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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 August 2014, Vol.490, pp.191-198
    Description: Transport of many pollutants in rivers is coupled to mobilization of suspended particles which typically occurs during floods. Since the amount of total suspended solids ( ) in rivers can be monitored by turbidity measurements this may be used as a proxy for the total concentration of particle associated pollutants such as PAHs, PCBs, etc. and several heavy metals. Online turbidity measurements (e.g. by optical backscattering sensors) would then also allow for an assessment of particle and pollutant flux dynamics if once calibrated against and total pollutant concentrations for a given catchment. In this study, distinct flood and thus turbidity events were sampled at high temporal resolution in three contrasting sub-catchments of the River Neckar in Southwest Germany (Ammer, Goldersbach, Steinlach) as well as in the River Neckar itself and investigated for the total amount of PAHs and in water; turbidity (NTU) and grain size distributions of suspended solids were determined as well. Laboratory experiments were performed with natural river bed sediments from different locations (Ammer) to investigate PAH concentrations, and turbidity during sedimentation of suspended particles under controlled conditions (yielding smaller and smaller suspended particles and with time). Laboratory and field results agreed very well and showed that turbidity and were linearly correlated over an extended turbidity range up to 2000 NTU for the field samples and up to 8000 NTU in lab experiments. This also holds for total PAH concentrations which can be reasonably well predicted based on turbidity measurements and vs. PAHs relationships — even for high turbidity values observed during flood events (〉 2000 NTU). Total PAH concentrations on suspended solids were independent of grain size of suspended particles. This implies that for the rivers investigated the sorption capacity of particles did not change significantly during the observed events.
    Keywords: Pollutant Fluxes in Rivers ; Turbidity ; Total Suspended Solids ; Particle Facilitated Transport ; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 January 2016, Vol.540, pp.444-454
    Description: Increasing numbers of organic micropollutants are emitted into rivers via municipal wastewaters. Due to their persistence many pollutants pass wastewater treatment plants without substantial removal. Transport and fate of pollutants in receiving waters and export to downstream ecosystems is not well understood. In particular, a better knowledge of processes governing their environmental behavior is needed. Although a lot of data are available concerning the ubiquitous presence of micropollutants in rivers, accurate data on transport and removal rates are lacking. In this paper, a mass balance approach is presented, which is based on the Lagrangian sampling scheme, but extended to account for precise transport velocities and mixing along river stretches. The calculated mass balances allow accurate quantification of pollutants' reactivity along river segments. This is demonstrated for representative members of important groups of micropollutants, e.g. pharmaceuticals, musk fragrances, flame retardants, and pesticides. A model-aided analysis of the measured data series gives insight into the temporal dynamics of removal processes. The occurrence of different removal mechanisms such as photooxidation, microbial degradation, and volatilization is discussed. The results demonstrate, that removal processes are highly variable in time and space and this has to be considered for future studies. The high precision sampling scheme presented could be a powerful tool for quantifying removal processes under different boundary conditions and in river segments with contrasting properties.
    Keywords: Micropollutants ; River Segments ; Mass Balances ; Removal Processes ; Diurnal Patterns ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 December 2017, Vol.601-602, pp.636-645
    Description: The contamination of riverine sediments and suspended matter with hydrophobic pollutants is typically associated with urban land use. However, it is rarely related to the sediment supply of the watershed, because sediment yield data are often missing. We show for a suite of watersheds in two regions of Germany with contrasting land use and geology that the contamination of suspended particles with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) can be explained by the ratio of inhabitants residing within the watershed and the watershed's sediment yield. The modeling of sediment yields is based on the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE2015, Panagos et al., 2015) and the sediment delivery ratio (SDR). The applicability of this approach is demonstrated for watersheds ranging in size from 1.4 to 3000 km . The approach implies that the loading of particles with PAH can be assumed as time invariant. This is indicated by additional long-term measurements from sub-watersheds of the upper River Neckar basin, Germany. The parsimonious conceptual approach allows for reasonable predictions of the PAH loading of suspended sediments especially at larger scales. Our findings may easily be used to estimate the vulnerability of river systems to particle-associated urban pollutants with similar input pathways as the PAH or to indicate if contaminant point sources such as sites of legacy pollution exist in a river basin.
