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  • Baveye, Philippe C
  • Environment
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 04 April 2017, Vol.114(14), pp.E2802-E2803
    Description: In their recent article, Coyte et al. (1) use an innovative combination of microfluidic experiments, mechanistic models, and game theory to study the impact of physical microenvironments on the activity of bacteria in porous media. The authors...
    Keywords: Biological Evolution ; Environment
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Economics, November 2013, Vol.95, pp.231-235
    Description: In the abundant literature dealing with the monetary valuation, or monetization, of ecosystem services (MES), with very few exceptions, the concept is presented as having emerged in 1997. In fact, there is a long history, starting in the late fifties but largely ignored, of sustained attempts to assign monetary values to nature's services. These early efforts encountered many conceptual and methodological roadblocks, which could not be resolved and led a number of researchers to argue that monetary valuation was not a fruitful approach. It is in that context that MES was hailed by some in 1997 as a promising way to integrate environmental goods and services into the logic of economic markets. Knowledge of the full timeline casts a very different light, in particular on the difficulties currently encountered in the practice of MES; far from being the expected growing pains of a young discipline, these difficulties turn out to be long-standing problems that have eluded solution over the last half-century and appear intrinsically unresolvable. This perspective suggests that, at this point, it is advisable to look at alternatives to MES for the integration of nature into economic decisions. All rights reserved, Elsevier
    Keywords: Ecosystem Services ; Valuation ; Commodification ; Nature'S Services ; Environmental Sustainability ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology ; Economics
    ISSN: 0921-8009
    E-ISSN: 1873-6106
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 2014, Vol.225(6), pp.1-5
    Keywords: Inter-disciplinary ; Multi-disciplinary ; Pluri-disciplinary ; Cross-disciplinary ; Trans-disciplinary
    ISSN: 0049-6979
    E-ISSN: 1573-2932
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 2010, Vol.209(1), pp.377-390
    Description: Near-infrared diffuse reflectance sensing (NIRS) of soils has been the object of considerable interest and research in the last few years. This has been motivated by the prospect that this method seems to provide a cheap, convenient alternative to conventional, time-consuming methods for the measurement of a wide range of soil parameters. In particular, various authors have advocated that NIRS could be used to measure rapidly and non-destructively the concentration of trace metals in surface soils. Correlation analyses between NIRS spectra and trace metal concentration have yielded inconclusive results to date, suggesting that trace metal concentration may belong to a class of “tertiary” soil parameters, linked to NIRS spectra through “surrogate”, or indirect, correlations, involving some other primary or secondary parameter like clay or organic matter content, to which NIRS spectra are very sensitive. To assess the validity of this surrogate correlation hypothesis in the case of trace metals, experiments were carried out with soil samples varying only in the amount of trace metals they contain. Field-aged Hudson and Arkport soil pots spiked with Cu and Zn, freshly spiked samples of the same soils, and samples of a metalliferous peat soil from Western New York naturally rich in Cd and Zn were subjected to NIRS under laboratory conditions. Detailed analysis indicates that the NIR spectrum is sensitive to sample handling, including the orientation of the samples in the NIRS instrument, but that, at the same time, there is no discernable effect of the presence of trace metals on any part of the NIR spectrum. These results provide strong experimental support to the hypothesis of “surrogate” correlation for trace metals, and indicate that trace metals, even in severely contaminated soils, should not interfere with the NIR sensing of primary or secondary parameters, like organic matter content. Further work is needed to determine if this feature of NIR spectra extends to other soil chemical parameters.
