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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 2010, Vol.205(1), pp.93-105
    Description: As floodplain soils are often contaminated, we studied the release of trace metals from three topsoil horizons in column experiments with variable flow interruptions and flow velocities, compared it with that in batch leaching tests and evaluated the column data by inverse simulations. Only small proportions (〈1%) of trace metals present in the neutral and humic soils were mobilised by the batch leaching tests and the column experiments. Release of Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn in the column experiments was rate-limited, as detected by increased concentrations after flow interruptions. A combination of linear equilibrium and non-equilibrium isotherms reflected the Ni and Zn elution data, with Zn release being slower. Simulated values for initially bound metals available for release are in the same order of magnitude as those determined by the batch leaching tests. However, the consistency of both experimental approaches decreases with increasing rate limitation, as detected here for Zn.
    Keywords: Soil contamination ; Trace metals ; Column experiment ; Kinetics ; Wetland soils
    ISSN: 0049-6979
    E-ISSN: 1573-2932
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 2010, Vol.206(1), pp.395-396
    Description: Byline: Thilo Rennert (1), Jorg Rinklebe (2) Author Affiliation: (1) Lehrstuhl Hydrogeologie, Institut fur Geowissenschaften, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat Jena, Burgweg 11, 07749, Jena, Germany (2) Boden- und Grundwassermanagement, Fachbereich D, Bergische Universitat Wuppertal, Pauluskirchstr. 7, 42285, Wuppertal, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 26/05/2009 Online Date: 25/06/2009 Article note: The online version of the original article can be found under http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11270-009-0058-0.
    Keywords: Soils;
    ISSN: 0049-6979
    E-ISSN: 1573-2932
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Colloid And Interface Science, 01 September 2013, Vol.405, pp.44-50
    Description: Cryptomelane-type octahedral molecular sieves (K-OMS-2) were successfully synthesized at ambient pressure and temperature by a simple one-step reaction pathway. We designed three synthesis mixes based on redox reactions of either MnSO or MnCl together with KMnO in aqueous solution. The synthesis products were characterized structurally (XRD, FTIR spectroscopy), morphologically (SEM, BET surface area), and chemically (SEM-EDX, ICP-OES). For all mixes, a precursor octahedral layered K-birnessite (K-OL-1) was formed after 1 d that subsequently transformed into K-OMS-2. This transformation process depends on the pH of the reaction solution, the respective Mn(II) salt and time. We obtained K-OMS-2 materials with BET surface areas between 50.4 and 104.5 m g and different crystallinities. The described method is reliable, reproducible, easy to handle and may be the basis to produce well defined Mn oxides that could be used for remediation and catalysis purposes.
    Keywords: Octahedral Molecular Sieve ; K-Oms-2 ; K-Ol-1 ; Nanowires ; Mn Oxide ; Bet Surface ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0021-9797
    E-ISSN: 1095-7103
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, August 2013, Vol.179, pp.315-325
    Description: Mass transfer processes of pollutants from non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) may control groundwater pollution at abandoned industrial sites. We studied release kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from fresh and aged tar phases using a dialysis tubing technique. Time for equilibration ranged from several days to more than three years. For fresh tar materials the release seems to be limited by retarded pore diffusion, while for two of three aged tars diffusion limited release influenced by dissolved organic matter (DOM) was assumed. The equilibration process was driven by solubilization thermodynamics expressed by Raoult's law. Yet, solubility enhancement was observed potentially due to the presence of organic mobile sorbents. The results show that the release of PAHs from tar phases is generally rate limited and partitioning according to Raoult's law is the driving mechanism of the exchanges process. Release of PAHs from tar phases is severely restricted by retarded pore diffusion.
    Keywords: Aging ; Coal Tar ; Manufactured Gas Plant Sites ; Tar Processing Facilities ; Reactive Transport ; Dissolved Organic Matter ; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, 2011, Vol.159(5), pp.1398-1405
    Description: Arsenic mobility may increase in liquid phase due to association with colloidal Fe oxides. We studied the association of As with Fe oxide colloids in the effluent from water-saturated soil columns run under anoxic conditions. Upon exfiltration, the solutions, which contained Fe , were re-aerated and ferrihydrite colloids precipitated. The entire amount of effluent As was associated with the ferrihydrite colloids, although PO , SiO , CO and dissolved organic matter were present in the effluent during ferrihydrite colloid formation. Furthermore, no subsequent release of As from the ferrihydrite colloids was observed despite the presence of these (in)organic species known to compete with As for adsorption on Fe oxides. Arsenic was bound via inner-sphere complexation on the ferrihydrite surface. FTIR spectroscopy also revealed adsorption of PO and polymerized silica. However, these species could not impede the quantitative association of As with colloidal ferrihydrite in the soil effluents. ► Ferrihydrite (Fh) colloids precipitated from a solution derived from soil. ► Arsenic that was discharged from soil entirely associated with these colloids. ► Arsenic was strongly bound to the Fh surface via inner-sphere complexation. ► A complexation of As by organic species discharged from soil was not detected. ► (In)organic solutes in the solution from soil could not impede the As–Fh association. Natural concentrations of competing (in)organic species in soil-derived solutions do not impede the strong and quantitative association between As and colloidal ferrihydrite.
