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  • Crocus
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  • 1
    Description: Recent research within the genus Crocus (Iridaceae) let us doubt that Crocus adamii Gay from Serbia represents the same taxon as C. adamii s. str. of the locus classicus in the Caucasian Mountains. The latter belongs to a group of crocuses, which is distributed from the Anatolian Diagonal, a mountain belt in inner Anatolia, to Iran and the Caucasian Mountains. To infer (i) if the Serbian C. adamii represents a new species and (ii) its taxonomical and phylogenetic affiliation within the genus we combined morphological and molecular investigations. The results show the presence of a morphologically and molecularly differentiated lineages, which both share a close relationship e.g. to C. alexandrii, C. chrysanthus, and C. weldenii but not to C. adamii s. str., which indicates a new species. As a result, we here describe C. randjeloviciorum to honor the Serbian botanists Novica and Vladimir Ranđelović....
    Keywords: Crocus, New Species, Serbia
    ISSN: 22174478
    E-ISSN: 22174605
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, March 2013, Vol.66(3), pp.617-627
    Description: ► We provide the first exhaustive phylogeny of crocuses based on nuclear sequences. ► We reconstruct chromosome number evolution and polyploidization in . ► 8 out of 15 series of are monophyletic, as well as probably both sections. ► Chromosome numbers increased multiple times independently by polyploidization. ► Supernumerary B chromosomes evolved at least five times independently within consists of about 100 species distributed from western Europe and northern Africa to western China, with the center of diversity on the Balkan Peninsula and in Asia Minor. Our study focuses on clarifying phylogenetic relationships and chromosome number evolution within the genus using sequences of the chloroplast L-F region, the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, and a part of the nuclear single-copy gene . In a combined dataset of ITS and L-F sequences, 115 individuals representing 110 taxa from both subgenera and all sections and series of were analyzed with Bayesian phylogenetic inference. For 79 individuals representing 74 taxa were included, and for the majority of them PCR amplicons were cloned and up to eight clones per individual were sequenced to detect allopolyploidization events. species were included as outgroup in both analyses. Characteristics of seed surface structures were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS/ L-F data resulted in a monophyletic genus , probably monophyletic sections and , and inferred monophyly for eight of the 15 series of the genus. The aggregate, thought to be consisting of closely related subspecies, was found to be polyphyletic, the taxa occurring within three major clades in the phylogenetic tree. Cloning of resulted in the detection of homoeologous copies in about one third of the taxa of section , indicating an allotetraploid origin of this section. Reconstruction of chromosome number evolution along the phylogenetic tree using a probabilistic and a parsimony approach arrived at partly contradictory results. Both analyses agreed however on the occurrence of multiple polyploidization and dysploidy events. B chromosomes evolved at least five times independently within the genus, preferentially in clades characterized by karyotype changes.
    Keywords: B Chromosome ; Chromosome Number ; Crocus ; Evolution ; Internal Transcribed Spacer (Its) ; Pcosat103 ; Phylogeny ; Trnl-F ; Seed Testa ; Whole Genome Duplication ; Biology
    ISSN: 1055-7903
    E-ISSN: 1095-9513
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  • 3
    In: PLoS ONE, 2016, Vol.11(4)
    Description: Most flowers display distinct colour patterns comprising two different areas. The peripheral large-area component of floral colour patterns attracts flower visitors from some distance and the central small-area component guides flower visitors towards landing sites. Whereas the peripheral colour is largely variable among species, the central colour, produced mostly by anthers and pollen or pollen mimicking floral guides, is predominantly yellow and UV-absorbing. This holds also for yellow flowers that regularly display a UV bull’s eye pattern. Here we show that yellow-flowering Crocus species are a noticeable exception, since yellow-flowering Crocus species–being entirely UV-absorbing–exhibit low colour contrast between yellow reproductive organs and yellow tepals. The elongated yellow or orange-yellow style of Crocus flowers is a stamen-mimicking structure promoting cross-pollination by facilitating flower visitors’ contact with the apical stigma before the flower visitors are touching the anthers. Since Crocus species possess either yellow, violet or white tepals, the colour contrast between the stamen-mimicking style and the tepals varies among species. In this study comprising 106 Crocus species, it was tested whether the style length of Crocus flowers is dependent on the corolla colour. The results show that members of the genus Crocus with yellow tepals have evolved independently up to twelve times in the genus Crocus and that yellow-flowering Crocus species possess shorter styles as compared to violet- and white-flowering ones. The manipulation of flower visitors by anther-mimicking elongated styles in Crocu s flowers is discussed.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Biology And Life Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Plant Systematics and Evolution, 2015, Vol.301(1), pp.309-325
    Description: The taxonomically complicated Crocus series Verni is characterized by high intra- and interspecific variability of karyotypes (2 n  = 8–23). With the aim to get more insights into complex karyotype evolution and to clarify the taxonomy of this group, we combined morphological (twelve characters), molecular (chloroplast DNA: trn L– trn F, ndh F; nuclear DNA: ITS, pCOSAt103 ) and karyological analyses. Samples of different populations of C. etruscus , C. ilvensis , C. kosaninii , C. tommasinianus , C. vernus sensu lato and C. longiflorus (series Longiflori ) were analyzed. Quantitative karyotype parameters were calculated for all taxa involved based on the available literature. For the taxon traditionally known as C. vernus , the analyses suggest that it should be split in five species: C. heuffelianus , C. neapolitanus , C. neglectus sp. nov., C. siculus and C. vernus . The comparison of genome total haploid lengths suggests that in the evolution of the group polyploidization only played a role within the C. vernus species complex, where we also detected two hybridization events. In all other taxa, chromosome evolution is probably characterized by chromosome fusions and fissions, sometimes affecting the entire haploid chromosome set. Comparative cytogenetics of the group indicates that series Verni is subject to a peculiar type of unequal change in chromosome size, i.e., that not both chromosome arms gain or lose equally in DNA content. As a taxonomic consequence of our study, series Verni is newly circumscribed, now including the autumn-flowering C. longiflorus and excluding C. baytopiorum .
