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  • Dissolved Organic Matter
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 2005, Vol.127(3), pp.177-187
    Description: Dissolved organic matter increases typically in streams draining forested catchments during heavy rainstorms and snowmelt. Tracer methods and model calculations suggest that the storm flow flushing of dissolved organic matter is either due to lateral near-surface flow, i.e. within the organic forest floor, or preferential flow (funnelling) through the mineral soil. Both pathways should deliver forest floor-derived dissolved organic matter to streams that is hardly changed because of little to no interaction with mineral soil material and microorganisms. Here, we investigated the effect of rain storm induced vertical flushing through the mineral soil on the composition of dissolved organic matter in a structured Rendzic Leptosols under 90-year-old European beech ( L.). During two rainstorm periods in autumn 1998 with elevated transport of organic C, N, P and S from the forest floor into the subsoil, we sampled dissolved organic matter in forest floor leachates (sampled by zero-tension plate lysimeters), subsoil solutions (sampled by suction cups at 90 cm depth) and subsoil seepage (sampled by zero-tension plate lysimeters at 90 cm depth). The chemical composition of dissolved organic matter was characterised by fractionation with XAD-8 macroreticular resin, wet-chemical analyses of carbohydrates and lignin-derived phenols, and determination of the δ C. During both rainstorm periods, all tested chemical features of dissolved organic matter in forest floor leachate and subsoil seepage matched each other greatly. In contrast, dissolved organic matter in soil solution contained smaller portions of XAD-8-adsorbable organic C, less lignin-derived phenols, more carbohydrates and showed smaller δ C values than that in forest floor leachates and subsoil seepage. These results suggest a rather direct transfer of organic solutes from the forest floor into the subsoil and probably further to ground and surface waters during heavy rainstorms. Dissolved organic matter leaving the soil in heavy rainstorms by rapid water flow through macropores is likely less biodegradable, more UV-digestible and more reactive towards metals and organic pollutants than that released from soil at low rainfall intensity by matric flow.
    Keywords: Dissolved Organic Carbon ; Dissolved Organic Nitrogen ; Dissolved Organic Phosphorus ; Dissolved Organic Sulphur ; Carbohydrates ; Lignin-Derived Phenols ; Δ 13c ; Xad-8 Fractionation ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 2
    In: Ecology, May 2011, Vol.92(5), pp.1052-1062
    Description: Lignin is a main component of plant litter. Its degradation is thought to be critical for litter decomposition rates and the build‐up of soil organic matter. We studied the relationships between lignin degradation and the production of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and of CO during litter decomposition. Needle or leaf litter of five species (Norway spruce, Scots pine, mountain ash, European beech, sycamore maple) and of different decomposition stage (freshly fallen and up to 27 months of field exposure) was incubated in the laboratory for two years. Lignin degradation was followed with the CuO method. Strong lignin degradation occurred during the first 200 incubation days, as revealed by decreasing yields of lignin‐derived phenols. Thereafter lignin degradation leveled off. This pattern was similar for fresh and decomposed litter, and it stands in contrast to the common view of limited lignin degradation in fresh litter. Dissolved organic carbon and CO also peaked in the first period of the incubation but were not interrelated. In the later phase of incubation, CO production was positively correlated with DOC amounts, suggesting that bioavailable, soluble compounds became a limiting factor for CO production. Lignin degradation occurred only when CO production was high, and not limited by bioavailable carbon. Thus carbon availability was the most important control on lignin degradation. In turn, lignin degradation could not explain differences in DOC and CO production over the study period. Our results challenge the traditional view regarding the fate and role of lignin during litter decomposition. Lignin degradation is controlled by the availability of easily decomposable carbon sources. Consequently, it occurs particularly in the initial phase of litter decomposition and is hampered at later stages if easily decomposable resources decline.
    Keywords: C Availability ; Dissolved Organic Matter ; Lignin ; Plant Litter Decomposition ; Respiration Rates
    ISSN: 0012-9658
    E-ISSN: 1939-9170
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, September 2012, Vol.52, pp.29-32
    Description: Dissolved organic matter has been recognized as mobile, thus crucial to translocation of metals, pollutants but also of nutrients in soil. We present a conceptual model of the vertical movement of dissolved organic matter with soil water, which deviates from the view of a chromatographic stripping along the flow path. It assumes temporal immobilization (sorptive or by co-precipitation), followed by microbial processing, and re-release (by desorption or dissolution) into soil water of altered compounds. The proposed scheme explains well depth trends in age and composition of dissolved organic matter as well as of solid-phase organic matter in soil. It resolves the paradox of soil organic matter being oldest in the youngest part of the soil profile – the deep mineral subsoil. ► Improved conceptual model of DOM movement in soil. ► Physico-chemical immobilization by sorption and/or co-precipitation. ► Microbial processing of sorbed/co-precipitated matter, subsequent re-release (desorption/dissolution) of altered compounds. ► DOM mirrors soil organic matter. ► Model explains changes in soil organic matter properties with depth.
