Environmental science & technology, 19 August 2014, Vol.48(16), pp.8946-62
This contribution critically reviews the state of knowledge on interactions of natural colloids and engineered nanoparticles with natural dissolved organic materials (DOM). These interactions determine the behavior and impact of colloids in natural system. Humic substances, polysaccharides, and proteins present in natural waters adsorb onto the surface of most colloids. We outline major adsorption mechanisms and structures of adsorption layers reported in the literature and discuss their generality on the basis of particle type, DOM type, and media composition. Advanced characterization methods of both DOM and colloids are needed to address insufficiently understood aspects as DOM fractionation upon adsorption, adsorption reversibility, and effect of capping agent. Precise knowledge on adsorption layer helps in predicting the colloidal stability of the sorbent. While humic substances tend to decrease aggregation and deposition through electrostatic and steric effects, bridging-flocculation can occur in the presence of multivalent cations. In the presence of DOM, aggregation may become reversible and aggregate structure dynamic. Nonetheless, the role of shear forces is still poorly understood. If traditional approaches based on the DLVO-theory can be useful in specific cases, quantitative aggregation models taking into account DOM dynamics, bridging, and disaggregation are needed for a comprehensive modeling of colloids stability in natural media.
Humic Substances ; Colloids -- Chemistry ; Nanoparticles -- Chemistry ; Water Pollutants, Chemical -- Chemistry
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