    Keywords: Crocus ; Karyotype evolution ; Molecular systematics ; Taxonomy
    ISSN: 0378-2697
    E-ISSN: 2199-6881
    E-ISSN: 16156110
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  • 5
    In: Phytotaxa, 06/09/2016, Vol.265(1), p.39
    Description: A new Crocus species (Iridaceae) for southern Albania, Crocus novicii sp. nov . (Iridaceae), is described and illustrated. We here provide diagnostic morphological characteristics, results of molecular analyses, detailed descriptions and illustrations of this new species and compare it with its relatives C. jablanicensis , C. cvijicii and C. veluchensis. Our molecular analysis is based on two chloroplast ( mat K– trn K, rps 16– trn Q) and three nuclear markers (nrETS, nrITS, TOPO 6B exon3–exon6) and includes representatives of all related species ( C. cvijicii , C. dalmaticus , C. jablanicensi s, C. rujanensis , C. sieberi subsp. atticus , and C. veluchensis ). Morphologically, C. novicii can be distinguished from its relatives by its white flower with lilac coloring at the base of the perigone and its higher number of leaves (〉 3). Although it is morphologically close to C. jablanicensis , molecular analysis has revealed a close affiliation to C. veluchensis . Crocus novicii is diploid with 2n = 20 chromosomes. The new species is named after the Serbian botanist Novica Ranđelović to honor his important work on the genus Crocus on the Balkan Peninsula.
    ISSN: 1179-3155
    E-ISSN: 1179-3163
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  • 6
    In: TURKISH JOURNAL OF BOTANY, 2014, Vol.38, pp.1182-1198
    Description: Recent phylogenetic analyses proved several infrageneric units within the genus Crocus to be para- or polyphyletic. In an attempt to arrive at a system of Crocus that closely reflects species relationships, we provide here phylogenetic, morphometric, geographic, and nomenclatorial data for the species of a narrower-defined, monophyletic Crocus series Reticulati. We sequenced the ETS and ITS regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA in 9 Reticulati and 19 outgroup species. Three chloroplast loci (trnL-F, rps16-trnQ, matK-trnK) were sequenced in the newly defined series Reticulati species and 1 outgroup. Data were analyzed with Bayesian and parsimony algorithms. The phylogenies resulted in 2 clearly separated, geographically defined species groups within the series Reticulati. The southern one comprises only the taxa from Turkey, while the species of the second group are distributed from Italy in the west through the areas north of the Black Sea to the Caucasus in the east. To arrive at monophyletic species we describe here C. danubensis sp. nov., C. filis-maculatis sp. nov., and C. orphei sp. nov. as new species, and we define C. reticulatus s.s. to comprise only the populations in the area north and east of the Black Sea.
    Keywords: Botany;
    ISSN: 1300008X
    E-ISSN: 13036106
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, July 2019, Vol.136, pp.14-20
    Description: , the saffron crocus, is the source of saffron, which is made from the dried stigmas of the plant. It is a male-sterile triploid lineage that ever since its origin has been propagated vegetatively. Its mode of evolution and area of origin are matters of long-lasting debates. Here we analyzed chloroplast genomes and genome-wide DNA polymorphisms obtained through genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to infer the parent and area of origin of . These data were complemented by genome size measurements and analyses of nuclear single-copy genes. We could place 99.3% of saffron GBS alleles in , a species occurring in southeastern mainland Greece and on Aegean islands, identifying it as the sole progenitor of the saffron crocus. Phylogenetic and population assignment analyses together with chloroplast polymorphisms indicated the population in the vicinity of Athens as most similar to . We conclude that the crop is an autotriploid that evolved in Attica by combining two different genotypes of . Triploid sterility and vegetative propagation prevented afterwards segregation of the favorable traits of saffron, resulting in worldwide cultivation of a unique clonal lineage.
    Keywords: Autotriploidy ; Crocus ; Crop Evolution ; Domestication ; Genotyping-By-Sequencing ; Saffron ; Biology
    ISSN: 1055-7903
    E-ISSN: 1095-9513
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