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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Nature, 21 January 2016, Vol.529(7586), pp.394-8
    Description: The nature of inter-group relations among prehistoric hunter-gatherers remains disputed, with arguments in favour and against the existence of warfare before the development of sedentary societies. Here we report on a case of inter-group violence towards a group of hunter-gatherers from Nataruk, west of Lake Turkana, which during the late Pleistocene/early Holocene period extended about 30 km beyond its present-day shore. Ten of the twelve articulated skeletons found at Nataruk show evidence of having died violently at the edge of a lagoon, into which some of the bodies fell. The remains from Nataruk are unique, preserved by the particular conditions of the lagoon with no evidence of deliberate burial. They offer a rare glimpse into the life and death of past foraging people, and evidence that warfare was part of the repertoire of inter-group relations among prehistoric hunter-gatherers.
    Keywords: Archaeology ; Group Processes ; Violence -- History ; Wounds and Injuries -- History
    ISSN: 00280836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Lancet, 2006, Vol.368(9530), pp.130-138
    Description: Visiting-specialist clinics (specialist outreach) have the potential to overcome some of the substantial access barriers faced by disadvantaged rural, remote, and Indigenous communities, but the effectiveness of outreach clinics has not been assessed outside urban and non-disadvantaged settings. We aimed to assess the effects of outreach clinics on access, referral patterns, and care outcomes in remote communities in Australia. We undertook a population-based observational study of regular surgical, ophthalmological, gynaecological, and ear, nose, and throat outreach visits, compared with hospital clinics alone, on access, referral practices, and outcomes for the populations of three remote Indigenous communities in northern Australia for 11 years. We assessed all new non-emergency potential specialist surgical cases who presented initially between Jan 1, 1990, and Jan 1, 2001. The effects of outreach clinics on the proportion of patients referred, the time from referral to initial specialist consultation, and the rates of community-based and hospital-based procedures were analysed using logic regression and Cox proportional hazard models. 2339 new surgical problems presented in 2368 people between 1990 and 2001. Outreach improved the rate of referral completion (adjusted hazard ratio 1·41, 95% CI 1·07–1·86) and the risk of timely completion according to the urgency of referral (adjusted relative risk 1·30, 1·05–1·53). Outreach had no significant effect on initiation of elective referrals, but there were 156 opportunistic presentations on outreach clinic days. Specialist investigations and procedures in community clinics removed the need for many patients to travel to hospital, and outreach consultations were associated with a reduced rate of procedures that needed hospital admission (adjusted hazard ratio 0·67, 0·43–1·03). Specialist outreach visits to remote disadvantaged Indigenous communities in Australia improve access to specialist consultations and procedures without increasing elective referrals or demands for hospital inpatient services.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0140-6736
    E-ISSN: 1474-547X
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: NeuroImage, 15 October 2012, Vol.63(1), pp.148-156
    Description: Reading disability (RD) is a complex genetic disorder with unknown etiology. Genes on chromosome 6p22, including , , and , have been identified as RD associated genes. Imaging studies have shown both functional and structural differences between brains of individuals with and without RD. There are limited association studies performed between RD genes, specifically genes on 6p22, and regional brain activation during reading tasks. Using fourteen variants in , , and and exhaustive reading measures, we first tested for association with reading performance in 82 parent-offspring families (326 individuals). Next, we determined the association of these variants with activation of sixteen brain regions of interest during four functional magnetic resonance imaging-reading tasks. We nominally replicated associations between reading performance and variants of and . Furthermore, we observed a number of associations with brain activation patterns during imaging-reading tasks with all three genes. The strongest association occurred between activation of the left anterior inferior parietal lobe and complex tandem repeat BV677278 in (uncorrected p = 0.00003, q = 0.0442). Our results show that activation patterns across regions of interest in the brain are influenced by variants in the locus. The combination of genetic and functional imaging data show a link between genes and brain functioning during reading tasks in subjects with RD. This study highlights the many advantages of imaging data as an endophenotype for discerning genetic risk factors for RD and other communication disorders and underscores the importance of integrating neurocognitive, imaging, and genetic data in future investigations. ► Functional imaging data are an informative endophenotype for reading disability. ► A functional variant in associated with brain activation during reading tasks ► We nominally replicated association of with imaging endophenotypes ► Future studies should examine cognitive, imaging, and genetic data in studying language deficits.