    Keywords: Adsorption ; Conceptual Model ; Co-Precipitation ; Dissolved Organic Matter ; Microbial Processing ; Soil Organic Matter ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 1 June 2012, Vol.355(1/2), pp.407-416
    Description: Background and aims Environmental factors such as climate and atmospheric CO2 control inputs of plant-derived matter into soils, which then determines properties and decomposition of soil organic matter. We studied how dissolved organic matter (DOM) in forest floors responded to six years of litter fall manipulation at a spruce site. Methods Experimental treatments included (i) ambient litter fall, as well as (ii) reduction or (iii) increase of litter fall, each by 80%. Results Reduced litter input did not change fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which suggests that much of the mobile DOM in forest floors is not from recent litter but older, partly degraded material. Litter addition increased DOC fluxes over 6 years by 68% (Oi), 23% (Oe) and 12% (Oa). This was mainly due to excessive DOM production in Oi horizons, while net DOM production in Oe and Oa horizons decreased. Upon litter addition, aromaticity and molecule complexity of DOM released from the Oi horizon increased, but decreased for DOM leaving Oa horizons. The results suggest that DOM production by lignin degradation was enhanced in Oi but reduced in Oe and Oa horizons upon litter addition. Conclusions Recent litter is not an important source for DOM entering mineral soils, but increased litter input changes organic matter decomposition, thus affecting fluxes and properties of DOM within forest floors.
    Keywords: Biological sciences -- Biology -- Botany ; Applied sciences -- Materials science -- Materials ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences
    ISSN: 0032079X
    E-ISSN: 15735036
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2012, Vol.355(1), pp.407-416
    Keywords: Litter manipulation ; Dissolved organic matter ; Field experiment ; Soil organic matter
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
    Source: Springer Science & Business Media B.V.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Soil biology & biochemistry, 2013, Vol.67, pp.133-139
    Description: Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a fundamental role for many soil processes. For instance, production, transport, and retention of DOM control properties and long-term storage of organic matter in mineral soils. Production of water-soluble compounds during the decomposition of plant litter is a major process providing DOM in soils. Herein, we examine processes causing the commonly observed increase in contribution of aromatic compounds to WSOM during litter decomposition, and unravel the relationship between lignin degradation and the production of aromatic WSOM. We analysed amounts and composition of water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) produced during 27 months of decomposition of leaves and needles (ash, beech, maple, spruce, pine). The contribution of aromatic compounds to WSOM, as indicated by the specific UV absorbance of WSOM, remained constant or increased during decomposition. However, the contribution of lignin-derived compounds to the total phenolic products of ¹³C-labelled tetramethylammonium hydroxide (¹³C-TMAH) thermochemolysis increased strongly (by 〉114%) within 27 months of decomposition. Simultaneous changes in contents of lignin phenols in solid litter residues (cupric oxide method as well as ¹³C-TMAH thermochemolysis) were comparably small (−39% to +21% within 27 months). This suggests that the increasing contribution of lignin-derived compounds to WSOM during decomposition does not reflect compositional changes of solid litter residues, but rather the course of decomposition processes. In the light of recently published findings, these processes include: (i) progressive oxidative alteration of lignin that results in increasing solubility of lignin, (ii) preferential degradation of soluble, non-lignin compounds that limits their contribution to WSOM during later phases of decomposition. ; p. 133-139.
    Keywords: Phenols ; Fagus ; Lignin ; Dissolved Organic Matter ; Mineral Soils ; Picea ; Solubility ; Leaves ; Plant Litter ; Absorbance
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, December 2013, Vol.67, pp.133-139
    Description: Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a fundamental role for many soil processes. For instance, production, transport, and retention of DOM control properties and long-term storage of organic matter in mineral soils. Production of water-soluble compounds during the decomposition of plant litter is a major process providing DOM in soils. Herein, we examine processes causing the commonly observed increase in contribution of aromatic compounds to WSOM during litter decomposition, and unravel the relationship between lignin degradation and the production of aromatic WSOM. We analysed amounts and composition of water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) produced during 27 months of decomposition of leaves and needles (ash, beech, maple, spruce, pine). The contribution of aromatic compounds to WSOM, as indicated by the specific UV absorbance of WSOM, remained constant or increased during decomposition. However, the contribution of lignin-derived compounds to the total phenolic products of C-labelled tetramethylammonium hydroxide ( C-TMAH thermochemolysis increased strongly (by 〉114%) within 27 months of decomposition. Simultaneous changes in contents of lignin phenols in solid litter residues (cupric oxide method as well as C-TMAH thermochemolysis) were comparably small (−39% to +21% within 27 months). This suggests that the increasing contribution of lignin-derived compounds to WSOM during decomposition does not reflect compositional changes of solid litter residues, but rather the course of decomposition processes. In the light of recently published findings, these processes include: (i) progressive oxidative alteration of lignin that results in increasing solubility of lignin, (ii) preferential degradation of soluble, non-lignin compounds that limits their contribution to WSOM during later phases of decomposition.
