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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Catena, 2012, Vol.88(1), pp.57-67
    Description: The motivation for this article results from the fact that conceptual soil maps show oftentimes inaccuracies with regard to soil unit boundaries or misfits between original paper and actual soil-related information. Using the example of a German conceptual soil map (CSM), we introduce a procedure which could be considered as a framework for testing the terrain-related plausibility applied within a genetic based soil-ordering system. Framework means that all tests and the underlying methods can be adapted to specific targets. The procedure enables both reproducible integration of expert knowledge and application of statistically sound methods. The CSM of the German Federal State of Saxony-Anhalt was tested regarding the plausibility of colluvial and fluvial process domains. The plausibility test consists of four steps and was exemplified on a study area of 100 km . First, basic relief parameters were combined to the explaining relief parameters and enabling a classification of process domains by relative descriptions. Second, relief parameters and aggregated CSM soil units were integrated to soil-terrain objects (STO) executing a region-growing segmentation algorithm. In the third step, the one-dimensional or feature space of STO entities were clustered by using the K-means algorithm. The fourth step comprises the expert-based selection of reference clusters (RC) representing colluvial and fluvial process domains accepted as being true. Then, empirical cumulative distribution functions (ECDF) of RC and remaining soil unit-related STO clusters were compared by a traditional goodness-of-fit test whose suitability for estimation of terrain-related CSM plausibility is shown. Finally, the resulting ECDF distances were visualized. The testing procedure could also be used for the supervised selection of appropriate samples for automatic classification algorithms. The data integration approach is generally suitable for adopting existing data in computer-based systems. ► Integration of statistically sound DSM techniques and expert knowledge. ► Framework for basic tests of conceptual and legacy soil maps regarding terrain-related process domains. ► Usage of a goodness-of-fit measure for the comparison of soil-terrain-related distributions.
    Keywords: Digital Soil Mapping ; Terrain Analysis ; Segmentation ; Expert Knowledge ; Cluster Analysis ; Kolmogorov Smirnov Test ; Sciences (General) ; Geography ; Geology
    ISSN: 0341-8162
    E-ISSN: 1872-6887
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2007, Vol.71(10), pp.2569-2590
    Description: Mineral-associated organic matter (OM) represents a large reservoir of organic carbon (OC) in natural environments. The factors controlling the extent of the mineral-mediated OC stabilization, however, are poorly understood. The protection of OM against biodegradation upon sorption to mineral phases is assumed to result from the formation of strong bonds that limit desorption. To test this, we studied the biodegradation of OM bound to goethite (α-FeOOH), pyrophyllite, and vermiculite via specific mechanisms as estimated from OC uptake in different background electrolytes and operationally defined as ‘ligand exchange’, ‘Ca bridging’, and ‘van der Waals forces’. Organic matter extracted from an Oa forest floor horizon under Norway spruce ( (L.) Karst) was reacted with minerals at dissolved OC concentrations of ∼5–130 mg/L at pH 4. Goethite retained up to 30.1 mg OC/g predominantly by ‘ligand exchange’; pyrophyllite sorbed maximally 12.5 mg OC/g, largely via ‘van der Waals forces’ and ‘Ca bridging’, while sorption of OM to vermiculite was 7.3 mg OC/g, mainly due to the formation of ‘Ca bridges’. Aromatic OM components were selectively sorbed by all minerals (goethite ≫ phyllosilicates). The sorption of OM was strongly hysteretic with the desorption into 0.01 M NaCl being larger for OM held by ‘Ca bridges’ and ‘van der Waals forces’ than by ‘ligand exchange’. Incubation experiments under aerobic conditions (initial pH 4; 90 days) revealed that OM mainly bound to minerals by ‘ligand exchange’ was more resistant against mineralization than OM held by non-columbic interactions (‘van der Waals forces’). Calcium bridges enhanced the stability of sorbed OM, especially for vermiculite, but less than the binding via ‘ligand exchange’. Combined evidence suggests that the extent and rate of mineralization of mineral-associated OM are governed by desorption. The intrinsic stability of sorbed OM as related to the presence of resistant, lignin-derived aromatic components appears less decisive for the sorptive stabilization of OM than the involved binding mechanisms. In a given environment, the type of minerals present and the solution chemistry determine the operating binding mechanisms, thereby the extent of OM sorption and desorption, and thus ultimately the bioavailability of mineral-associated OM.