    Keywords: Iron Hydroxide ; Phosphate ; Silicate ; Carbonate ; Dissolved Organic Matter ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 2017, Vol.39(2), pp.331-344
    Description: Central European floodplain soils are often contaminated with potentially toxic metals. The prediction of their aqueous concentrations is a prerequisite for an assessment of environmental concerns. We tested the aqueous concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) derived from multi-surface adsorption modelling (on hydrous iron, aluminum and manganese oxides, clay and soil organic matter) against those analyzed in situ in the soil solution of four horizons of floodplain soils at the Elbe River, Germany. The input data for the reactive metals were derived from a seven-step sequential extraction scheme or from extraction with 0.43 M nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and evaluated in four modelling scenarios. In all scenarios, measured and modelled concentrations were positively related, except partially for Pb. Close reproduction of the measured data was obtained using measured data of accompanying cations and anions together with amounts of reactive metals from both the sequential extraction or from 0.43 M HNO 3 extraction, except for Cu, which was often strongly overestimated, and partially Cd. We recommend extraction with 0.43 M HNO 3 to quantify reactive metals in soil because the modelling results were metal-specific with better or equal results using the single extractant, the application of which is also less laborious. Approximations of ion concentrations and water contents yielded similar results. Modelled solid-phase speciation of metals varied with pH and differed from that from sequential extraction. Multi-surface modelling may be an effective tool to predict both aqueous concentrations and solid-phase speciation of metals in soil.
    Keywords: Multi-surface modelling ; Metals ; Soil contamination ; Sequential extraction ; Fluvisol
    ISSN: 0269-4042
    E-ISSN: 1573-2983
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 2010, Vol.209(1), pp.489-500
    Description: The applicability of laboratory tests for the prediction of soil solution composition and concentrations of inorganic contaminants is still under debate. Therefore, we carried out two batch-leaching tests differing in their liquid/solid ratios and column experiments (saturated flow, two flow velocities, four flow interruptions ranging from 4 h to 21 days) with a contaminated humic horizon (total contents: As, 196 mg kg −1 ; Cd, 4 mg kg −1 ; Cr, 202 mg kg −1 ; Cu, 227 mg kg −1 ; Ni, 64 mg kg −1 ; Pb, 308 mg kg −1 ; Zn, 1,176 mg kg −1 ) from a Mollic Fluvisol near the rivers Elbe and Saale (Germany) and compared the aqueous contaminant concentrations with those of soil solutions obtained in situ with ceramic suction cups on a monthly basis between 2002 and 2006. Contaminant release in the field slightly depended on the water regime, pH, and redox potential and was characterized by partially high concentrations (e.g., As, 47 µg l −1 ; Cd, 136 µg l −1 ; Ni, 328 µg l −1 ; Zn, 8.68 mg l −1 ), which exceeded the German inspection values. Metal concentrations obtained in batch-leaching tests partially fitted to those determined in the soil solution and to those from the column experiments even irrespective of the varying liquid/solid ratios. The column experiments yielded realistic concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb and their ranges. Furthermore, they provided an insight into release kinetics and release processes as well as into potential contaminant release due to enforced reducing conditions. As column experiments allow a larger temporal sampling resolution and enable quickly to manipulate experimental conditions, they are a useful complement of soil solution monitoring.
