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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Advanced Materials, 12 July 2013, Vol.25(26), pp.3543-3548
    Description: displays humidity‐induced phase transitions from a hexagonal columnar structure to a bicontinuous cubic phase. The mesophases can be frozen by photopolymerization of acrylic end‐groups resulting in free‐standing membranes with different topology of ionic nanochannels. The obtained membranes with a well‐ordered ionic channel structure hold promise for applications in separation and catalysis.
    Keywords: Ionic Channels ; Bicontinuous Cubic Phase ; Columnar Mesophase ; Self‐Assembly ; Ion‐Conducting Membranes
    ISSN: 0935-9648
    E-ISSN: 1521-4095
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Energy Procedia, January 2016, Vol.85, pp.295-302
    Description: The results, obtained from paper based subjective assessment, of the indoor environment parameters, are presented in this paper. The assessment was made by untrained and unprepared occupants of small lecture room, during specially organized one hour lecture. Briefly described are the main objectives, as well as the methods used. The collected data was mostly analyzed in terms of the human response to the questionnaire based study. It was analyzed how successive the votes are and how reliable the answers of the questions are. The results show very low response to the unorganized and spontaneous experimental study. The explanation of these results seems to be complex task, which requires further interdisciplinary analyzes. The work is still in progress, and particular results, concerning the collected vote and the entire physical measurements of the indoor environment parameters, will be presented later on.
    Keywords: Indoor Air Quality ; Thermal Comfort ; Occupant Behavior ; Subjective Assessment ; Experimental Studies ; Engineering ; Economics
    ISSN: 1876-6102
    E-ISSN: 1876-6102
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Energy Procedia, March 2017, Vol.112, pp.240-251
    Description: The presented work partly reveals the development stage of a Virtual Thermal Manikin (VTM), equipped with additional breathing functionality. The methods used are based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) flow simulations and analysis. Real thermal manikins, as well as the VTMs, represent modern, highly complex tools for assessment of the occupants’ thermal comfort, as well as for analyses of indoor air quality in real or virtual enclosed environment. Also, real thermal manikins can be equipped with auxiliary devices that mimic human activities such as breathing, sweating, sneezing, coughing and others. Recent research indicates the development of an advanced compact pneumatic system, designed for implementation in the thermal manikin, capable of simulating the breathing related processes in humans. That is why the development of supplementary functionalities of the VTMs is considered as an important factor in the described research area. Thus, the presented case study reveals CFD based model of human body, with steady state breathing phases simulating the real human breathing processes. The results considering the flow interaction in the breathing zone showed good visual illustration and representation of the real physical processes.
    Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics ; Indoor Environment ; Indoor Air Quality ; Virtual Thermal Manikins ; Experimental Studies ; Breathing Cycle ; Engineering ; Economics
    ISSN: 1876-6102
    E-ISSN: 1876-6102
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Marine Biotechnology, 2015, Vol.17(3), pp.375-375
    Description: Byline: Aleksandar Dolashki (1), Mariana Radkova (2), Elena Todorovska (2), Martin Ivanov (2), Stefan Stevanovic (3), Laura Molin (4), Piero Traldi (4), Wolfgang Voelter (5), Pavlina Dolashka (1,6) Author Affiliation: (1) Institute of Organic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, G. Bonchev 9, Sofia, 1113, Bulgaria (2) AgroBioInstitute, 8 Dragan Tsankov, Str., 1164, Sofia, Bulgaria (3) Department of Immunology, Institute for Cell Biology, University of TIbingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 15, D-72076, TIbingen, Germany (4) CNR-ISTM, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35129, Padova, Italy (5) Interfacultary Institute of Biochemistry, Eberhard-Karls-University of Tuebingen, Hoppe-Steyler-Strasse 4, D-72076, TIbingen, Germany (6) Institute of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, G. Bonchev str. 9, 1113, Sofia, Bulgaria Article History: Registration Date: 30/11/2014 Received Date: 13/10/2013 Accepted Date: 09/11/2014 Online Date: 11/12/2014
    Keywords: Cells (Biology) -- Chemical Properties;
    ISSN: 1436-2228
    E-ISSN: 1436-2236
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Biotechnology, 10 July 2015, Vol.205, pp.3-13
    Description: Physiologically relevant models can serve as biological analytical platforms for testing novel treatments and drug delivery systems. We describe the first steps in the development of a 3D human brain tumour co-culture model that includes the interplay between normal and tumour tissue along with nutrient gradients, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The human medulloblastoma cell line UW228-3 and human foetal brain tissue were marked with two supravital fluorescent dyes (CDCFDASE, Celltrace Violet) and cultured together in ultra-low attachment 96-well plates to form reproducible single co-culture spheroids ( = 600 μm, CV% = 10%). Spheroids were treated with model cytotoxic drug etoposide (0.3–100 μM) and the viability of normal and tumour tissue quantified separately using flow cytometry and multiphoton microscopy. Etoposide levels of 10 μM were found to maximise toxicity to tumours (6.5% viability) while stem cells maintained a surviving fraction of 40%. The flexible cell marking procedure and high-throughput compatible protocol make this platform highly transferable to other cell types, primary tissues and personalised screening programs. The model's key anticipated use is for screening and assessment of drug delivery strategies to target brain tumours, and is ready for further developments, e.g. differentiation of stem cells to a range of cell types and more extensive biological validation.