    Keywords: Geology
    ISSN: 0016-7037
    E-ISSN: 1872-9533
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Catena, Dec 1, 2007, Vol.71(3), p.487(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2007.03.022 Byline: Gritta Grunewald, Klaus Kaiser, Reinhold Jahn Keywords: Alkaline soils; Weathering; Ettringite; Thaumasite; Hydrotalcite; Hydrocalumite; Layered double hydroxides Abstract: Industrial activities result in increasing amounts of technical substrates being deposited in landfills. These substrates are subject to weathering and pedogenic processes. We studied the chemical and mineralogical transformations on naturally weathered waste deposits of soda industry. Four sites differing in age (15, 19, 57, and 70 years) and derived from carbonatic slurry (mainly CaO.sup..H.sub.2O, CaCO.sub.3, NaCl) were selected. The formed soils, calcareous spolic Regosols, are weakly to strongly alkaline with pH values ranging from 8 to 12. Within 15 years, the substrate's initial pH of 12 drops rapidly in the topsoil due to the reaction of dissolved Ca either with CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere or evolved by microbial respiration and finally stabilizes at around 8.1. All soils show high electrical conductivity, up to 12.3 mS cm.sup.-1 at the youngest site. The electrical conductivity strongly decreases within 70 years of weathering due to leaching processes and the formation of less soluble secondary minerals. The content of organic C in the studied soils ranges from 2.4 to 70.8 g kg.sup.-1 and stocks increase with site age. Soil structure and soil color change distinctly. The binding of CO.sub.2 results in large amounts of carbonate, increasing with time. Seventy years after deposition, calcite [CaCO.sub.3] dominates the topsoil (0-30 cm depth), comprising about 80% of the soil material. The mineral composition was characterized by X-ray diffraction. Besides calcite, we found different quantities and different distributions of the less common minerals ettringite [Ca.sub.6(Al(OH).sub.6).sub.2(SO.sub.4).sub.3 26H.sub.2O], thaumasite [Ca.sub.6(Si(OH).sub.6).sub.2(CO.sub.3).sub.2(SO.sub.4).sub.2 24H.sub.2O], hydrocalumite [Ca.sub.2Al(OH).sub.7 2H.sub.2O] and hydrotalcite [Mg.sub.6Al.sub.2(CO.sub.3)(OH).sub.16 4H.sub.2O]. Formation and alteration of these minerals are basically influenced by changes in the soil pH. With progressing weathering neither thaumasite nor ettringite are stable due to the non-favorable soil reaction (pH[approximately equal to]8.1). In contrast, hydrocalumite and hydrotalcite exist in all investigated soils. They are stable also under weakly alkaline conditions and thus may exist in all carbonatic soils. Results indicate a surprisingly rapid soil development driven by the highly dynamic formation and alteration of minerals in carbonatic substrates under alkaline conditions. Author Affiliation: Institute of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Weidenplan 14, D-06108 Halle/S., Germany
    Keywords: Carbonates
    ISSN: 0341-8162
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, June 2007, Vol.170(3), pp.317-328
    Description: The presence of soils with andic properties on German territory has been suspected for decades and there are numerous reports of sites where they may potentially occur. Andic properties, however, are not adequately represented by the German soil‐classification system. The German taxonomic category “Lockerbraunerde” has not been revised or reconciled with international taxonomic categories since the year 1957, when it was initially proposed. With this review, we show that there are true Andosols of both the silandic (allophane‐containing) and the aluandic (Al‐Humus‐dominated) type in Germany and that their properties differ substantially from other soils which merely exhibit low bulk density. By (1) comparing soil carbon storage between some German Andosols, Chernozems, and nonandic Cambisols with particularly low bulk density and (2) elucidation of the differential pedogenetic pathways leading to Andosol formation, we further demonstrate that Andosols are important objects of study in research issues of contemporary interest. We propose that appropriate measures be taken to lay the foundations for the protection and conservation of these soils, because they are valuable as archives of natural history and provide opportunities to study unique soil processes.
