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  • Cytomegalovirus Infections
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  • 1
    In: Neuro-Oncology, 2015, Vol. 17(7), pp.1039-1039
    Description: The question of whether most gliomas are infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been under dispute for more than 10 years. We recently reported our failure to detect HCMV in gliomas in Neuro-Oncology.1 Our article was accompanied by 2 related editorials,2,3 one of which boldly criticized our approach.3 Instead of fighting a petty, ivory tower dispute, we would like to lobby for a serious collaborative approach to providing conclusive evidence on the presence of HCMV in glioma (and other cancers). Since we developed the concept of oncomodulation (ie, that HCMV …
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 1522-8517
    E-ISSN: 1523-5866
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2011, Vol.200(1), pp.1-5
    Description: The question whether human cytomegalovirus may affect cancer diseases has been discussed (very controversially) for decades. There are convinced believers and strict opponents of the idea that HCMV might be able to play a role in the course of cancer diseases. In parallel, the number of published reports on the topic is growing. Recently published and presented (Ranganathan P, Clark P, Kuo JS, Salamat S, Kalejta RF. A Survey of Human Cytomegalovirus Genomic Loci Present in Glioblastoma Multiforme Tissue Samples. 35th Annual International Herpes Workshop, Salt Lake City, 2010) data on HCMV detection in glioblastoma tissues and colocalisation of HCMV proteins with cellular proteins known to be relevant for glioblastoma progression motivated us to recapitulate the current state of evidence.
    Keywords: Cytomegalovirus ; Cancer ; Oncomodulation ; Tumour virus ; Glioblastoma ; Neuroblastoma
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2013, Vol.202(1), pp.37-47
    Description: Although several host factors have been identified to influence the course of HCMV infection, it still remains unclear why in AIDS patients without highly active antiretroviral therapy human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) retinitis is one of the most common opportunistic infections, whereas in other immunosuppressed individuals it has a low incidence. It was suggested that HCMV glycoprotein B strains may be suitable as marker for virulence and HCMV retinitis. Moreover, UL144 ORF, a member of the TNF-α receptor superfamily, may play a crucial role in innate defences and adaptive immune response of HCMV infection. Furthermore, sequence analyses of HCMV genes UL128, UL130, and UL131A as major determinants of virus entry and replication in epithelial and other cell types were performed. To evaluate the association of sequence variability of depicted viral genes with HCMV retinitis and in vitro growth properties in retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) and human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF), we compared 14 HCMV isolates obtained from vitreous fluid and urine of AIDS patients with clinically proven HCMV retinitis. Isolates were analyzed by PCR cycle sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. In addition, sequences of HCMV strains AF1, U8, U11, VR1814, and its cell culture adapted derivates were included. Sequence analysis of gB yielded three genetic subtypes (gB type 1 (5 isolates), gB type 2 (12 isolates), and gB type 3 (5 Isolates)), whereas sequence analysis of UL144 showed a greater diversity (7 isolates type 1A, 2 isolates type 1C, 7 isolates type 2, and 3 isolates type 3). In contrast, the UL128, UL130, and UL131A genes of all low-passage isolates were highly conserved and showed no preferential clustering. Moreover, in HFF and RPE cells, all of our HCMV isolates replicated efficiently independently of their genetic subtype. In conclusion, beside a possible link between the gB subtype 2 and HCMV retinitis, our study found no direct evidence for a connection between UL144/UL128/UL130/UL131A genotypes and the incidence of HCMV retinitis in AIDS patients.