    Keywords: Dyslexia ; Dcdc2 ; Ttrap ; Imaging-Genetics ; Neuroimaging ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1053-8119
    E-ISSN: 1095-9572
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  • 4
    In: Neurology, 2016, Vol.87(6), pp.585-594
    Description: OBJECTIVE:: The aims of the current study were to determine whether children with the 6 different APOE ε genotypes show differences in gray matter maturation, particularly for those with ε4 and ε2 alleles, which are associated with poorer outcomes in many neurologic disorders. METHODS:: A total of 1,187 healthy children (aged 3–20 years, 52.1% boys, 47.9% girls) with acceptable data from the cross-sectional Pediatric Imaging Neurocognition and Genetics Study were evaluated for the effects of 6 APOE ε genotypes on macroscopic and microscopic cortical and subcortical gray matter structures (measured with 3-tesla MRI and FreeSurfer for automated morphometry) and on cognition (NIH Toolbox). RESULTS:: Among APOE ε4 carriers, age-related changes in brain structures and cognition varied depending on genotype, with the smallest hippocampi in ε2ε4 children, the lowest hippocampal fractional anisotropy in younger ε4ε4 children, the largest medial orbitofrontal cortical areas in ε3ε4 children, and age-dependent thinning of the entorhinal cortex in ε4ε4 children. Younger ε4ε4 children had the lowest scores on executive function and working memory, while younger ε2ε4 children performed worse on attention tasks. Larger parietal gyri in the younger ε2ε4 children, and thinner temporal and cingulate isthmus cortices or smaller hippocampi in the younger ε4ε4 children, predicted poorer performance on attention or working memory. CONCLUSIONS:: Our findings validated and extended prior smaller studies that showed altered brain development in APOE ε4–carrier children. The ε4ε4 and ε2ε4 genotypes may negatively influence brain development and brain aging at the extremes of age. Studying APOE ε polymorphisms in young children may provide the earliest indicators for individuals who might benefit from early interventions or preventive measures for future brain injuries and dementia.
    Keywords: Cortex (Entorhinal) ; Neuroimaging ; Data Processing ; Anisotropy ; Pediatrics ; Hippocampus ; Gene Polymorphism ; Aging ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Cortex (Temporal) ; Children ; Short Term Memory ; Cortex (Cingulate) ; Cognition ; Attention Task ; Cortex (Parietal) ; Thinning ; Dementia Disorders ; Substantia Grisea ; Developmental Neuroscience;
    ISSN: 0028-3878
    E-ISSN: 1526632X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Learning Disabilities, July 2017, Vol.50(4), pp.422-433
    Description: Competent reading requires various skills beyond those for basic word reading (i.e., core language skills, rapid naming, phonological processing). Contributing “higher-level” or domain-general processes include information processing speed and executive functions (working memory, strategic problem solving, attentional switching). Research in this area has relied on largely Caucasian samples, with limited representation of children from racial or ethnic minority groups. This study examined contributions of executive skills to reading competence in 761 children of minority backgrounds. Hierarchical linear regressions examined unique contributions of executive functions (EF) to word reading, fluency, and comprehension. EF contributed uniquely to reading performance, over and above reading-related language skills; working memory contributed uniquely to all components of reading; while attentional switching, but not problem solving, contributed to isolated and contextual word reading and reading fluency. Problem solving uniquely predicted comprehension, suggesting that this skill may be especially important for reading comprehension in minority youth. Attentional switching may play a unique role in development of reading fluency in minority youth, perhaps as a result of the increased demand for switching between spoken versus written dialects. Findings have implications for educational and clinical practice with regard to reading instruction, remedial reading intervention, and assessment of individuals with reading difficulty.