    Keywords: Andosols ; Andisols ; Andic Properties ; “lockerbraunerde” ; Aluandic ; Silandic ; Carbon Storage ; Organo‐Mineral
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Organic Geochemistry, 2005, Vol.36(9), pp.1311-1322
    Description: We have employed pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS) to elucidate potential differences in soil organic matter stabilization pathways among clay size fractions taken from a time series corresponding to 18, 44 and 98 years of fertilizer deprivation at Bad Lauchstädt, Germany. Fine clay fractions contained greater quantities of carbohydrates and more peptides but lower quantities of lignin dimers and lipid than coarse clay fractions. Upon prolonged fertilizer deprivation, the organic matter composition remained more or less constant in the fine clay fractions. After 98 years of deprivation, the organic matter in the coarse clay fractions seemed to approach the compound class distribution in the fine clay fractions. The thermal energy required to volatilize organic matter was higher for the fine clay fractions. The thermal stability of organic matter associated with fine clay was constant over time, while that of carbon associated with coarse clay increased with prolonged fertilizer deprivation in the range 10–50 K depending on the compound class. The organic matter associated with the coarse clay fraction responded to fertilizer deprivation by way of both a compositional change approaching the compound class distribution in the fine clay and an increase in thermal stability approaching the conditions encountered in the fine clay. The compound class distribution in the fine clay fraction related more closely to the NaF-reactive hydroxyl groups than that in the coarse clay fractions. Oxalate – extractable Fe (Fe ) normalised to the surface area related to the compound class abundance in the coarse clay, but not in the fine clay. We interpret this as an indication of a relationship between mineral surface reactivity and organic matter composition.
    Keywords: Geology
    ISSN: 0146-6380
    E-ISSN: 1873-5290
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Catena, 2004, Vol.56(1), pp.67-83
    Description: Soils conforming to Andosols in the World Reference Base (WRB) of Soil Resources have not yet been recognised in Germany. The aims of this study were to (i) show whether some German soils developed in volcanic parent materials are Andosols, (ii) investigate their pedogenetic development and (iii) determine their local distribution. We selected a soil on Quaternary basalt in the Eifel region (the "Windsborn" profile), and a soil from the summit of the Tertiary basaltic stratovolcano Vogelsberg (the "Kohlerwald" profile) northwest of Frankfurt am Main. The Windsborn soil is classified as a Silic Andosol. Allophane contents are near 10%, and allophane globules were identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By progressively constraining field parameters in GIS-generated maps, we found that Andosols in the Mosenberg chain are confined to a few isolated occurrences. The Kohlerwald profile in the Tertiary Vogelsberg is an acid, base-poor and strongly weathered Aluandic Luvisol. Metal-humus complexes are the dominant colloidal phase. In the topsoil, both Fe (sub p) and Al (sub p) are in excess of Fe (sub o) and Al (sub o) values. Our data suggest the presence of phases like hydroxy-Al (e.g. from Al-interlayers or poorly ordered gibbsite) and opaline silica that are easily attacked by the alkaline (pH 9.5-10.5) pyrophosphate extractant, but may be resistant to the acid (pH 3) oxalate procedure. We conclude that there are limited occurrences of silandic Andosols in the Eifel area, Germany. The Windsborn soil is in an early pedogenetic development stage, but pedogenesis in the Kohlerwald soil has advanced beyond the Andosol phase to the stage of clay translocation. Therefore the existence of aluandic Andosols in Germany seems possible, but remains to be proven.