    Keywords: Soil metal contamination ; Chemical analysis ; Near-infrared spectroscopy ; Remote sensing
    ISSN: 0049-6979
    E-ISSN: 1573-2932
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2015, Vol.15(3), pp.634-647
    Description: Byline: Burcu UyuAur (1), Chunyan Li (2), Philippe C. Baveye (3), Christophe J. G. Darnault (2) Keywords: Geochemistry; Precipitation; Sorption; Two-site and mobile-immobile transport models; Uranyl silicates; Vadose zone Abstract: Purpose Uranium contamination of subsurface environments was once thought to be an isolated occurrence, mostly at production sites. But recent evidence has shown that the presence of uranium in phosphate fertilizers has caused massive amounts of this element to be released worldwide. Concerns are related to uranium movement to groundwater supplies and its significant toxicological risks to human populations. Information is direly needed on how geochemical processes control uranium transport in the vadose zone. Materials and methods Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the effects of the pH of the soil solution on the reactive transport of uranium(VI) in the vadose zone. The uranium solution was prepared by dilution of a 10.sup.-3 M stock solution of uranium perchlorate, (UO.sub.2(ClO.sub.4).sub.2), with DI water. Two U(VI) solutions were prepared at concentrations of 2x10.sup.-6 M at pH 6 and 11 and were percolated under steady-state conditions through columns filled with sand. The convective-dispersion equation (CDE) was used to analyze the tracer and uranium breakthrough curves resulting from the column experiments. The program CXTFIT was used to estimate the transport parameters of equilibrium and nonequilibrium (i.e., two-site and mobile-immobile) models applied to the experimental data. Results and discussion Comparison of U(VI) breakthrough behavior at pH 6 with that of a nonreactive tracer indicated that U(VI) transport was significantly retarded, and about 52 % of the added U(VI) adsorbed to the quartz sand, likely in the cationic forms U[O.sub.2]OH.sup.+ and UO .sub.2 .sup.2+ . The adsorption was reversible upon the addition of deionized water. At pH 11, the U(VI) breakthrough curve increased gradually and reached a plateau value C/C .sub.0 oscillating between 72 and 82 %. Upon reaction, Si was released from the dissolution of quartz sand, which allowed the possible transport of U(VI) following precipitation of a U(VI) containing solid, such as uranyl-silicate minerals, or sorption of U(VI) onto silica colloids. Two-site and mobile-immobile (MIM) models suggested an influence of either rate-limited mass transfer processes or immobile/mobile water partitioning in U(VI) reactive transport. Conclusions The reactive transport of U(VI) governed by adsorption-desorption processes, precipitation, and complexation reactions in which kinetic behaviors are controlled by pH, solution chemistry, and heterogeneous flow regime impacts the mobility of U(VI). The column transport experiments indicated that under geochemical conditions and vadoze zone processes (preferential flow) that favor the mobility of U(VI), dissolved- and colloidal-phase associations of U(VI) may be transported rapidly and in high concentrations from the soil surface to the groundwater. Author Affiliation: (1) Tubitak Marmara Research Center, P.K. 21 41470, Gebze, Kocaeli, Turkey (2) Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, L.G. Rich Environmental Laboratory, Clemson University, 342 Computer Court, Anderson, SC, 29625, USA (3) Laboratory of Soil and Water Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic University, 319 Materials Research Center, 110 Eighth St., Troy, NY, 12180, USA Article History: Registration Date: 31/10/2014 Received Date: 19/05/2014 Accepted Date: 31/10/2014 Online Date: 20/11/2014 Article note: Responsible Editor: Dong-Mei Zhou
    Keywords: Geochemistry ; Precipitation ; Sorption ; Two-site and mobile-immobile transport models ; Uranyl silicates ; Vadose zone
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 1614-7480
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, February 2015, Vol.112, pp.122-131
    Description: In various parts of the world, high cadmium (Cd) concentrations in environment are not related to anthropogenic contamination but have natural origins. Less is known about health risks that arise under these conditions. This study aimed to discuss the pollution of Cd with natural sources, and to investigate the concentration of Cd in food crops and the urine of inhabitants in an area of southwestern China. The results showed that the arable soils are moderately contaminated by Cd ( =1.51) relative to the local background, with a high ecological risk ( =218). The chemical fractions of Cd in soils with natural sources are probably controlled by parent materials and mostly in residual phase. The average Cd concentrations were 0.68 mg kg (fresh weight) in local vegetables, 0.04 mg kg in rice, and 0.14 μg L in water. Leafy vegetable tends to accumulate more Cd than the other crops. The calculated Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) had a much higher value (4.33) for Cd, suggesting that Cd represents a significant potential risk to the local population. The urinary Cd concentrations (mean at 3.92 μg L for male and 4.85 μg L for female) of inhabitants in the study area were significantly higher ( 〈0.05) than those from the control area (mean at 0.8 μg L for male and 0.42 μg L for female). Male and female test subjects had similar urinary Cd levels ( 〉0.05), but age seemed to lead to an increase in Cd in the urine. These findings show that naturally-occurring Cd in local soils is taken up appreciably by local food crops, and that dietary exposure of Cd through vegetable ingestion is a major exposure pathway for local populations, and a potential risk to public health in the study area.
