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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 2013, Vol. 86(1), pp.3-14
    Description: Microbial communities in soil reside in a highly heterogeneous habitat where diverse mineral surfaces, complex organic matter and microorganisms interact with each other. This study aimed to elucidate the long-term effect of the soil mineral composition and charcoal on the microbial community composition established in matured artificial soils and their response to phenanthrene. One year after adding sterile manure to different artificial soils and inoculating microorganisms from a Cambisol, the matured soils were spiked with phenanthrene or not and incubated for another 70 days. 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer fragments amplified from total community DNA were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Metal oxides and clay minerals and to a lesser extent charcoal influenced the microbial community composition. Changes in the bacterial community composition in response to phenanthrene differed depending on the mineral composition and presence of charcoal, while no shifts in the fungal community composition were observed. The abundance of ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes was increased in phenanthrene-spiked soils except for charcoal-containing soils. Here we show that the formation of biogeochemical interfaces in soil is an ongoing process and that different properties present in artificial soils influenced the bacterial response to the phenanthrene spike.
    Keywords: Artificial Soils ; Rhdα Genes ; 16s Rrna Genes ; Its ; Dgge
    ISSN: 01686496
    E-ISSN: 1574-6941
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, December 2014, Vol.79, pp.57-67
    Description: The study of interactions between minerals, organic matter (OM) and microorganisms is essential for the understanding of soil functions such as OM turnover. Here, we present an interdisciplinary approach using artificial soils to study the establishment of the microbial community and the formation of macro-aggregates as a function of the mineral composition by using artificial soils. The defined composition of a model system enables to directly relate the development of microbial communities and soil structure to the presence of specific constituents. Five different artificial soil compositions were produced with two types of clay minerals (illite, montmorillonite), metal oxides (ferrihydrite, boehmite) and charcoal incubated with sterile manure and a microbial community derived from a natural soil. We used the artificial soils to analyse the response of these model soil systems to additional sterile manure supply (after 562 days). The artificial soils were subjected to a prolonged incubation period of more than two years (842 days) in order to take temporally dynamic processes into account. In our model systems with varying mineralogy, we expected a changing microbial community composition and an effect on macro-aggregation after OM addition, as the input of fresh substrate will re-activate the artificial soils. The abundance and structure of 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) fragments amplified from total community DNA were studied by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), respectively. The formation of macro-aggregates (〉2 mm), the total organic carbon (OC) and nitrogen (N) contents, the OC and N contents in particle size fractions and the CO respiration were determined. The second manure input resulted in higher CO respiration rates, 16S rRNA gene and ITS copy numbers, indicating a stronger response of the microbial community in the matured soil-like system. The type of clay minerals was identified as the most important factor determining the composition of the bacterial communities established. The additional OM and longer incubation time led to a re-formation of macro-aggregates which was significantly higher when montmorillonite was present. Thus, the type of clay mineral was decisive for both microbial community composition as well as macro-aggregation, whereas the addition of other components had a minor effect. Even though different bacterial communities were established depending on the artificial soil composition, the amount and quality of the OM did not show significant differences supporting the concept of functional redundancy.
    Keywords: Dgge ; Illite ; Montmorillonite ; Decomposition ; Respiration ; Soil Formation ; 16s Rrna Gene ; Its Fragment ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 3
    In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 2013, Vol. 86(1), pp.15-25
    Description: To study the influence of the clay minerals montmorillonite (M) and illite (I), the metal oxides ferrihydrite (F) and aluminum hydroxide (A), and charcoal (C) on soil bacterial communities, seven artificial soils with identical texture provided by quartz (Q) were mixed with sterilized manure as organic carbon source before adding a microbial inoculant derived from a Cambisol. Bacterial communities established in artificial soils after 90 days of incubation were compared by DGGE analysis of bacterial and taxon-specific 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The bacterial community structure of charcoal-containing soils highly differed from the other soils at all taxonomic levels studied. Effects of montmorillonite and illite were observed for Bacteria and Betaproteobacteria , but not for Actinobacteria or Alphaproteobacteria . A weak influence of metal oxides on Betaproteobacteria was found. Barcoded pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons done for QM, QI, QIF, and QMC revealed a high bacterial diversity in the artificial soils. The composition of the artificial soils was different from the inoculant, and the structure of the bacterial communities established in QMC soil was most different from the other soils, suggesting that charcoal provided distinct microenvironments and biogeochemical interfaces formed. Several populations with discriminative relative abundance between artificial soils were identified.
    Keywords: Clay Minerals ; Charcoal ; Bacterial Communities ; 16s Rrna Gene ; Dgge ; Pyrosequencing
    ISSN: 01686496
    E-ISSN: 1574-6941
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  • 4
    In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 2013, Vol. 86(1), pp.85-100
    Description: Phenoxyacetic acids can be degraded by diverse soil microorganisms. Nevertheless, we miss information about the succession of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) degraders in micro-environments of soils as well as specific functions of different microbial groups during MCPA degradation. We studied MCPA degradation at the soil–litter interface in a microcosm experiment and followed the succession of different degrader populations by quantifying the abundance of 16S rRNA genes as well as, the fungal ITS fragment and the functional genes tfdA (in total and divided into three classes) and cadA . Adjacent to the litter layer, a dynamic depletion zone of MCPA indicated that the litter effect on MCPA degradation depends on substrate availability and the affected soil volume. The increase of the tfdA class III and cadA genes was linked to MCPA mineralisation. Total abundance of tfdA genes was dominated by class I MCPA degraders and did not reflect MCPA degradation potential of the soil. Litter addition induced the development of pioneer and late-stage fungal communities, which were probably both involved in MCPA degradation. The results underline the importance of the ecological behaviour of different degrader populations for the understanding of herbicide degradation in soils.
    Keywords: Diversity ; 〈Kwd〉〈Italic〉Cada〈/Italic〉〈/Kwd〉 ; Taqman Probe - Based Qpcr ; Substrate Availability
    ISSN: 01686496
    E-ISSN: 1574-6941
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Biology and Fertility of Soils, 2017, Vol.53(1), pp.9-22
    Description: Our understanding of the interactions between minerals, organic matter, and microorganisms at so-called biogeochemical interfaces in soil is still hampered by the inherent complexity of these systems. Artificial soil maturation experiments can help to bridge a gap in complexity between simple abiotic sorption experiments and larger-scale field experiments. By controlling other soil-forming factors, the effect of a particular variable can be identified in a simplified system. Here, we review the findings of a series of artificial soil incubation experiments with the aim of revealing general trends and conclusions. The artificial soils were designed to determine the effect of mineral composition and charcoal presence on the development of abiotic and biotic soil properties during maturation. In particular, the development of soil aggregates, organic matter (OM) composition and turnover, sorption properties, and the establishment of microbial community composition and function were considered. The main objectives of the research were to determine (1) how surface properties and sorption of chemicals modify biogeochemical interfaces; (2) how much time is required to form aggregates from mixtures of pure minerals, OM, and a microbial inoculum; and (3) how the presence of different mineral and charcoal surfaces affects aggregation, OM turnover, and the development of microbial community composition.
    Keywords: Experimental pedology ; Soil organic matter ; Soil microbial ecology ; Secondary phyllosilicates ; Biogeochemical interfaces ; Interdisciplinary soil science
    ISSN: 0178-2762
    E-ISSN: 1432-0789
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