    Keywords: Sediment Quality ; Particle-Facilitated Pollutant Transport ; Pah ; Sediment Yield ; Urbanization ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, January 2013, Vol.172, pp.155-162
    Description: Water quality of rivers depends often on the degree of urbanization and the population density in the catchment. This study shows results of a monitoring campaign of total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and suspended particles in water samples in adjacent catchments in Southern Germany with similar geology and climate but different degrees of urbanization. Defined linear relationships between total concentrations of PAHs in water and the amount of suspended solids were obtained indicating predominance of particle-facilitated transport. The slopes of these regressions correspond to the average contamination of suspended particles ( ) and thus comprise a very robust measure of sediment pollution in a river. For the first time, we can show that is distinct in the different catchments and correlates to the degree of urbanization represented by the number of inhabitants per total flux of suspended particles. ► PAHs in water samples show a linear correlation with the total suspended solids. ► PAHs on suspended solids correspond to mean concentrations in sediments sampled. ► Degree of urban pressure per particle flux drives PAH loads on suspended particles. ► Dilution of particle associated pollutants requires “clean background” particles. Particle-facilitated transport of PAHs was found to relate to urban population pressure relative to suspended particle loading in contrasting catchments.
    Keywords: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ; Land Use ; Suspended Solids ; Water Quality ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Science & Technology, 05/1999, Vol.33(10), pp.1645-1651
    Description: Most aquifer materials are heterogeneous in terms of grain size distribution and petrography. To understand sorption kinetics, homogeneous subfractions, either separated from heterogeneous sands and gravels (lithocomponents) or fragments of fresh rocks, have to be studied. In this paper we present data on long-term sorption kinetics of phenanthrene for homogeneous samples consisting of one type of lithocomponents or fresh rock fragments in different grain sizes. Diffusion rate constants were determined in batch experiments using a numerical model for retarded intraparticle pore diffusion and correlated to grain size and intraparticle porosity of the lithocomponents. Sorption isotherms were nonlinear for all samples investigated (Kleineidam et al. (1)). The numerical model described the sorption kinetics very well for coarse sand and gravels. Tortuosity factors, which were obtained as final fitting factors, agreed with Archie's law predictions based on the intraparticle porosity. The dependency of sorptive uptake on grain size revealed that for smaller grains intrasorbent diffusion may become significant. This is attributed to relatively large particulate organic matter (POM) within the sedimentary rock fragments. Specifically, charcoal and coal particles, which were found in some of the sandstones, controlled the sorptive uptake rates.
    Keywords: Geochemistry Of Rocks, Soils, And Sediments ; Environmental Geology ; Aquifers ; Aromatic Hydrocarbons ; Charcoal ; Clastic Rocks ; Clastic Sediments ; Coal ; Coarse-Grained Materials ; Diffusion ; Experimental Studies ; Fragments ; Geochemistry ; Grain Size ; Gravel ; Ground Water ; Homogeneous Materials ; Hydrocarbons ; Kinetics ; Laboratory Studies ; Numerical Models ; Organic Compounds ; Particulate Materials ; Phenanthrene ; Physicochemical Properties ; Pollution ; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ; Sand ; Sandstone ; Sedimentary Rocks ; Sediments ; Sorption;
    ISSN: 0013-936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Science and Policy, 2006, Vol.9(6), pp.568-576
    Description: The prospect of more efficient, economically advantageous management strategies has driven the development of contaminated land management concepts particularly for large and complex contaminated sites during the last years. Consequently, the conscious and controlled use of naturally occurring degradation and retardation processes of pollutants in the subsurface (monitored natural attenuation—MNA) has gained increasing attention. Today, there are in principle two different MNA concepts available: risk-based MNA concepts as used, for example, in the USA, and MNA concepts which rely on a precautionary principle of soil and groundwater protection as developed, for example, in Germany. Based on a discussion of the virtues and limitations of these concepts, the manuscript provides a review and a synthesis of these concepts as well as recommendations for further improvements.