    Keywords: Cytomegalovirus ; Viral tropism and virulence ; Retinitis ; AIDS
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Cytotherapy, August 2015, Vol.17(8), pp.1139-1151
    Description: Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and reactivation is a leading complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In addition to drug treatment, the adoptive transfer of virus-specific T cells to restore cellular immunity has become a standard therapy after allogeneic HSCT. We recently demonstrated potent anti-leukemic activity of interleukin (IL)-15–activated cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells. With the use of the same expansion protocol, we asked whether concurrent CMV antigen-pulsing might generate CIK cells with anti-leukemic and anti-CMV activity. CIK cells expanded in the presence of interferon-γ, IL-2, IL-15 and anti-CD3 antibody were pulsed once with CMVpp65 peptide pool. CMV-specific CIK (CIK ) and conventional CIK cells were phenotypically and functionally characterized according to their cytokine secretion pattern, degranulation capacity and T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated and NKG2D-mediated cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that among CIK cells generated from CMV-seropositive donors, a single stimulation with CMVpp65 protein co-expanded cytotoxic CMV-specific cells without sacrificing anti-tumor reactivity. Cells generated in this fashion lysed CMVpp65-loaded target cells and CMV-infected fibroblasts but also leukemic cells. Meanwhile, the alloreactive potential of CIK cells remained low. Interestingly, CMV reactivity was TCR-mediated and CMV-specific cells could be found in CD3 CD8 CD56 cytotoxic T-cell subpopulations. We provide an efficient method to generate CIK cells that may represent a useful cell therapy approach for preemptive immunotherapy in patients who have both an apparent risk of CMV and impending leukemic relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
    Keywords: Cik Cells ; Cmv ; Cytotoxicity ; Immunotherapy ; Leukemia ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 1465-3249
    E-ISSN: 1477-2566
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  • 5
    In: Neuro-Oncology, 2014, Vol. 16(11), pp.1469-1477
    Description: BACKGROUND: Experimental findings have suggested that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection of tumor cells may exert oncomodulatory effects that enhance tumor malignancy. However, controversial findings have been published on the presence of HCMV in malignant tumors. Here, we present the first study that systematically investigates HCMV infection in human nervous system tumors by highly sensitive immunohistochemistry in correlation with the HCMV serostatus of the patients.METHODS: Immunohistochemical and quantitative PCR-based methods to detect different HCMV antigens and genomic HCMV DNA were optimized prior to the investigation of pathological samples. Moreover, the pathological results were matched with the HCMV serostatus of the patients.RESULTS: HCMV immediate-early, late, and pp65 antigens could be detected in single cells from HCMV strain Hi91-infected UKF-NB-4 neuroblastoma cells after 1:1024 dilution with noninfected UKF-NB-4 cells. Genomic HCMV DNA could be detected in copy numbers as low as 430 copies/mL. However, we did not detect HCMV in tumors from a cohort of 123 glioblastoma, medulloblastoma, or neuroblastoma patients. Notably, we detected nonspecifically positive staining in tumor tissues of HCMV seropositive and seronegative glioblastoma patients. The HCMV serostatus of 67 glioblastoma patients matched the general epidemiological prevalence data for Western countries (72% of female and 57% of male glioblastoma patients were HCMV seropositive). Median survival was not significantly different in HCMV seropositive versus seronegative glioblastoma patients.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HCMV-infected tumor cells may be much lower than previously reported based on highly sensitive detection methods.
    Keywords: Cytomegalovirus ; Glioma ; Oncomodulation
    ISSN: 1522-8517
    E-ISSN: 1523-5866
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2009, Vol.198(2), pp.79-81
    Description: The (possible) relationship between HCMV and cancer has been discussed for decades. Detection of viral DNA, mRNA and/or antigens in tumour tissues as well as seroepidemiologic evidence suggested a role of HCMV infection in several human malignancies. However, controversial clinical results from diVerent groups had raised skepticism about a role of HCMV in cancer.
    Keywords: Cytomegalovirus–Physiology ; Cytomegalovirus Infections–Complications ; Humans–Etiology ; Neoplasms–Virology ; Neoplasms–Virology ; Infections ; Viruses ; Cancer ; Pathology;
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.), January 2009, Vol.11(1), pp.1-9
    Description: Although human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is generally not regarded to be an oncogenic virus, HCMV infection has been implicated in malignant diseases from different cancer entities. On the basis of our experimental findings, we developed the concept of "oncomodulation" to better explain the role of HCMV in cancer. Oncomodulation means that HCMV infects tumor cells and increases their malignancy. By this concept, HCMV was proposed to be a therapeutic target in a fraction of cancer patients. However, the clinical relevance of HCMV-induced oncomodulation remains to be clarified. One central question that has to be definitively answered is if HCMV establishes persistent virus replication in tumor cells or not. In our eyes, recent clinical findings from different groups in glioblastoma patients and especially the detection of a correlation between the numbers of HCMV-infected glioblastoma cells and tumor stage (malignancy) strongly increase the evidence that HCMV may exert oncomodulatory effects. Here, we summarize the currently available knowledge about the molecular mechanisms that may contribute to oncomodulation by HCMV as well as the clinical findings that suggest that a fraction of tumors from different entities is indeed infected with HCMV.