    Keywords: Volcanic Soils ; Pedogenesis ; Soil Classification ; Allophane ; Andosols ; Sciences (General) ; Geography ; Geology
    ISSN: 0341-8162
    E-ISSN: 1872-6887
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, August 2004, Vol.167(4), pp.439-448
    Description: In Saxony‐Anhalt, Germany, an area of about 6000 ha is covered by lignite‐ash‐derived substrates. In some cases, pollutants like heavy metals or toxic organic compounds had been disposed of together with the lignite ashes. For this reason, we assessed factors influencing the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of lignite‐ash substrates exposed to natural weathering. We chose four research sites reflecting the different methods of disposal: two dumped landfills and two lagooned ashes of different ages. After determining the CEC at pH 8.1 (CEC), we evaluated the influence of the content of silt and clay and the content of total organic C. As lignite‐ash‐derived substrates are rich in oxalate‐extractable Si, Al, and Fe, we performed an oxalate extraction and determined afterwards the CEC to assess the contribution of oxalate‐soluble compounds to the CEC. Moreover, we determined the variable charge of selected samples at pH values ranging from 4 to 7. The lignite‐ash‐derived soils had a high CEC with means ranging from 25.1 cmol kg to 88.8 cmol kg. The influence of the parent material was more important than the degree of weathering. The content of total organic C consisting of pedogenic organic matter and coked lignite particles together with the content of silt and clay played a statistically significant role in determining the CEC. Another property that influenced the amount of CEC in medium textured lignite ashes was the content of oxalate‐soluble silica and aluminum. After oxalate extraction, they lost about 30% of their CEC due to the dissolution of oxalate‐soluble compounds. In coarse textured lignite ashes, oxalate extraction led to higher amounts of CEC, probably due to an increase of surface area resulting either from the disintegration of particles or from etching caused by insufficient dissolution of magnetite and maghemite. Moreover, lignite‐ash‐derived substrates exhibit a high amount of pH‐dependent charge. The CEC decreased by 40% in a topsoil sample and by 51% in a subsoil sample as the pH declined from 7 to 4. Austauscheigenschaften von Böden aus Braunkohlenaschen In Sachsen‐Anhalt bedecken Substrate aus Braunkohlenaschen ca. 6000 ha der Landesfläche. Dabei wurden in einigen Fällen toxische Substanzen wie z. B. Schwermetalle oder organische Schadstoffe zusammen mit den Braunkohlenaschen ausgebracht. Da die Beweglichkeit von Schadstoffen u. a. von der Kationenaustauschbarkeit abhängt, wurden Untersuchungen an verwitterten Braunkohlenaschen durchgeführt, um Erkenntnisse über deren Austauscheigenschaften zu erhalten. Es wurden vier Flächen ausgewählt, welche die unterschiedlichen Verfahren zur Ablagerung der Aschen wiedergeben: zwei Kippdeponien und zwei Spüldeponien unterschiedlichen Alters. An Proben aus diesen Flächen bestimmten wir die potenzielle Kationenaustauschkapazität (KAK, gemessen bei pH 8.1) und überprüften den Zusammenhang von C und dem Gehalt an Schluff und Ton mit der KAK. Da Braunkohlenaschesubstrate große Mengen an oxalatlöslichem Si, Fe und Al enthalten, quantifizierten wir den Einfluss dieser Verbindungen auf die KAK durch eine Oxalat‐Extraktion mit anschließender Bestimmung der KAK an ausgewählten Proben. Darüber hinaus wurde die variable Ladung ausgewählter Proben bei pH‐Werten von 4 bis 7 bestimmt. Die Böden aus Braunkohlenaschen wiesen eine hohe KAK auf, deren Mittelwerte zwischen 