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  • Escherichia Coli
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 21 April 2015, Vol.112(16), pp.5159-64
    Description: RpoS, the stationary phase/stress sigma factor of Escherichia coli, regulates a large cohort of genes important for the cell to deal with suboptimal conditions. Its level increases quickly in the cell in response to many stresses and returns to low levels when growth resumes. Increased RpoS results from increased translation and decreased RpoS degradation. Translation is positively regulated by small RNAs (sRNAs). Protein stability is positively regulated by anti-adaptors, which prevent the RssB adaptor-mediated degradation of RpoS by the ClpXP protease. Inactivation of aceE, a subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), was found to increase levels of RpoS by affecting both translation and protein degradation. The stabilization of RpoS in aceE mutants is dependent on increased transcription and translation of IraP and IraD, two known anti-adaptors. The aceE mutation also leads to a significant increase in rpoS translation. The sRNAs known to positively regulate RpoS are not responsible for the increased translation; sequences around the start codon are sufficient for the induction of translation. PDH synthesizes acetyl-CoA; acetate supplementation allows the cell to synthesize acetyl-CoA by an alternative, less favored pathway, in part dependent upon RpoS. Acetate addition suppressed the effects of the aceE mutant on induction of the anti-adaptors, RpoS stabilization, and rpoS translation. Thus, the bacterial cell responds to lowered levels of acetyl-CoA by inducing RpoS, allowing reprogramming of E. coli metabolism.
    Keywords: Clpxp ; Rpos ; Rssb ; Acetyl Coa ; Pyruvate Dehydrogenase ; Protein Biosynthesis ; Proteolysis ; Stress, Physiological ; Bacterial Proteins -- Metabolism ; Escherichia Coli -- Metabolism ; Sigma Factor -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    In: Molecular Microbiology, December 2011, Vol.82(6), pp.1545-1562
    Description: A major class of small bacterial RNAs (sRNAs) regulate translation and mRNA stability by pairing with target mRNAs, dependent upon the RNA chaperone Hfq. Hfq, related to the Lsm/Sm families of splicing proteins, binds the sRNAs and stabilizes them and stimulates pairing with mRNAs . Although Hfq is abundant, the sRNAs, when induced, are similarly abundant. Therefore, Hfq may be limiting for sRNA function. We find that, when overexpressed, a number of sRNAs competed with endogenous sRNAs for binding to Hfq. This correlated with lower accumulation of the sRNAs (presumably a reflection of the loss of Hfq binding), and lower activity of the sRNAs in regulating gene expression. Hfq was limiting for both positive and negative regulation by the sRNAs. In addition, deletion of the gene for an expressed and particularly effective competitor sRNA improved the regulation of genes by other sRNAs, suggesting that Hfq is limiting during normal growth conditions. These results support the existence of a hierarchy of sRNA competition for Hfq, modulating the function of some sRNAs.
    Keywords: Messenger Rna ; Protein Binding ; Gene Expression ; Genes ; Escherichia Coli ; Proteins;
    ISSN: 0950-382X
    E-ISSN: 1365-2958
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Bacteriology, Feb, 2014, Vol.196(3-4), p.754(8)
    Description: The stationary phase/general stress response sigma factor RpoS (sigma S) is necessary for adaptation and restoration of homeostasis in stationary phase. As a physiological consequence, its levels are tightly regulated at least at two levels. Multiple small regulatory RNA molecules modulate its translation, in a manner that is dependent on the RNA chaperone Hfq and the rpoS 5' untranslated region. ClpXP and the RssB adaptor protein degrade RpoS, unless it is protected by an anti-adaptor. We here find that, in addition to these posttranscriptional levels of regulation, tRNA modification also affects the steady-state levels of RpoS. We screened mutants of several RNA modification enzymes for an effect on RpoS expression and identified the miaA gene, encoding a tRNA isopentenyltransferase, as necessary for full expression of both an rpoS750-lacZ translational fusion and the RpoS protein. This effect is independent of rpoS, the regulatory RNAs, and RpoS degradation. RpoD steady-state levels were not significantly different in the absence of MiaA, suggesting that this is an RpoS-specific effect. The rpoS coding sequence is significantly enriched for leu codons that use MiaA-modified tRNAs, compared to rpoD and many other genes. Dependence on MiaA may therefore provide yet another way for RpoS levels to respond to growth conditions.