    Keywords: Three-Dimensional Tumor Model ; Cancer Drug Screening in 3d ; Co-Culture Spheroid ; Human Stem Cell Neurosphere ; Medulloblastoma ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0168-1656
    E-ISSN: 1873-4863
    E-ISSN: 19326203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Polymer, 2011, Vol.52(24), pp.5630-5643
    Description: The microstructure and mechanical properties of melt-spun isotactic polypropylene (iPP) fibers were studied for different take-up velocities and throughputs with a combination of small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering, calorimetry and tensile tests. With the increase of take-up velocity the mesomorphic fraction of the fibers steadily decreases while the crystalline fraction increases. The addition of an alpha-nucleating agent led to an increase of crystallinity and a slight decrease of the orientation factor. By contrast, a beta-nucleator resulted in a complete suppression of the fiber crystallinity. The orientation factor of the mesophase and/or crystalline phase is found to have a one-to-one correlation with the fiber tenacity and deformation at break. At the same time, the absolute values of crystallinity and/or mesomorphicity are fully uncorrelated with these mechanical characteristics. The observed correlations can be used for example to design and control the fiber mechanical properties by tuning the processing conditions such as take-up velocity, throughput and addition of nucleating agents.
    Keywords: Isotactic Polypropylene ; Fiber ; Herman Orientation Factor ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0032-3861
    E-ISSN: 1873-2291
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Sensing and Instrumentation for Food Quality and Safety, 2011, Vol.5(3), pp.111-127
    Description: Grain quality is assessed based on different grain features like appearance, shape, color, smell, flavour, moisture content, infections, presence of impurities, etc. The main indexes for the quality of grain samples are related to the color characteristics and the shape of the grain sample elements. Most of these characteristics are assessed visually by an expert. In this paper, an approach for an objective estimation of some basic grain quality characteristics is presented. It is based on a complex analysis of color images of the investigated objects. Due to the conceptual difference in presenting the objects’ color and shape characteristics, their assessment was performed separately. After that the results form these two assessments were combined and the final decision about the object’s classification to one of the quality groups defined by the standard regulations was made. Methods and tools for feature extraction and for object description, as well as for classification of the objects into predetermined groups were proposed. Three classifiers, based on radial basis elements, which were used for grain color and shape class recognition, were analyzed. Two different approaches for fusing the results from object color and object shape analyses were investigated. The training and testing errors of the developed procedures were evaluated.
    Keywords: Grain quality assessment ; Computer vision ; Feature extraction ; Classification
    ISSN: 1932-7587
    E-ISSN: 1932-9954
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Polymer, 31 August 2012, Vol.53(19), pp.4033-4044
    Description: Segmented poly(ether ester amide)s comprising glycine or β-alanine extended bisoxalamide hard segments are highly phase separated thermoplastic elastomers with a broad temperature independent rubber plateau. These materials with molecular weights, , exceeding 30 × 10  g mol are conveniently prepared by polycondensation of preformed bisester–bisoxalamides and commercially available PTHF diols. FT-IR revealed strongly hydrogen bonded and highly ordered bisoxalamide hard segments with degrees of ordering between 73 and 99%. The morphology consists of fiber-like nano-crystals randomly dispersed in the soft polymer matrix. The micro-structural parameters of the copolymers were addressed by simultaneous small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. It is shown that the crystals have strictly identical thickness, which is close to the contour length of the hard segment. The long dimension of the crystals is identified with the direction of the hydrogen bonds. The melting transitions of the hard segments are sharp, with temperatures up to 170 °C. The studied polymers have an elastic modulus in the range of 139–170 MPa, a stress at break in the range of 19–31 MPa combined with strains at break of higher than 800%. The segmented copolymer comprising the β-alanine based bisoxalamide hard segment with a spacer of 6 methylene groups has a melting transition of 141 °C which is higher than the melting transition of its glycine analogue of 119 °C. Likewise, the fracture stress increased from 22 to 31 MPa when the glycine ester group in the hard segment was replaced with β-alanine. The improved thermal and mechanical properties of the latter polymers is related to the crystal packing of the β-alanine based hard segments in the copolymer compared to the packing of the hard segments comprising glycine ester groups.
    Keywords: Thermoplastic Elastomers ; Segmented Poly(Ether Ester Amide)S ; Oxalamides ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0032-3861
    E-ISSN: 1873-2291
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Sensors & Actuators: B. Chemical, 2011, Vol.157(1), pp.253-259
    Description: In this work we report on the fabrication and characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as sensitive layers for the detection of simulants of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs). The microsensor fabrication has been achieved after the wafer scale integration of the selective synthesis of SWCNTs as sensitive layer. Their electrical characterization has been carried out by measuring the resistance changes of the SWCNT networks when interacting with very low concentrations of CWA simulants such as dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP), dipropylene glycol methyl ether (DPGME) and dimethylacetamide (DMA) at low temperatures, which are simulants of Sarin, Nitrogen Mustard and Distilled Mustard, respectively.
    Keywords: Gas Sensors ; Microhotplates ; Swcnt ; Chemical Warfare Agents (Cwas) ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0925-4005
    E-ISSN: 1873-3077
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  • 10
    In: Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, November 2014, Vol.299(11), pp.1343-1351
    Description: are synthesized with almost qualitative monomer conversion via anionic ring‐opening polymerization of ϵ‐caprolactam in the polycaprolactone melt in a co‐rotating twin‐screw microcompounder with conic screws. The influence of initiator and activator concentration as well as the ester/amide ratio on the structure and properties of the resulting copolymers is discussed.
    Keywords: Anionic Ring‐Opening Polymerization ; Crystallinity ; Polyesteramides ; Reactive Extrusion
    ISSN: 1438-7492
    E-ISSN: 1439-2054
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