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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • Chemistry
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of biological chemistry, 20 April 2018, Vol.293(16), pp.6064-6074
    Description: Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone with antidiabetic activities that include increasing the sensitivity of cells to insulin. Adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine-binding domain, and leucine zipper motif (APPL1) stimulates adiponectin signaling and promotes adiponectin's insulin-sensitizing effects by binding to two adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, and the insulin receptor. In this study, we report an alternative splicing variant of APPL1 (APPL1sv) that is highly expressed in mouse liver, pancreas, and spleen tissues. The expression levels of APPL1sv in liver tissues were enhanced in a mouse model of obesity and diabetic dyslipidemia ( db/db mice) and reduced in calorie-restricted mice compared with -fed mice. APPL1sv overexpression or suppression inhibited or enhanced, respectively, adiponectin-stimulated phosphorylation of AMP protein kinase (AMPK) in mouse hepatocytes. We also found that APPL1sv binds to AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 under basal conditions and that adiponectin treatment reduces this binding. Overexpression of APPL1sv blocked adiponectin-induced interactions of APPL1 with the adiponectin receptors. Moreover, adenovirus-mediated and short hairpin RNA-based suppression of APPL1sv greatly reduced high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and hepatic glucose production in mice. Our study identifies a key suppressor of hepatic adiponectin signaling and insulin sensitivity, a finding that may shed light on identifying effective therapeutic targets for treating insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
    Keywords: Amp-Activated Kinase (Ampk) ; Appl1 ; Appl1sv ; Adiponectin ; Alternative Splicing ; Diabetes ; Insulin Resistance ; Liver ; Metabolic Disorder ; Metabolism ; Alternative Splicing ; Insulin Resistance ; Signal Transduction ; Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing -- Genetics ; Adiponectin -- Metabolism ; Liver -- Metabolism ; Obesity -- Genetics
    E-ISSN: 1083-351X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Nucleic acids research, 01 July 2003, Vol.31(13), pp.3597-600
    Description: The GeneSeqer@PlantGDB Web server (http://www.plantgdb.org/cgi-bin/GeneSeqer.cgi) provides a gene structure prediction tool tailored for applications to plant genomic sequences. Predictions are based on spliced alignment with source-native ESTs and full-length cDNAs or non-native probes derived from putative homologous genes. The tool is illustrated with applications to refinement of current gene structure annotation and de novo annotation of draft genomic sequences. The service should facilitate expert annotation as a community effort by providing convenient access to all public plant sequences via the PlantGDB database, a simple four-step protocol for spliced alignment and visually appealing displays of the predicted gene structures in addition to detailed sequence alignments.
    Keywords: Genome, Plant ; Software ; Sequence Analysis, DNA -- Methods
    E-ISSN: 1362-4962
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Nucleic acids research, 01 January 2003, Vol.31(1), pp.244-7
    Description: Zea mays DataBase (ZmDB) seeks to provide a comprehensive view of maize (corn) genetics by linking genomic sequence data with gene expression analysis and phenotypes of mutant plants. ZmDB originated in 1999 as the Web portal for a large project of maize gene discovery, sequencing and phenotypic analysis using a transposon tagging strategy and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing. Recently, ZmDB has broadened its scope to include all public maize ESTs, genome survey sequences (GSSs), and protein sequences. More than 170 000 ESTs are currently clustered into approximately 20 000 contigs and about an equal number of apparent singlets. These clusters are continuously updated and annotated with respect to potential encoded protein products. More than 100 000 GSSs are similarly assembled and annotated by spliced alignment with EST and protein sequences. The ZmDB interface provides quick access to analytical tools for further sequence analysis. Every sequence record is linked to several display options and similarity search tools, including services for multiple sequence alignment, protein domain determination and spliced alignment. Furthermore, ZmDB provides web-based ordering of materials generated in the project, including ESTs, ordered collections of genomic sequences tagged with the RescueMu transposon and microarrays of amplified ESTs. ZmDB can be accessed at http://zmdb.iastate.edu/.