    Keywords: Dyslexia ; Attention ; Processing Speed ; Working Memory ; Fluency ; Comprehension ; Medicine ; Education ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0022-2194
    E-ISSN: 1538-4780
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  • 6
    In: Autism Research, April 2015, Vol.8(2), pp.229-234
    Description: Language and communication development is a complex process influenced by numerous environmental and genetic factors. Many neurodevelopment disorders include deficits in language and communication skills in their diagnostic criteria, including autism spectrum disorders (), language impairment (), and dyslexia. These disorders are polygenic and complex with a significant genetic component contributing to each. The similarity of language phenotypes and comorbidity of these disorders suggest that they may share genetic contributors. To test this, we examined the association of genes previously implicated in dyslexia, , and/or language‐related traits with language skills in children with . We used genetic and language data collected in the utism enome esearch xchange () and imons implex ollection () cohorts to perform a meta‐analysis on performance on a receptive vocabulary task. There were associations with risk gene and dyslexia risk gene . Additionally, we found suggestive evidence of association with , , , the 2 locus (, , and ), and . Our results show that and dyslexia genes also contribute to language traits in children with . These associations add to the growing literature of generalist genes that contribute to multiple related neurobehavioral traits. Future studies should examine whether other genetic contributors may be shared among these disorders and how risk variants interact with each other and the environment to modify clinical presentations. . © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Keywords: Language ; Autism Spectrum Disorders ; Atp2c2 ; Mrpl19 ; Dyslexia ; Language Impairment
    ISSN: 1939-3792
    E-ISSN: 1939-3806
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, November 2018, Vol.34, pp.7-17
    Description: Individuals with dyslexia exhibit increased brainstem variability in response to sound. It is unknown as to whether increased variability extends to neocortical regions associated with audition and reading, extends to visual stimuli, and whether increased variability characterizes all children with dyslexia or, instead, a specific subset of children. We evaluated the consistency of stimulus-evoked neural responses in children with (N = 20) or without dyslexia (N = 12) as measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG). Approximately half of the children with dyslexia had significantly higher levels of variability in cortical responses to both auditory and visual stimuli in multiple nodes of the reading network. There was a significant and positive relationship between the number of risk alleles at rs6935076 in the dyslexia-susceptibility gene and the degree of neural variability in primary auditory cortex across all participants. This gene has been linked with neural variability in rodents and in typical readers. These findings indicate that unstable representations of auditory and visual stimuli in auditory and other reading-related neocortical regions are present in a subset of children with dyslexia and support the link between the gene and the auditory neural variability across children with or without dyslexia.
    Keywords: Kiaa0319 ; Gene ; Reading ; Neural Variability ; Subgroups ; Mechanisms ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 1878-9293
    E-ISSN: 1878-9307
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Injury, January 2018, Vol.49(1), pp.62-66
    Description: Higher transfusion ratios of plasma to packed red blood cells (PRBC) and platelets (PLT) to PRBC have been shown to be associated with decreased mortality in major trauma patients. However, little is known about the effect of transfusion ratios on mortality in patients with isolated severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of transfusion ratios on mortality in patients with isolated severe blunt TBI. We hypothesized that higher transfusion ratios of plasma to PRBC and PLT to PRBC are associated with a lower mortality rate in these patients. Retrospective observational study. Patients with isolated severe blunt TBI (AIS head ≥ 3, AIS extracranial 〈 3) admitted to an urban level I trauma centre were included. Clinical data were extracted from the institution’s trauma registry, blood transfusion data from the blood bank database. The effect of higher transfusion ratios on in-hospital mortality was analysed using univariate and multivariable regression analysis. A total of 385 patients were included. Median age was 32 years (IQR 2–50), 71.4% were male, and 76.6% had an ISS ≥ 16. Plasma:PRBC transfusion ratios ≥ 1 were identified as an independent predictor for decreased in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR 0.43 [CI 0.22–0.81]). PLT:PRBC transfusion ratios ≥ 1 were not significantly associated with mortality (adjusted OR 0.39 [CI 0.08–1.92]). This study revealed plasma to PRBC transfusion ratios ≥ 1 as an independent predictor for decreased in-hospital mortality in patients with isolated severe blunt TBI.