    Keywords: Escherichia Coli -- Research ; Escherichia Coli -- Physiological Aspects ; Post-translational Modifications -- Analysis ; Transfer Rna -- Research ; Translational Research
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of bacteriology, February 2017, Vol.199(3), pp.e00691-16
    Description: The L-arabinose-inducible araBAD promoter (P) allows tightly controlled and tunable expression of genes of interest in a broad range of bacterial species. It has been successfully used to study bacterial sRNA regulation, where P drives expression of target mRNA translational fusions. Here we report that in Escherichia coli, Spot 42 sRNA can regulate P promoter activity by affecting arabinose uptake. We demonstrate that Spot 42 sRNA represses araF, a gene encoding the AraF subunit of the high-affinity low-capacity arabinose transporter AraFGH, through direct base pairing interactions. We further show that endogenous Spot 42 sRNA is sufficient to repress araF expression under various growth conditions. Finally, we demonstrate this posttranscriptional repression has a biological consequence, decreasing the induction of P at low levels of arabinose. This problem can be circumvented using strategies reported previously for avoiding all-or-none induction behavior, that is through constitutive expression of the low-affinity high-capacity arabinose transporter AraE or induction with higher concentration of inducers. This work adds araF to the set of Spot 42-regulated genes, in agreement with previous studies suggesting that Spot 42, itself negatively regulated by cAMP-CRP complex, reinforces the catabolite repression network. The bacterial arabinose inducible system is widely used for titratable control of gene expression. We demonstrate here that a post-transcriptional mechanism mediated by the Spot 42 sRNA contributes to the functionality of the P system at subsaturating inducer concentrations by affecting inducer uptake. Our finding extends the inputs into the known transcriptional control for the P system, and has implications for improving its usage for tunable gene expression.
    Keywords: Gene Expression ; Translation ; Promoters ; Growth Conditions ; Cyclic Amp ; Catabolite Repression ; Arabinose ; Transcription ; Post-Transcription ; Bacteriology ; Escherichia Coli ; Cell Biology ; RNA;
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 1098-5530
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  • 5
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Journal of bacteriology, 15 October 2017, Vol.199(20)
    Description: Bacteria have robust responses to a variety of stresses. In particular, bacteria like have multiple cell envelope stress responses, and generally we evaluate what these responses are doing by the repair systems they induce. However, probably at least as important in interpreting what is being sensed as stress are the genes that these stress systems downregulate, directly or indirectly. This is discussed here for the Cpx and sigma E systems of .
    Keywords: Cpx ; Hfq ; Escherichia Coli -- Genetics ; Escherichia Coli Proteins -- Genetics
    E-ISSN: 1098-5530
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Bacteriology, 2016, Vol.198(7-8), p.1101(13)
    Description: Bacteria use multidrug efflux pumps to export drugs and toxic compounds out of the cell. One of the most important efflux pumps in Escherichia coli is the AcrAB-TolC system. Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) are known to be major posttranscriptional regulators that can enhance or repress translation by binding to the 5? untranslated region (UTR) of mRNA targets with the help of a chaperone protein, Hfq. In this study, we investigated the expression of acrA, acrB, and tolC translational fusions using 27 Hfq-dependent sRNAs overexpressed from plasmids. No significant sRNA regulation of acrA or acrB was detected. SdsR (also known as RyeB), an abundant and well-conserved stationary-phase sRNA, was found to repress the expression of tolC, the gene encoding the outer membrane protein of many multidrug resistance efflux pumps. This repression was shown to be by direct base pairing occurring upstream from the ribosomal binding site. SdsR overexpression and its regulation of tolC were found to reduce resistance to novobiocin and crystal violet. Our results suggest that additional targets for SdsR exist that contribute to increased antibiotic sensitivity and reduced biofilm formation. In an effort to identify phenotypes associated with single-copy SdsR and its regulation of tolC, the effect of a deletion of sdsR or mutations in tolC that should block SdsR pairing were investigated using a Biolog phenotypic microarray. However, no significant phenotypes were identified. Therefore, SdsR appears to modulate rather than act as a major regulator of its targets. IMPORTANCE AcrAB-TolC is a major efflux pump present in E. coli and Gram-negative bacteria used to export toxic compounds; the pump confers resistance to many antibiotics of unrelated classes. In this study, we found that SdsR, a small RNA expressed in stationary phase, repressed the expression of tolC, resulting in increased sensitivity to some antibiotics. This extends the findings of previous studies showing that sRNAs contribute to the regulation of many outer membrane proteins; manipulating or enhancing their action might help in sensitizing bacteria to antibiotics.
    Keywords: RNA – Research ; Gram-Negative Bacteria – Research ; Gram-Negative Bacteria – Genetic Aspects ; Escherichia Coli – Research ; Escherichia Coli – Genetic Aspects
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 25 May 2010, Vol.107(21), pp.9602-7
    Description: Bacterial small noncoding RNAs carry out both positive and negative regulation of gene expression by pairing with mRNAs; in Escherichia coli, this regulation often requires the RNA chaperone Hfq. Three small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs), DsrA, RprA, and ArcZ, positively regulate translation of the sigma factor RpoS, each pairing with the 5' leader to open up an inhibitory hairpin. In vitro, rpoS interaction with sRNAs depends upon an (AAN)(4) Hfq-binding site upstream of the pairing region. Here we show that both Hfq and this Hfq binding site are required for RprA or ArcZ to act in vivo and to form a stable complex with rpoS mRNA in vitro; both were partially dispensable for DsrA at 37 degrees C. ArcZ sRNA is processed from 121 nt to a stable 56 nt species that contains the pairing region; only the 56 nt ArcZ makes a strong Hfq-dependent complex with rpoS. For each of these sRNAs, the stability of the sRNA*mRNA complexes, rather than their rate of formation, best predicted in vivo activity. These studies demonstrate that binding of Hfq to the rpoS mRNA is critical for sRNA regulation under normal conditions, but if the stability of the sRNA*mRNA complex is sufficiently high, the requirement for Hfq can be bypassed.