    Keywords: Dissolved Organic Matter ; Water Soluble Organic Matter ; Litter Decomposition ; Lignin Degradation ; 13c-Tmah Thermochemolysis ; Litter Bag Experiment ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 8
    In: Global Change Biology, October 2006, Vol.12(10), pp.1868-1877
    Description: Because of low net production in arctic and subarctic surface water, dissolved organic matter (DOM) discharged from terrestrial settings plays an important role for carbon and nitrogen dynamics in arctic aquatic systems. Sorption, typically controlling the export of DOM from soil, may be influenced by the permafrost regime. To confirm the potential sorptive control on the release of DOM from permafrost soils in central northern Siberia, we examined the sorption of DOM by mineral soils of Gelisols and Inceptisols with varying depth of the active layer. Water‐soluble organic matter in the O horizons of the Gelisols was less (338 and 407 mg C kg) and comprised more dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the hydrophobic fraction (HoDOC) (63% and 70%) than in the O horizons of the Inceptisols (686 and 706 mg C kg, 45% and 48% HoDOC). All A and B horizons from Gelisols sorbed DOC strongly, with a preference for HoDOC. Almost all horizons of the Inceptisols showed a weaker sorption of DOC than those of the Gelisols. The C horizons of the Inceptisols, having a weak overall DOC sorption, sorbed C in the hydrophilic fraction (HiDOC) stronger than HoDOC. The reason for the poor overall sorption and also the preferential sorption of HiDOC is likely the high pH (pH〉7.0) of the C horizons and the smaller concentrations of iron oxides. For all soils, the sorption of HoDOC related positively to oxalate‐ and dithionite–citrate‐extractable iron. The A horizons released large amounts of DOC with 46–80% of HiDOC. The released DOC was significantly (=0.78, 〈0.05) correlated with the contents of soil organic carbon. From these results, we assume that large concentrations of DOM comprising large shares of HiDOC can pass mineral soils where the active layer is thin (i.e. in Gelisols), and enter streams. Soils with deep active layer (i.e. Inceptisols), may release little DOM because of more frequent infiltration of DOM into their thick mineral horizons despite their smaller contents of reactive, poorly crystalline minerals. The results obtained for the Inceptisols are in agreement with the situation observed for streams connecting to Yenisei at lower latitudes than 65°50′ with continuous to discontinuous permafrost. The smaller sorption of DOM by the Gelisols is in agreement with the larger DOM concentrations in more northern catchments. However, the Gelisols preferentially retained the HoDOC which dominates the DOC in streams towards north. This discrepancy can be explained by additional seepage water from the organic horizons that is discharged into streams without intensive contact with the mineral soil.
    Keywords: Active Layer ; Dissolved Organic Matter ; Hydrophilic Organic Carbon ; Hydrophobic Organic Carbon ; Iron Oxide ; Organic Horizon ; Permafrost ; Siberia ; Sorption ; Tundra
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 9
    In: Global Change Biology, September 2004, Vol.10(9), pp.1576-1586
    Description: The Yenisei river passes every type of permafrost regime, from south to north, being characterized by increasing continuity of the permafrost and by decreasing thickness of the active layer. We used that situation to test the hypothesis that amounts and properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in small streams draining forested catchments respond to different permafrost regimes. Water samples were taken from eight tributaries along the Yenisei between 67°30′N and 65°49′N latitude. The samples were analysed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) and DOM was characterized by its chemical composition (XAD‐8 fractionation, sugars, lignin phenols, amino acids, protein, UV and fluorescence spectroscopy), and its biodegradability. Most properties of the tributary waters varied depending on latitude. The higher the latitude, the higher were DOC, DON and the proportion of the hydrophobic fraction of DOC. The contribution of hexoses and pentoses to DOC were higher in southern tributaries; on the other hand, phenolic compounds were more abundant in northern tributaries. Mineralizable DOC ranged between 4% and 28% of total DOC. DOM in northern tributaries was significantly (〈0.05) less biodegradable than that in southern tributaries reflecting the differences in the chemical properties of DOM. Our results suggest that the differences in DOM properties are mainly attributed to differences of permafrost regime, affecting depth of active layer, soil organic matter accumulation and vegetation. Soil organic matter and vegetation determine the amount and composition of DOM produced in the catchments while the depth of the active layer likely controls the quantity and quality of DOM exported to streams. Sorptive interactions of DOM with the soil mineral phase typically increase with depth. The results imply that a northern shift of discontinuous permafrost likely will change in the long term the input of DOM into the Yenisei and thus probably into the Kara Sea.
    Keywords: Active Layer ; Biochemical Compounds ; Biodegradation ; Dissolved Organic Carbon ; Dissolved Organic Nitrogen ; Hydrophilic Organic Matters ; Hydrophobic Organic Matters ; Permafrost ; Phenols ; Sugars
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 10
    In: Soil Science Society of America Journal, Jan-Feb, 1997, Vol.61(1), p.64(6)
    Description: Kaiser and Zech give evidence that competitive interactions among the chemically heterogeneous dissolved organic matter (DOM) constituents need to be considered in DOM transport process soils.
    Keywords: Absorption -- Research ; Soil Science -- Research ; Humus -- Research
    ISSN: 0361-5995
    E-ISSN: 14350661
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