    Keywords: Databases, Genetic ; Genome, Plant ; Zea Mays -- Genetics
    E-ISSN: 1362-4962
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  • 4
    Language: English
    Description: Molecular sequences that share a high degree of similarity often are thought to have evolved from common ancestral genes. Closely related protein sequences will presumably correspond to similar three-dimensional structures and conserved biological functions (although the reverse is not necessarily true: similar structures and conserved functions do not imply that the corresponding protein sequences will be similar; reviewed in ref. 1). These assumptions provide the basis for computational gene annotation. Typically, the first step in characterizing a novel gene is to compare its sequence against known sequences in available databases and to predict its origin and function by copying the annotation of those previously characterized sequences. This approach has been highly successful and is probably the only practical method applicable to large-scale annotation efforts at present. It should be pointed out, however, that this practice is not without its limitations (and is also unsatisfactory from the more theoretical perspective of those who wish to determine structure and function from primary sequence; for a provocative editorial on this subject, see ref. 2). The intrinsic problems of transitive propagation of historical annotation errors have been discussed elsewhere (bi3) and are all too familiar to any biologist who has looked into the databases only to find puzzling annotations that make no sense with current knowledge.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Proteomics ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISBN: 9781588293435
    ISBN: 1588293432
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 25 November 2017, Vol.725, pp.260-269
    Description: Developing inexpensive and advanced bifunctional electrocatalysts as substitutes for commercial precious metal-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is of tremendous expectancy for rechargeable metal-air batteries. Herein, we demonstrate a rational wet-chemical route to fabricate a novel LaCoO /N-doped reduced graphene oxide (LaCoO /N-rGO) nanohybrid with improved performances as a bifunctional electrocatalyst for ORR and OER. The as-synthesized LaCoO /N-rGO affords overwhelmingly superior ORR and OER electrocatalytic properties in comparison with LaCoO , N-rGO and LaCoO /reduced graphene oxide (LaCoO /rGO). As compared with the most acknowledgedly efficient Pt-based bifunctional eletrocatalysts, 20 wt% Pt/C, LaCoO /N-rGO displays a far higher OER activity associated with remarkably enhanced ORR and OER durabilities. Moreover, LaCoO /N-rGO holds a better durability and a more rapid OER rate than those of the benchmark OER electrocatalyst RuO . The improved ORR and OER electrocatalytic performances for LaCoO /N-rGO stem from the diminished size of LaCoO on rGO, reinforced synergistic effect between LaCoO and rGO, efficient N doping, and significantly low ohmic and kinetic impedances. This design strategy can be extended to construct composites of other perovskite-type oxides and carbonaceous materials, thereby providing the foundation for the developments of bifunctional eletrocatalysts in the rechargeable metal−air batteries.
    Keywords: Lacoo3/N-Rgo ; Preparation ; Oxygen Reduction Reaction ; Oxygen Evolution Reaction ; Bifunctional Electrocatalyst ; Engineering ; Chemistry ; Physics
    ISSN: 0925-8388
    E-ISSN: 1873-4669
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  • 6
    In: Surface and Interface Analysis, August 2013, Vol.45(8), pp.1283-1290
    Description: The tribological properties of SiN ball sliding against diamond‐like carbon (DLC) films were investigated using a ball‐on‐disc tribometer under dry friction and oil lubrications, respectively. The influence of nano boron nitride particle as lubricant additive in poly‐α‐olefin (PAO) oil on the tribological properties of SiN/DLC films was evaluated. The microstructure of DLC films was measured by Raman spectroscopy and X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The experimental results show coefficient of friction (COF) of SiN/DLC films was as low as 0.035 due to the formation of graphite‐like transfer films under dry friction condition. It also indicates that the tribological properties of SiN/DLC films were influenced significantly by the viscosity of oil and the content of nano boron nitride particle in PAO oil. COF increases with the viscosity of PAO oil increasing. SiN/DLC films exhibit the superlubricity behaviors (=0.001 and nonmeasurable wear) under PAO 6 oil with 1.0 wt% nano boron nitride particle lubrication, indicating that the improved boundary lubrication behaviors have indeed been responsible for the significantly reduced friction. Nano boron nitride additive is used as solid lubricant‐like nano scale ball bearing to the pointlike contact and a soft phase bond with the weak van der Waals interaction force on the contact surface to improve the lubrication behaviors of SiN/DLC films. The potential usefulness of nano boron nitride as lubricant additive in PAO oil for SiN/DLC films has been demonstrated under oil lubrication conditions. The present work will extend the wide application of nano particle additive and introduce a new approach to superlubricity under boundary lubrication in future technological areas. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Keywords: Diamond‐Like Carbon Films ; Pao Oil Lubrication ; Nano Boron Nitride Additive ; Superlubricity ; Transfer Films