    Keywords: Cytomegalovirus -- Physiology ; Neoplasms -- Etiology
    E-ISSN: 1476-5586
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Cancer, 01/03/1996, Vol.65(1), pp.90-96
    Description: Human neuroblastoma cell line UKF-NB-4 persistently infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strain AD169 was established to study the effects of long-term HCMV infection on virus production and phenotypic characteristics of tumour cells. The cells designated UKF-NB-4 super(AD169) were subcultured (80 subcultures) over a period of more than 2 years after initiation of infection. UKF-NB-4 super(AD169) cells continued to produce infectious virus in successive passages, with a titre ranging from 9 x 10 super(3) to 1 x 10 super(5) and from 2 x 10 super(1) to 2 x 10 super(2) plaque-forming units per 10 super(6) cells and 1 ml culture medium, respectively; 10-20% of the cells produced HCMV-specific antigens, while 6-13% produced infectious virus progeny. The number of HCMV-specific DNA copies ranged from 9 x 10 super(4) to 9 x 10 super(6) per 10 super(6) cells. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the productive nature of HCMV infection. UKF-NB-4 super(AD169) cultures proliferated, with population doubling time ranging from 24.5 to 26.6 hr (19.5 to 20.3 hr for UKF-NB-4) and cell viability from 79% to 85% (91-96% for UKF-NB-4). Significantly lower amounts of tyrosine hydroxylase and decreased activity for dopamine- beta -hydroxylase than in uninfected cells were observed in UKF-NB-4 super(AD169) cells. However, the expression of N-myc oncoprotein was significantly increased in persistently infected cultures. Our results show that long-term productive HCMV infection of UKF-NB-4 cell line is associated with the modulation of phenotypic properties, which may be related to the biological behaviour of neuroblastoma cells.
    Keywords: Cytomegalovirus ; Cytomegalovirus ; Neuroblastoma Cells ; Man ; Tumor Cells ; Phenotyping ; Neuroblastoma Cells ; Man ; Tumor Cells ; Phenotyping ; Neurovirology ; Virus Behavior in Cell Culture ; Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase ; Dopamine Beta -Monooxygenase ; N-Myc Protein ; Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase ; Dopamine Beta -Monooxygenase ; N-Myc Protein ; N-Myc Protein ; Dopamine Beta -Monooxygenase ; Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase;
    ISSN: 00207136
    E-ISSN: 10970215
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2009, Vol.198(4), pp.257-262
    Description: A coupled luminescent method (CLM) based on glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase released from injured target cells was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of antigen-specific HLA class I-restricted CTLs. In contrast to established methods, CLM does not require the pretreatment of target cells with radioactive or toxic labeling substances. CTLs from healthy HLA-A2 positive donors were stimulated by autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with HLA-A2 restricted HCMV-pp65 nonamer peptides. HLA-A2 positive T2 cells or autologous monocytes pulsed with HCMV-pp65 nonamer peptide served as target cells. Lysis was detected only in HCMV-pp65-pulsed target cells incubated with CTLs from seropositive donors stimulated by HCMV-pp65-pulsed DCs. After 3 days, stimulation 38% of T2 cells and 17% of monocytes were lysed at an effector to target ratio of 8:1. In conclusion, CLM represents a highly sensitive, fast, material-saving and non-toxic/non-radioactive method for the measurement of antigen-specific CTL cytotoxic activity.
    Keywords: Cytotoxic T lymphocytes ; HLA-A2-restricted peptide ; Human cytomegalovirus ; Cytotoxicity ; Coupled luminescent method ; Dendritic cells
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
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  • 10
    In: Transplantation, 1996, Vol.61(12), pp.1763-1770
    Description: Transplantation-related pathogenic factors such as ischemia or allograft-directed inflammation are associated with oxidative changes that might lead to cellular oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of oxidative stress on: (1) CMV replication in cultured human endothelial cells and (2) the stimulation of endothelial cells by proinflammatory cytokines. Both pathomechanisms are known to contribute to graft rejection crises in vivo. Oxidative stress was induced in endothelial cell cultures with 10-200 μM buthionine sulfoximine. Western blotting showed a significant increase in the production of CMV-specific immediate early and late proteins in buthionine sulfoximine-treated cultures. Immunocytochemical staining suggested that this effect was caused by increased numbers of CMV antigen expressing cells (66% immediate early; 78%, late). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction for CMV-specific DNA and virus titration revealed that enhanced viral replication levels correlated with increased virion production. As a measure for the endothelial cell activation status, the surface expression of HLA-ABC and HLA-DR and adhesion molecules(ICAM-1, ELAM-1, VCAM-1) was quantified by fluorometric methods. Whereas oxidative stress alone did not modulate any surface molecule expression, the IFN-γ-mediated expression of HLA-ABC and HLA-DR and the IL-1-mediated expression of ICAM-1, but not of ELAM-1 and VCAM-1 (IL-1+TNF-α), was amplified. Interestingly, the amplification of HLA molecule expression was even higher in CMV-infected endothelial cells. This study provides evidence that oxidative stress contributes to the regulation of CMV replication, virus shedding, and the activation of endothelial cells by proinflammatory cytokines as it is observed in transplant recipients.
    Keywords: Human Cytomegalovirus ; Human Cytomegalovirus ; Endothelium ; Replication ; Oxidation ; Stress ; Man ; Endothelium ; Replication ; Oxidation ; Stress ; Man ; Viruses ; Immune Response & Immune Mechanisms ; Cytokines ; Cytokines ; Cytokines;
    ISSN: 0041-1337
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