25.1 cmol kg und 88.8 cmol kg lagen. Dabei konnte ein Einfluss des Ausgangsmaterials – nicht aber des Alters – auf die KAK festgestellt werden. Sowohl der Gehalt an C, bestehend aus pedogener organischer Substanz und verkokten Braunkohlenpartikeln, als auch die Menge an Schluff und Ton übten einen statistisch nachweisbaren Einfluss auf die KAK aus. Dabei war der durch C und die Menge an Schluff und Ton erklärbare Anteil der KAK bei den Kippdeponien höher als bei den Spüldeponien. Die Gegenwart oxalatlöslicher Bestandteile hatte große Auswirkungen auf die Höhe der KAK in der verspülten Asche mit mittlerer Textur. Nach einer Oxalat‐Extraktion verringerte sich die KAK um ca. 30 %. Dagegen stieg die KAK in Braunkohlenaschen mit hohen Anteilen an Sandfraktionen an, was wahrscheinlich durch eine Vergrößerung der reaktiven Oberfläche bedingt ist. Dies ist entweder durch den Zerfall einzelner großer Partikel in mehrere kleine oder durch eine unvollständige Lösung des in den Aschen vorkommenden Magnetits und Maghemits erklärbar. Die von uns untersuchten Braunkohlenaschen wiesen außerdem eine hohe variable Ladung auf. In einer Oberboden‐ und einer Unterbodenprobe war ein Rückgang der pH‐Werte von 7 auf 4 mit einem 51 %‐ bzw. 40 %igen Rückgang der KAK verbunden.
    Keywords: Lignite Ash ; Anthropic Soils ; Cation Exchange Capacity ; Oxalate Extractable Compounds ; Total Organic Carbon ; Variable Charge
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, August 2002, Vol.165(4), pp.530-536
    Description: Weathering and initial soil formation was investigated on 5 sites of lignite ash disposal differing in age (5 to 30 years) and methods of disposal (landfills and sluicing to settling ponds). Soils developed on lignite ash derived substrates were characterized by low bulk densities ( 100) in subsoils. Initiale Bodenbildung in Braunkohlenaschedeponien und Spülteichen in Sachsen‐Anhalt Für die vorliegende Untersuchung wurden 5 Flächen ausgewählt, die aus Braunkohlenaschesubstraten unterschiedlichen Alters (5—30 Jahre) und unterschiedlicher Deponierungsart (Verkippung und Verspülung) bestehen. Anhand dieser Beispiele werden die durch Verwitterung induzierten Veränderungen der Aschen beschrieben. Die Böden auf den Untersuchungsflächen haben folgende Eigenschaften: sehr niedrige Lagerungsdichten ( 100 dominiert.
    Keywords: Lignite Ash ; Anthropic Soils ; Weathering ; Oxalate Extractable Compounds
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, April 2002, Vol.165(2), pp.141-149
    Description: The influence of the soil mineral phase on organic matter storage was studied in loess derived surface soils of Central Germany. The seven soils were developed to different genetic stages.  The carbon content of the bulk soils ranged from 8.7 to 19.7 g kg. Clay mineralogy was confirmed to be constant, with illite contents 〉 80 %. Both, specific surface area (SSA, BET‐N‐method) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of bulk soils after carbon removal were better predictors of carbon content than clay content or dithionite‐extractable iron. SSA explained 55 % and CEC 54 % of the variation in carbon content. The carbon loadings of the soils were between 0.57 and 1.06 mg C m, and therefore in the ”︁monolayer equivalent” (ME) level. The increase in SSA after carbon removal (ΔSSA) was significantly and positively related to carbon content (r = 0.77). Together with CEC of carbon‐free samples, ΔSSA explained 90 % of the variation in carbon content.  