    Keywords: Wetland soil ; Soil solution ; Metals ; Batch-leaching test ; Column experiments ; Soil contamination
    ISSN: 0049-6979
    E-ISSN: 1573-2932
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 2017, Vol.39(6), pp.1291-1304
    Description: European floodplain soils are frequently contaminated with potentially toxic inorganic substances. We used a multi-surface model to estimate the aqueous concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in three Mollic Fluvisols from the Central Elbe River (Germany). The model considered complexation in solution and interactions with soil organic matter (SOM), a clay mineral and hydrous Al, Fe and Mn oxides. The amounts of reactive metals were derived from extraction with 0.43 M HNO 3 . Modelling was carried out as a function of pH (soil pH ± 1.4) because it varies in floodplain soils owing to redox processes that consume or release protons. The fraction of reactive metals, which were dissolved according to the modelling, was predominantly 〈1%. Depending on soil properties, especially pH and contents of SOM and minerals of the clay fraction, the modelled concentrations partially exceeded the trigger values for the soil–groundwater pathway of the German soil legislation. This differentiation by soil properties was given for Ni, Pb and Zn. On the other hand, Cd was more mobile, i.e., the trigger values were mostly exceeded. Copper represented the opposite, as the modelling did not predict exceeding the trigger values in any horizon. Except for Pb and partially Zn (where oxides were more important), SOM was the most important adsorbent for metals. However, given the special composition and dynamics of SOM in mollic horizons, we suggest further quantitative and qualitative investigations on SOM and on its interaction with metals to improve the prediction of contaminant dynamics.
    Keywords: Floodplain soil ; Metals ; Soil contamination ; Adsorption ; Multi-surface modelling
    ISSN: 0269-4042
    E-ISSN: 1573-2983
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Water Research, 2002, Vol.36(19), pp.4877-4883
    Description: Blast furnace sludge is a waste originating from pig iron production and contains small amounts of iron-cyanide complexes. Leaching of iron-cyanide complexes from deposited blast furnace sludge into the ground water seems to be possible in principle. We investigated the sorption of the iron-cyanide complexes ferrocyanide, [Fe super(II)(CN) sub(6)] super(4-), and ferricyanide, [Fe super(III)(CN) sub(6)] super(3-), in 22 samples of deposited blast furnace sludge in batch experiments. Subsequently, desorption of iron-cyanide complexes was investigated using 1 M NaCl. Sorption in five samples was evaluated with Langmuir isotherms. The blast furnace sludge samples were neutral to slightly alkaline (pH 7.6-9) and consisted of X-ray amorphous compounds and crystalline Fe oxides primarily. X-ray amorphous compounds are assumed to comprise coke-bound C and amorphous Fe, Zn, and Al oxides. The experiments that were evaluated with Langmuir isotherms indicated that the extent of ferricyanide sorption was higher than that of ferrocyanide sorption. Saturation of blast furnace sludge with iron-cyanide complexes was achieved. Sorption of iron-cyanide complexes in 22 blast furnace sludge samples at one initial concentration showed that 12 samples sorbed more ferrocyanide than ferricyanide. The extent of sorption largely differed between 0.07 and 2.76 mu mol [Fe(CN) sub(6)]m super(-2) and was governed by coke-bound C. Ferricyanide sorption was negatively influenced by crystalline Fe oxides additionally. Only small amounts of iron-cyanide complexes sorbed in blast furnace sludge were desorbed by 1 M NaCl (ferrocyanide, 3.2%; ferricyanide, 1.1%, given as median). This indicated strong interactions of iron-cyanide complexes in blast furnace sludge. The mobility of iron-cyanide complexes in deposited blast furnace sludge and consequently contamination of the seepage and ground water was designated as low, because (i) deposited blast furnace sludge is able to sorb iron-cyanide complexes strongly, (ii) the solubility of the iron-cyanide-containing phase, K sub(2)Zn sub(3)[Fe super(II)(CN) sub(6)] times 9H sub(2)O, is known to be low, and (iii) a worst case scenario of the transport of iron-cyanide complexes within the blast furnace sludge deposit indicated strong retardation of the complexes within the next 100 years.
    Keywords: Iron–Cyanide Complexes ; Sorption ; Desorption ; Blast Furnace Sludge ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0043-1354
    E-ISSN: 1879-2448
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 01 November 2011, Vol.41(21), pp.1883-1969
    Description: In the course of industrialization in the 19th century, manufactured gas plant sites were built in almost every larger town in Europe and the United States. Organic and inorganic contaminations pose a continuing threat to groundwater resources at these locations even though the operations were...
    Keywords: Aging ; Alkane ; Carrier ; Colloid ; Cotransport ; Cyanide ; Degradation ; Dissolution ; Gasworks ; Mass Transfer ; Napl ; Natural Attenuation ; Pah ; Raoult ; Sorption ; Volatilization ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 1064-3389
    E-ISSN: 1547-6537
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