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  • Chlamydia  (5)
  • Chlamydia Trachomatis
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Pediatrics, February 2011, Vol.127(2), pp.e336-44
    Description: We assessed differences in chlamydia screening rates according to race/ethnicity, insurance status, age, and previous sexually transmitted infection (STI) or pregnancy. A retrospective cohort study was performed using electronic medical record and billing data for women 14 to 25 years of age in 2002-2007, assessing differences in the odds of a chlamydia test being performed at that visit. Adjusted odds of a chlamydia test being performed were lower among women 14 to 15 years of age (odds ratio: 0.83 [95% confidence interval: 0.70-1.00]) and 20 to 25 years of age (20-21 years, odds ratio: 0.78 [95% confidence interval: 0.70-0.89]; 22-23 years, odds ratio: 0.76 [95% confidence interval: 0.67-0.87]; 24-25 years, odds ratio: 0.64 [95% confidence interval: 0.57-0.73]), compared with women 18 to 19 years of age. Black women had 3 times increased odds (odds ratio: 2.96 [95% confidence interval: 2.66-3.28]) and Hispanic women nearly 13 times increased odds (odds ratio: 12.89 [95% confidence interval: 10.85-15.30]) of testing, compared with white women. Women with public (odds ratio: 1.74 [95% confidence interval: 1.58-1.91]) and public pending (odds ratio: 6.85 [95% confidence interval: 5.13-9.15]) insurance had increased odds of testing, compared with women with private insurance. After first STI diagnosis, differences according to race/ethnicity persisted but were smaller; after first pregnancy, differences persisted. Despite recommendations to screen all sexually active young women for chlamydia, providers screened women differently according to age, race/ethnicity, and insurance status, although differences were reduced after first STI or pregnancy.
    Keywords: Chlamydia Infections -- Diagnosis ; Health Personnel -- Standards ; Mass Screening -- Methods
    ISSN: 00314005
    E-ISSN: 1098-4275
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(5), p.e36298
    Description: Lactobacillus- dominated vaginal microbiotas are associated with reproductive health and STI resistance in women, whereas altered microbiotas are associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), STI risk and poor reproductive outcomes. Putative vaginal taxa have been observed in male first-catch urine, urethral swab and coronal sulcus (CS) specimens but the significance of these observations is unclear. We used 16 S rRNA sequencing to characterize the microbiota of the CS and urine collected from 18 adolescent men over three consecutive months. CS microbiotas of most participants were more stable than their urine microbiotas and the composition of CS microbiotas were strongly influenced by circumcision. BV-associated taxa, including Atopobium , Megasphaera , Mobiluncus , Prevotella and Gemella , were detected in CS specimens from sexually experienced and inexperienced participants. In contrast, urine primarily contained taxa that were not abundant in CS specimens. Lactobacilllus and Streptococcus were major urine taxa but their abundance was inversely correlated. In contrast, Sneathia , Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma were only found in urine from sexually active participants. Thus, the CS and urine support stable and distinct bacterial communities. Finally, our results suggest that the penis and the urethra can be colonized by a variety of BV-associated taxa and that some of these colonizations result from partnered sexual activity.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Public Health And Epidemiology ; Infectious Diseases ; Microbiology ; Urology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    In: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), October 2011, Vol.174(4), pp.975-989
    Description: Bacterium causes genital chlamydia infection. Yet little is known about the efficiency of transmission of this organism. Ethical constraint against exposing healthy subjects to infected partners precludes the possibility of quantifying the risk of transmission through controlled experiments. This research proposes an alternative strategy that relies on observational data. Specifically, we present a stochastic model that treats longitudinally observed states of infection in a group of young women as a Markov process. The model proposed explicitly accommodates the parameters of transmission, including per‐encounter sexually transmitted infection acquisition risks, with and without condom protection, and the probability of antibiotic treatment failure. The male‐to‐female transmission probability of is then estimated by combining the per‐encounter disease acquisition risk and the organism's prevalence in the male partner population. The model proposed is fitted in a Bayesian computational framework.
    Keywords: Bacterial Infection ; Binary Outcome ; Longitudinal Study ; Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods ; Markov Model ; Observational Data ; Transmission Probability
    ISSN: 0964-1998
    E-ISSN: 1467-985X
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  • 4
    In: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 1999, Vol.26(1), pp.26-32
    Description: OBJECTIVE:: To identify factors associated with subsequent sexually transmitted infection (STI) (within 1 year of initial infection) due to Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Trichomonas vaginalis. DESIGN:: SETTING:: PARTICIPANTS:: MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: RESULTS:: CONCLUSIONS::
    Keywords: Chlamydia ; Demographic Aspects ; Trichomonas Vaginalis ; Gonorrhea ; Teenage Girls ; Sexual Behavior ; Sexually Transmitted Diseases ; Risk Factors ; Medicine;
    ISSN: 0148-5717
    E-ISSN: 15374521
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Sexually transmitted diseases, July 2019, Vol.46(7), pp.440-445
    Description: Rectal infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is frequent in women who deny receptive anal sex and is thought to arise from autoinoculation of the rectum from vaginal secretions. An alternate hypothesis is that oral sex inoculates and establishes gastrointestinal tract infection. Distinguishing these... We enrolled high-risk men with and without nongonococcal urethritis who presented to a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Indianapolis, Indiana. Urine and rectal swabs were collected and tested for urogenital and rectal CT, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG). Men completed... Rectal CT was detected in 2/84 (2.4%) heterosexual men who reported cunnilingus, but no lifetime receptive anal behaviors. All of the men who denied receptive anal behaviors were negative for rectal NG and MG. In homosexual and bisexual men, rectal CT prevalence was high (9.7%), and rectal NG (4.8%)... We detected rectal CT infections in heterosexual men who reported cunnilingus but denied receptive anal behaviors. Oral sex may be a risk factor for rectal CT infection via oral inoculation of the gastrointestinal tract.
    Keywords: Chlamydia Trachomatis ; Infections ; Vagina ; Detection ; Urethritis ; Urine ; Sex ; Chlamydia Trachomatis ; Gastrointestinal Tract ; Chlamydia ; Inoculation ; Gastrointestinal Tract ; Secretions ; Sexual Behavior ; Women ; Urine ; Chlamydia Trachomatis ; Inoculation ; Rectum ; Risk Groups;
    ISSN: 01485717
    E-ISSN: 1537-4521
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