Clay (〈 2 μm) and fine silt fractions (2—6.3 μm) contained 68—82 % of the bulk soil organic carbon. A significantly positive relationship between carbon content in the clay fraction and in the bulk soil was observed (r = 0.95). The carbon pools of the clay and fine silt fractions were characterized by differences in C/N ratio, δC ratio, and enrichment factors for carbon and nitrogen. Organic matter in clay fractions seems to be more altered by microbes than organic matter in fine silt fractions.  The results imply that organic matter accumulates in the fractions of smallest size and highest surface area, apparently intimately associated with the mineral phase. The amount of cations adhering to the mineral surface and the size of a certain and specific part of the surface area (ΔSSA) are the mineral phase properties which affect the content of the organic carbon in loess derived arable surface soils in Central Germany most. There is no monolayer of organic matter on the soil surfaces even if carbon loadings are in the ME level. Kohlenstoffspeicherung in mitteldeutschen Oberböden aus Löß: Einfluss der Mineralphase In Oberböden mitteldeutscher Ackerstandorte wurde der Einfluss der Bodenmineralphase auf die Speicherung von organischer Substanz untersucht. Die sieben aus Löß entstandenen Böden waren genetisch unterschiedlich weit entwickelt.  Der Kohlenstoffgehalt der Oberböden erreichte Werte von 8,7 bis 19,7 g kg. Die Tonmineralogie war in allen Böden gleich mit Illitgehalten von 〉 80 %. Sowohl die spezifische Oberfläche (SSA, BET‐N‐Methode) als auch die Kationenaustauschkapazität (CEC) der Böden nach Kohlenstoffentfernung waren geeignetere Variablen zur Vorhersage des Kohlenstoffgehaltes als der Tongehalt oder das Dithionit‐extrahierbare Eisen. Durch die SSA war in der Lage, 55 % der Variabilität des Kohlenstoffgehaltes wurden erklärt, durch die CEC 54 %. Die Belegung der Oberfläche mit Kohlenstoff erreichte Werte zwischen 0,57 und 1,06 mg C m und lag somit im Bereich der „monolayer äquivalenten“ (ME) Belegung. Die Beziehung zwischen dem Kohlenstoffgehalt und der Zunahme der spezifischen Oberfläche durch die Entfernung der organischen Substanz (ΔSSA) war signifikant positiv (r = 0,77). Zusammen mit der CEC der Proben nach Kohlenstoffentfernung erklärte ΔSSA 90 % der Variabilität des Kohlenstoffgehaltes.  Die Ton‐ (〈 2 μm) und Feinschluff‐Fraktionen (2—6,3 μm) der Böden enthielten 68—82 % des organischen Kohlenstoffs. Zwischen den Kohlenstoffgehalten der Tonfraktion und des Feinbodens wurde eine signifikant positive Beziehung beobachtet (r = 0,95). Die organische Substanz in der Ton‐ und Feinschluff‐Fraktion war durch unterschiedliche C/N‐Verhältnisse, δC‐Werte und Anreicherungsfaktoren für Kohlenstoff und Stickstoff gekennzeichnet. Die organische Substanz in der Tonfraktion scheint im Vergleich zur Feinschluff‐Fraktion stärker umgesetzt zu sein.  Die Ergebnisse deuten daraufhin, dass sich organische Substanz in den Fraktionen mit der kleinsten Partikelgröße und der höchsten Oberfläche anreichert und dabei scheinbar intensiv mit der Mineralphase assoziiert ist. Der Gehalt an organischem Kohlenstoff in mitteldeutschen Ackeroberböden aus Löß wird in Bezug auf die Mineralphase vor allem durch (1) die Menge der Kationen an der Mineraloberfläche und (2) die Größe eines spezifischen Anteils der Oberfläche (ΔSSA) beeinflusst. Die Kohlenstoffbelegung der Oberfläche entspricht keiner „Monolayer“‐Belegung.
    Keywords: Carbon Storage ; Clay Content ; Illite ; Specific Surface Area ; Cation Exchange Capacity ; Particle Size Fractionation
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 10
    In: Soil Science, 2003, Vol.168(4), pp.292-306
    Description: :
    Keywords: Agriculture;
    ISSN: 0038-075X
    E-ISSN: 15389243
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