    Keywords: Monitored Natural Attenuation ; Degradation and Retardation of Pollutants ; Contaminated Land Management ; Groundwater Remediation ; Decision Making ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 1462-9011
    E-ISSN: 1873-6416
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 10 January 2019, Vol.647, pp.645-652
    Description: Transport of hydrophobic pollutants in rivers such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals is often facilitated by suspended sediment particles, which are typically mobilized during high discharge events. Suspended sediments thus represent a means of transport for particle related pollutants within river reaches and may represent a suitable proxy for average pollutant concentrations estimation in a river reach or catchment. In this study, multiple high discharge/turbidity events were sampled at high temporal resolution in the Globaqua River Basins Sava (Slovenia, Serbia), Adige (Italy), and Evrotas (Greece) and analysed for persistent organic pollutants such as PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) or PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and heavy metals. For comparison, river bed sediment samples were analysed as well. Further, results are compared to previous studies in contrasting catchments in Germany, Iran, Spain, and beyond. Overall results show that loadings of suspended sediments with pollutants are catchment-specific and relatively stable over time at a given location. For PAHs, loadings on suspended particles mainly correlate to urban pressures (potentially diluted by sediment mass fluxes) in the rivers, whereas metal concentrations mainly display a geogenic origin. By cross-comparison with known urban pressure/sediment yield relationships (e.g. for PAHs) or soil background values (for metals) anthropogenic impact – e.g. caused by industrial activities – may be identified. Sampling of suspended sediments gives much more reliable results compared to sediment grab samples which typically show a more heterogeneous contaminant distribution. Based on mean annual suspended sediment concentrations and distribution coefficients of pollutants the fraction of particle facilitated transport versus dissolved fluxes can be calculated.
    Keywords: Particle Associated Pollutants ; Suspended Sediments ; Persistent Organic Pollutants ; Heavy Metals ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Science & Technology, 05/1999, Vol.33(10), pp.1637-1644
    Description: Remediation of groundwater contamination in unconsolidated aquifers by dissolved hydrophobic compounds (HOC) requires detailed information on the sorption parameters present in the sediments. Equilibrium sorption isotherms were measured for phenanthrene for a wide variety of lithocomponents (constituents of sand and gravel sediments) and unweathered rock fragments (limestones and sandstones). The lithocomponents were separated based on macroscopic appearance of different lithologies (e.g. limestones, sandstones, shales, mudstones, and igneous rocks) and characterized in terms of organic carbon content and specific surface area. In addition the organic matter (OM) was characterized using coal petrography methods (white and UV light microscopy). As confirmed by heat-treated samples sorption was solely due to OM. Organic carbon normalized sorption coefficients (K sub(OC)) varied by almost 3 orders of magnitude among the samples investigated. The different origin and maturity of isolated organic matter (organic facies) is believed to be responsible. For example, extremely high K sub(OC) values were found for particulate organic matter such as charcoal and coal particles which were preserved within the sandstone and limestone grains. In a second paper we report data on sorption kinetics of the samples used in this study (1).
    Keywords: Chemical Equilibrium ; Sediment Pollution ; Particulate Organic Matter ; Pollutant Persistence ; Adsorption ; Groundwater Pollution ; Aquifers ; Sediment Pollution ; Sorption ; Limestone ; Organic Matter ; Remediation ; Groundwater Pollution ; Geology ; Aquifers ; Sorption ; Rocks ; Water Pollution Treatment ; Organic Matter ; Remediation ; Groundwater Pollution ; Isotherms ; Phenanthrene ; Hydrophobic Compounds ; Physics and Chemistry ; Characteristics, Behavior and Fate ; Sources and Fate of Pollution ; Freshwater Pollution ; Hydrophobic Compounds ; Phenanthrene;
    ISSN: 0013-936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
    Source: American Chemical Society (via CrossRef)
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  • 9
    Language: German