    Keywords: Escherichia Coli -- Metabolism ; Host Factor 1 Protein -- Metabolism ; RNA, Bacterial -- Metabolism ; RNA, Untranslated -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 11 October 2016, Vol.113(41), pp.E6089-E6096
    Description: The bacterial Sm protein and RNA chaperone Hfq stabilizes small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) and facilitates their annealing to mRNA targets involved in stress tolerance and virulence. Although an arginine patch on the Sm core is needed for Hfq's RNA chaperone activity, the function of Hfq's intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain (CTD) has remained unclear. Here, we use stopped flow spectroscopy to show that the CTD of Escherichia coli Hfq is not needed to accelerate RNA base pairing but is required for the release of dsRNA. The Hfq CTD also mediates competition between sRNAs, offering a kinetic advantage to sRNAs that contact both the proximal and distal faces of the Hfq hexamer. The change in sRNA hierarchy caused by deletion of the Hfq CTD in E. coli alters the sRNA accumulation and the kinetics of sRNA regulation in vivo. We propose that the Hfq CTD displaces sRNAs and annealed sRNA⋅mRNA complexes from the Sm core, enabling Hfq to chaperone sRNA-mRNA interactions and rapidly cycle between competing targets in the cell.
    Keywords: Chix ; RNA Chaperone ; Intrinsically Disordered Protein ; Posttranscriptional Regulation ; Small Noncoding RNA ; Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs ; Host Factor 1 Protein -- Chemistry ; RNA, Messenger -- Metabolism ; RNA, Small Untranslated -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Cell, 19 April 2018, Vol.70(2), pp.193-194
    Description: Cold-shocked bacteria transiently shut down protein translation, but the mechanisms whereby they adaptively restore translation were incompletely understood. demonstrate a global increase in mRNA structure after cold shock and that, as structured RNA decreases, translation returns, dependent upon ribonuclease RNase R and cold shock protein CspA and its homologs. Cold-shocked bacteria transiently shut down protein translation, but the mechanisms whereby they adaptively restore translation were incompletely understood. Zhang et al. (2018) demonstrate a global increase in mRNA structure after cold shock and that, as structured RNA decreases, translation returns, dependent upon ribonuclease RNase R and cold shock protein CspA and its homologs.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 1097-2765
    E-ISSN: 1097-4164
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of bacteriology, 25 January 2016, Vol.198(7), pp.1101-13
    Description: Bacteria use multidrug efflux pumps to export drugs and toxic compounds out of the cell. One of the most important efflux pumps in Escherichia coli is the AcrAB-TolC system. Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) are known to be major posttranscriptional regulators that can enhance or repress translation by binding to the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of mRNA targets with the help of a chaperone protein, Hfq. In this study, we investigated the expression of acrA, acrB, and tolC translational fusions using 27 Hfq-dependent sRNAs overexpressed from plasmids. No significant sRNA regulation of acrA or acrB was detected. SdsR (also known as RyeB), an abundant and well-conserved stationary-phase sRNA, was found to repress the expression of tolC, the gene encoding the outer membrane protein of many multidrug resistance efflux pumps. This repression was shown to be by direct base pairing occurring upstream from the ribosomal binding site. SdsR overexpression and its regulation of tolC were found to reduce resistance to novobiocin and crystal violet. Our results suggest that additional targets for SdsR exist that contribute to increased antibiotic sensitivity and reduced biofilm formation. In an effort to identify phenotypes associated with single-copy SdsR and its regulation of tolC, the effect of a deletion of sdsR or mutations in tolC that should block SdsR pairing were investigated using a Biolog phenotypic microarray. However, no significant phenotypes were identified. Therefore, SdsR appears to modulate rather than act as a major regulator of its targets. AcrAB-TolC is a major efflux pump present in E. coli and Gram-negative bacteria used to export toxic compounds; the pump confers resistance to many antibiotics of unrelated classes. In this study, we found that SdsR, a small RNA expressed in stationary phase, repressed the expression of tolC, resulting in increased sensitivity to some antibiotics. This extends the findings of previous studies showing that sRNAs contribute to the regulation of many outer membrane proteins; manipulating or enhancing their action might help in sensitizing bacteria to antibiotics.
    Keywords: Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins -- Metabolism ; Carrier Proteins -- Metabolism ; Escherichia Coli -- Metabolism ; Escherichia Coli Proteins -- Metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial -- Physiology ; Membrane Transport Proteins -- Metabolism ; RNA, Bacterial -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 1098-5530
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