    ISSN: 0142-2421
    E-ISSN: 1096-9918
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 01 January 2018, Vol.161, pp.628-635
    Description: Surface texturing is one of the effective strategies to improve bioactivity of implantable materials. In this study, hierarchical micro and nano structure (HMN) were fabricated on Co–Cr–Mo alloy substrate by a movable picosecond laser irradiation. Respectively, microgrooves with nano ripples and islands were produced on Co–Cr–Mo alloy by low and high laser power density. X-ray diffraction apparatus (XRD) phase analysis illustrated that substrate was in the phase of γ- face-centered cubic structure (FCC) before laser treatment, while it was in ε-hexagonal closest packing structure (HCP) phase dominant after laser treatment. Cell adhesion and proliferation studies showed that the HMN surface exhibits enhanced adhesion of MC3TC-E1 osteoblast and promoted cell activity. Analyzing of the morphology of osteoblast cells indicated cells were in high ratio of elongation on the HMN surface, while they mainly kept in round shape on the polished surface. Results indicated the formation of hierarchical structure on Co–Cr–Mo alloy was able to improve biological performances, suggesting the potential application in cobalt based orthopedic implants.
    Keywords: Co–Cr–Mo Alloy ; Hierarchical Structure ; Bioactivity ; Cell Orientation ; Engineering ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0927-7765
    E-ISSN: 1873-4367
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 1994, Vol.215(1), pp.257-261
    Description: The structural and magnetic properties of mechanically alloyed samples of Sm(12.5)Fe(87.5) have been studied by adjusting the nitrogenation temperature and time. When the nitrogenation temperature is 500 deg C, a very short time (less than 5 min) is needed for the nitrogen atoms to be introduced into the lattice. No prominent incubation time is observed, consequently the magnetic properties (including the Curie temperature) of the samples depend only slightly on the nitrogenation time. When nitrogenated at 260 deg C, two phases, SmFe7 and SmFe7N(x) coexist in the samples. The temperature dependences of the magnetic properties of the Sm-Fe-N magnets have been measured up to 600 deg C. It is found that Sm-Fe-N powders as well as polymer-bonded magnets made by mechanical alloying have a good thermostability. The coercivity at 200 deg C of the Sm-Fe-N magnets is greater than 10 kOe. At 550 deg C the main phase decomposes into SmN and alpha-Fe and the magnetic properties of the samples are rapidly degraded.
    Keywords: Engineering ; Chemistry ; Physics
    ISSN: 0925-8388
    E-ISSN: 1873-4669
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, May 2019, Vol.138, pp.48-57
    Description: Widely distributed in tea plants, the flavonoid flavonol and its glycosylated derivatives have important roles in determining tea quality. However, the biosynthesis and accumulation of these compounds has not been fully studied, especially in response to nitrogen (N) supply. In the present study, ‘Longjing 43’ potted tea seedlings were subjected to N deficiency (0g/pot), normal N (4g/pot) or excess N (16g/pot). Quantitative analyses using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS) revealed that most flavonol glycosides (e.g., Quercetin-3-glucoside, Kaempferol-3-rgalactoside and Kaempferol-3-glucosyl-rhamnsoyl-glucoside) accumulated to the highest levels when treated with normal N. Results from metabolomics using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) suggested that the levels of carbohydrate substrates of flavonol glycosides (e.g., sucrose, sucrose-6-phosphate, D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and glucose-1-phosphate) were positively correlated with flavonol glycoside content in response to N availability. Furthermore, Quantitative Real-time PCR analysis of 28 genes confirmed that genes related to flavonoid (e.g., , ) and carbohydrate (e.g., ) metabolism have important roles in regulating the biosynthesis and accumulation of flavonol glycosides. Collectively, our results suggest that normal N levels promote the biosynthesis of flavonol glycosides through gene regulation and the accumulation of substrate carbohydrates, while abnormal N availability has inhibitory effects, especially excess N.
    Keywords: Camellia Sinensis ; Flavonol Glycosides ; Nitrogen Supply ; Biosynthesis ; Carbohydrates ; Botany ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0981-9428
    E-ISSN: 1873-2690
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