    In: Grundwasser, 2004, Vol.9(2), pp.98-108
    Description: Im Abstrom der „ehemaligen Abfalldeponie Osterhofen“ wurden Konzentrationen an Ammonium festgestellt, die deutlich über dem in Baden-Württemberg geltenden Prüfwert liegen. Im Rahmen detaillierter Natural Attenuation (NA) Untersuchungen wurde überprüft, inwieweit die Nutzung mikrobiologischer Abbau- und Rückhalteprozesse des Ammoniums eine geeignete Entscheidungsoption für den Standort darstellt. Das Ergebnis der hierbei im Wesentlichen durchgeführten Frachtbestimmungen (mittels Immissionspumpversuchen) sowie einer konzeptionellen numerischen Modellierung des Ammoniumabbaues am Standort war, dass ein mikrobiologischer Abbau des Ammoniums zu Nitrat stattfindet (70–85 % Abbau innerhalb einer Distanz von ca. 450 m), dass allerdings aufgrund der diffusiv-/dispersiv bedingten langsamen Zufuhr von Sauerstoff in die Abstromfahne ein insgesamt ca. 550–680 m langer, stationärer Reaktionsraum existiert. Eine Gefahr für das Grundwasser im weiteren Abstrom der Deponie konnte ausgeschlossen werden. Eine gezielte Überwachung der NA-Prozesse kann am Standort an die Stelle einer aktiven Sanierungsmaßnahme treten. In groundwater downgradient of the former municipal landfill site “Osterhofen” concentrations of Ammonium much above the legal limit were detected. Based on detailed site investigations it was evaluated whether natural attenuation (NA) may be used as a contaminated land management option at the site. Investigations were mainly based on the determination of contaminant mass flow rates (by integral pumping tests) and numerical conceptual modelling of the ammonium degradation. As result it was found that biodegradation of ammonium is very effective (70–85 % degradation within a distance of approx. 450 m). Because oxygen supply into the plume is limited by transverse mixing a steady state plume of approx. 550–680 m in length exists. Since beyond this reactive zone no further risk for groundwater arises, monitored natural attenuation (MNA) is an appropriate contaminated land management option at the site.
    Keywords: Geosciences ; Environmental Sciences ; Geography;
    ISSN: 1430-483X
    E-ISSN: 1432-1165
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  • 10
    Language: German
    In: Grundwasser, 2004, Vol.9(1), pp.43-53
    Description: Im Abstrom des „ehemaligen Gaswerkes Kehl“ wurden Konzentrationen an PAK festgestellt, die über dem geltenden Prüfwert liegen. Im Rahmen detaillierter Natural Attenuation-Untersuchungen wurde überprüft, inwieweit die Nutzung mikrobiologischer Abbau- und Rückhalteprozesse der PAK eine geeignete Entscheidungsoption für den Standort darstellt. Hierzu kamen im Wesentlichen Frachtbestimmungen entlang von zwei aufeinander folgenden Kontrollebenen (mittels Immissionspumpversuchen) sowie numerische Modellierungen zum Ausbreitungsverhalten der PAK am Standort zum Einsatz. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass für die 2-3-Ring PAK ein effektiver mikrobiologischer Abbau innerhalb eines Reaktionsraums von ca. 130 m stattfindet. Für die ≥ 4-Ring PAK ist v. a. aufgrund nur niedriger Konzentrationen im direkten Abstrom nicht mit Prüfwertüberschreitungen im weiteren Abstrom zu rechnen. Sorptionsprozesse am Aquifermaterial führen darüber hinaus zu einem stark retardierten Transport dieser Verbindungen. Auf Basis der Ergebnisse hat die Altlastenbewertungskommission die Implementierung einer aktiven Sanierungsmaßnahme ausgesetzt und sich für die gezielte Überwachung der NA-Prozesse entschieden. In groundwater downgradient of the former gas work site “City of Kehl” concentrations of PAH above the legal limit were detected. Based on detailed site investigations it was evaluated whether monitored natural attenuation (MNA) may be used as a contaminated land management option at the site. Investigations were mainly based on the determination of contaminant mass flow rates at two consecutive control planes (by integral pumping tests) and numerical transport modelling of PAH. As result it was found that 2-3-ring PAH are biodegraded within a distance of approx. 130 m. Due to already low concentrations directly downgradiant of the source zone no exceedance of the legal limits beyond the reactive zone is expected for ≥ 4-Ring PAH. In addition transport of these compounds is highly retarded due to strong sorption processes. Based on the results it was decided to rely on monitored natural attenuation as a contaminated land management option at the site.
    Keywords: Geosciences ; Environmental Sciences ; Geography;
    ISSN: 1430-483X
    E-ISSN: 1432-1165
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