    Keywords: Brain Injury ; Blood Component Transfusion ; Transfusion Ratio ; Mortality ; Coagulopathy
    ISSN: 0020-1383
    E-ISSN: 1879-0267
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: PSYCHOTHERAPY AND PSYCHOSOMATICS, Vol.84, pp.20-20
    Description: Knowledge of hatha yogic exercises, the most used yoga style, for increasing functional capacity in patients with obstructive pulmonary diseases remains limited. The aim was to evaluate the effects and feasibility of hatha yoga (HY) compared to a conventional training program (CTP) on functional capacity, lung function and quality of life in patients with obstructive pulmonary diseases. Randomized clinical trial. The study was performed at the Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, among outpatients. Thirty-six patients with obstructive pulmonary disease. Forty patients were randomized with 36 (24 women, median age =64, age range: 40-84 years) participating in HY (N.=19) or CTP (N.=17). Both HY and CTP involved a 12-week program with a 6-month follow-up. Functional capacity (using the 6-Minute Walk Test), lung function (spirometry), respiratory muscle strength (respiratory pressure meter), oxygen saturation (SpO2), breathlessness (Borg), respiratory rate (f) and disease-specific quality of life (CRQ) were measured at baseline, at 12 weeks and at a 6-month follow-up. Testing for interactions (group x time) with ANOVAs showed significant effects on the CRQ fatigue (P=0.04) and emotional (P=0.02) domains, with improvements in the CTP group after the 12-week intervention (P=0.02 and 0.01, respectively) but not in the HY group. No between group effects emerged, however, within each group, significant improvements emerged for the six-minute walk distance (6MWD) after 12-week intervention (HY: mean difference 32.6 m; CI: 10.1-55.1, P=0.014; CTP: mean difference 42.4 m; CI: 17.9-67.0, P=0.006). within-group improvements in CRQ appeared in both groups. Within the HY group, f decreased and SpO2 increased. Improved effects after follow-up emerged only for the CTP group for diastolic blood pressure (P=0.05) and CRQ emotional and fatigue domain (P=0.01). There were no between-group differences. After 12 weeks, 6MWD improved significantly within both groups. Within the HY group, improvements in the CRQ mastery domain, f and SpO2 emerged. Within the CTP group, there were improvements in lung function parameter forced vital capacity, respiratory muscle strength and all CRQ-domains. The CTP also exhibited effects on CRQ after the 6months follow-up. Limited effects of HY and CTP emerged. HY seems feasible and safe as a form of physical exercise for pulmonary disease patients. As part of the rehabilitation, HY may constitute an alternative to other physical training activities and may be a useful addition to formal rehabilitation programs.
    Keywords: Yoga ; Exercise Therapy -- Methods ; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive -- Rehabilitation;
    ISSN: 0033-3190
    ISSN: 11184841
    E-ISSN: 19739095
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  • 10
    In: Transplant Infectious Disease, April 2016, Vol.18(2), pp.240-246
    Description: Byline: J. Franzen, T. Ramqvist, G. Bogdanovic, N. Grun, J. Mattson, T. Dalianis Keywords: human polyomaviruses; BKPyV; JCPyV; HPyV7; HPyV6; urinary samples; allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; hemorrhagic cystitis Abstract Background BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) can cause hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) patients and polyomavirus-associated nephritis in renal transplant patients, while JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) can generate progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in immunocompromised individuals. Since 2007, additional human polyomaviruses (HPyVs) have been identified. In this study, we examined the urines of allo-HSCT patients for possible presence of polyomaviruses BKPyV, JCPyV, KIPyV, WUPyV, MCPyV, HPyV6, HPyV7, TSPyV, HPyV9, and HPyV10 (MWPyV). Methods A total of 185 urinary samples obtained 2002-2007 from 105 allo-HSCT patients, 32/105 with HC, were tested for the above-listed HPyVs by a bead-based multiplex assay. Of these, 142 urine samples had previously been tested for BKPyV and JCPyV by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Aside from BKPyV and JCPyV, which dominated, HPyV7 was detected in 5 BKPyV-positive urinary samples from 1 patient. The multiplex assay was more sensitive and specific than the nested PCR. BKPyV and/or JCPyV were found in all but 1 of the previously BKPyV- or JCPyV-positive samples, although 6 previously BKPyV-positive cases were now JCPyV-positive or the reverse. Furthermore, 18/79 previously negative samples were found to be BKPyV and/or JCPyV positive, and a total of 21 double infections were found. Lastly, in 1/29 HC patients, only JCPyV was detected. Conclusion HPyV7 was found for the first time in urine of an allo-HSCT patient, and BKPyV and JCPyV were more commonly found in urine samples using the bead-based assay compared to testing by nested PCR. Finally, only JCPyV was detected in the urine of 1 HC patient.
    Keywords: Human Polyomaviruses ; Bkp Yv ; Jcp Yv ; Hp Yv7 ; Hp Yv6 ; Urinary Samples ; Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation ; Hemorrhagic Cystitis
    ISSN: 1398-2273
    E-ISSN: 1399-3062
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