer cell lines (EC 50 3–8 μM) with characteristics of apoptosis, visualized by the activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP), release of nucleosomes into the cytosol, and DNA fragmentation. MC was much less cytotoxic for non-transformed human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or foreskin fibroblasts (EC 50 cell death = 20–50 μM), and MC up to 30 μM hardly caused processing of PARP, caspase-3, -8 and -9 in human PBMC. MC-induced apoptosis was mediated by the intrinsic rather than the extrinsic death pathway. Thus, MC caused loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential in MM6 cells and evoked release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Interestingly, Jurkat cells deficient in caspase-9 were resistant to MC-induced cell death and no processing of PARP or caspase-8 was evident. In cell lines deficient in either CD95 (Fas, APO-1) signalling, FADD or caspase-8, MC was still able to potently induce cell death and PARP cleavage. Conclusively, MC induces apoptosis in cancer cell lines, with marginal cytotoxicity for non-transformed cells, via the mitochondrial cytochrome c/Apaf-1/caspase-9 pathway.
    Keywords: Cancer ; Apoptosis ; Mitochondria ; Caspase ; Myrtucommulone
    ISSN: 1360-8185
    E-ISSN: 1573-675X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Oncology, November 2005, Vol.27(5), pp.1433-1440
    Description: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are aggressive soft tissue tumors arising sporadically although more frequently in patients with Neurofibromatosis type 1. Prognosis remains dismal as chemo- and radiotherapy have not been shown to be successful. The heparin-binding growth factor, Midkine (MK), is implicated in the tumorigenesis of benign and plexiform neurofibromas, and thereof arising MPNSTs. MK is mitogenic, anti-apoptotic, angiogenic and can promote tumorigenicity in several cell types. Thus, we investigated the role of MK in malignant biology and tumorigenicity in MPNSTs by stable transfection into MPNST cell lines. Overexpression of MK in the MPNST cell line, S462, increased cell viability and protected cells from apoptosis under serum deprivation, but did not induce proliferation. In addition, MK-transfected S462 cells were partially protected from vincristine-induced cell death. Conditioned medium of MK-transfected S462 cells was a potent mitogen for human umbilical venous endothelial cells. Furthermore, MK overexpression in S462 cells was accompanied by higher levels of VEGF mRNA. Yet, stable overexpression of MK in S462 as well as in ST88-14 cells was not sufficient to promote xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. However, increasing survival and enhanced angiogenic potency of MK-transfected S462 cells highlight the importance of developing specific inhibitors for MK as part of new therapeutic concepts against MPNSTs.
    Keywords: Apoptosis -- Physiology ; Cytokines -- Biosynthesis ; Neovascularization, Pathologic -- Pathology ; Nerve Sheath Neoplasms -- Genetics;
    ISSN: 1019-6439
    E-ISSN: 17912423
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Letters, 2007, Vol.250(1), pp.107-116
    Description: The efficacy of Onconase on the growth of a panel of chemosensitive and chemoresistant neuroblastoma cell lines was investigated. Onconase decreased cell viability of chemosensitive (IMR-32, UKF-NB-3) and chemoresistant neuroblastoma cell lines characterised by high expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (UKF-NB-3 DOX ) or by high P-gp expression in combination with mutated p53 (UKF-NB-3 VCR , Be(2)-C), in a similar manner. Moreover, Onconase caused cell cycle block in G1 phase and induced caspase-independent cell death. Transmission electron microscope investigations suggested that Onconase-induced autophagy contributes to Onconase-induced cell death. Antitumour activity of Onconase against naïve and drug-resistant neuroblastoma xenografts was confirmed in animals.
    Keywords: Onconase ; Neuroblastoma ; Multi-Drug-Resistance ; P-Glycoprotein ; P53 ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0304-3835
    E-ISSN: 1872-7980
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: International journal of oncology, February 2006, Vol.28(2), pp.439-46
    Description: The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (Velcade) was recently approved for the treatment of therapy-refractive multiple myeloma and is under investigation for numerous other types of cancer. A phase I clinical trial in paediatric patients resulted in tolerable toxicity. Since the emergence of chemoresistance represents one of the major drawbacks in cancer therapy, we investigated the influence of bortezomib on multi-drug resistant human neuroblastoma cell lines characterised by P-glycoprotein expression and p53 mutation. Nanomolar concentrations of bortezomib inhibited the cell cycle and induced apoptosis in chemosensitive as well as in chemoresistant cell lines. In vivo growth of chemosensitive and chemoresistant neuroblastoma cell lines was inhibited to a similar extent. In addition, bortezomib inhibited vessel formation in neuroblastoma xenografts. These findings and the favourable toxicity profile of bortezomib in children make it reasonable to further pursue additional development of the drug for the treatment of neuroblastoma and other paediatric solid tumours.
    Keywords: Antineoplastic Agents -- Pharmacology ; Boronic Acids -- Pharmacology ; Neuroblastoma -- Prevention & Control ; Pyrazines -- Pharmacology
    ISSN: 1019-6439
    E-ISSN: 17912423
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Letters, 1996, Vol.110(1), pp.63-70
    Description: The effect of reduced glutathione (GSH) and S-acetylglutathione (S-acglu) treatment on several tumor cell lines and normal cells in vitro was investigated. GSH and S-acglu applied at concentrations of 1 mM and 2 mM induced apoptosis in malignant cells as shown by DNA-fragmentation and staining of apoptotic cells with 7-amino-actinomycin D while viability and growth of normal cells were not significantly influenced by this treatment. The results demonstrated that GSH and S-acglu may be selective inducers of apoptosis in malignant cells.
    Keywords: Reduced Glutathione ; S-Acetylglutathione ; Apoptosis ; Flow-Cytometry ; DNA-Fragmentation ; Anti-Tumor Effect ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0304-3835
    E-ISSN: 1872-7980
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