    Keywords: Cadmium ; Pollution ; Food Crops ; Dietary Exposure ; Health Risk ; Ecology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0147-6513
    E-ISSN: 1090-2414
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 01 March 2009, Vol.43(5), pp.1354-9
    Description: The extensive use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) in many consumer products has raised concerns about possible risks to the environment The magnitude of the threat may depend on whether nano-TiO2 remains dispersed in the environment, or forms much larger-sized aggregates or clusters. Currently, limited information is available on the issue. In this context, the purpose of the present article is to report initial measurements of the morphology and rate of formation of nano-TiO2 aggregates in aqueous suspensions as a function of ionic strength and of the nature of the electrolyte in a moderately acid to circumneutral pH range typical of soil and surface water conditions. Dynamic light scattering results show that 4-5 nm titanium dioxide particles readily form stable aggregates with an average diameter of 50-60 nm at pH approximately 4.5 in a NaCl suspension adjusted to an ionic strength of 0.0045 M. Holding the pH constant but increasing the ionic strength to 0.0165 M, leads to the formation of micron-sized aggregates within 15 min. At all other pH values tested (5.8-8.2), micron-sized aggregates form in less than 5 min (minimum detection time), even at low ionic strength (0.0084-0.0099 M with NaCl). In contrast, micron-sized aggregates form within 5 min in an aqueous suspension of CaCl2 at an ionic strength of 0.0128 M and pH of 4.8, which is significantly faster than observed for NaCI suspensions with similar ionic strength and pH. This result indicates that divalent cations may enhance aggregation of nano-TiO2 in soils and surface waters. Optical micrographs show branching aggregates of sizes ranging from the 1 microm optical limit of the microscope to tens of micrometers in diameter.
    Keywords: Cations, Divalent -- Chemistry ; Cations, Monovalent -- Chemistry ; Nanoparticles -- Chemistry ; Titanium -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 0013-936X
    E-ISSN: 15205851
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Science & Technology, 01 December 2007, Vol.41(23), pp.8056-8061
    Description: The fate of organic herbicides applied to agricultural fields may be affected by other soil amendments, such as copper applied as a fungicide. The effect of copper on the leaching of diuron and glyphosate through a granitic and a calcareous...
    Keywords: Adsorption ; Copper ; Diuron ; Drug Interactions ; Environmental Monitoring ; Glycine ; Herbicides ; Protons ; Soil ; Soil Pollutants ; Life Sciences ; Agricultural Sciences ; Soil Study ; Sciences of the Universe ; Continental Interfaces, Environment ; Environmental Sciences ; Global Changes ; Sciences of the Universe ; Earth Sciences ; Geochemistry
    ISSN: 0013-936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security, Uncertainties in Environmental Modelling and Consequences for Policy Making, pp.61-76
    Description: This chapter discusses some of the principles behind multi-agent modeling and shows through the examples from land-use change how they can be applied to deal with socio-economic aspects of environmental issues. An underlying theme is the divide between qualitative and quantitative approaches in the social sciences, though the chapter is also aimed at presenting agent-based modeling to those accustomed to mathematical modeling approaches.
    Keywords: Environment ; Math. Appl. in Environmental Science ; Environmental Law/Policy/Ecojustice ; Environmental Management ; Climate Change ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences
    ISBN: 9789048126354
    ISBN: 9048126355
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 10
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands
    Language: English
    In: NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security, Uncertainties in Environmental Modelling and Consequences for Policy Making, pp.79-100
    Description: This chapter provides an introduction to interval arithmetic-based techniques for the verification of mathematical models. Illustrative examples are described from the fields of circle packing, chaotic behaviour dynamical systems, and process network synthesis.
    Keywords: Environment ; Math. Appl. in Environmental Science ; Environmental Law/Policy/Ecojustice ; Environmental Management ; Climate Change ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences
    ISBN: 9789048126354
    ISBN: 9048126355
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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