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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 23 December 2011, Vol.334(6063), pp.1699-703
    Description: Several groups of tetrapods have expanded sesamoid (small, tendon-anchoring) bones into digit-like structures ("predigits"), such as pandas' "thumbs." Elephants similarly have expanded structures in the fat pads of their fore- and hindfeet, but for three centuries these have been overlooked as mere cartilaginous curiosities. We show that these are indeed massive sesamoids that employ a patchy mode of ossification of a massive cartilaginous precursor and that the predigits act functionally like digits. Further, we reveal clear osteological correlates of predigit joint articulation with the carpals/tarsals that are visible in fossils. Our survey shows that basal proboscideans were relatively "flat-footed" (plantigrade), whereas early elephantiforms evolved the more derived "tip-toed" (subunguligrade) morphology, including the predigits and fat pad, of extant elephants. Thus, elephants co-opted sesamoid bones into a role as false digits and used them for support as they changed their foot posture.
    Keywords: Biological Evolution ; Elephants -- Anatomy & Histology ; Foot -- Anatomy & Histology ; Sesamoid Bones -- Anatomy & Histology ; Toes -- Anatomy & Histology
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, September 2013, Vol.38(9), pp.1923-1927
    Description: Appetitive behaviors such as substance use and eating are under significant regulatory control by the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axes. Recent research has begun to examine how these systems interact to cause and maintain poor regulation of these appetitive behaviors. A range of potential molecular, neuroendocrine, and hormonal mechanisms are involved in these interactions and may explain individual differences in both risk and resilience to a range of addictions. This manuscript provides a commentary on research presented during the International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology's mini-conference on sex differences in eating and addiction with an emphasis on how HPG and HPA axis interactions affect appetitive behaviors in classic addictions and may be used to help inform the ongoing debate about the validity of food addiction.
    Keywords: Hypothalamic-Pituitary Gonadal Axis ; Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Axis ; Food Addiction ; Substance Abuse ; Sex Differences ; Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0306-4530
    E-ISSN: 1873-3360
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, December 2012, Vol.50(12), pp.797-804
    Description: Mirror exposure therapy has proven efficacious in improving body image among individuals with shape/weight concerns and eating disorders. No randomized controlled trials have examined the effect of mirror exposure in a healthy-weight clinical sample of eating disordered individuals. The purpose of the current study was to test the efficacy of a five-session acceptance based mirror exposure therapy (A-MET) versus a non directive body image therapy (ND) control as an adjunctive treatment to outpatient eating disorder treatment. Thirty-three males and females aged 14–65 with a body mass index of 18.5–29.9 were randomized to five sessions of A-MET or ND with a 1-month follow-up. Results indicated large to moderate effect size differences for efficacy of A-MET across measures of body checking, body image dissatisfaction, and eating disorder symptoms (  = −0.38 to −1.61) at end of treatment and follow-up. Baseline measures of social comparison and history of appearance-related teasing were predictive of treatment response. There were also differential effects of treatment on participants' perceived homework quality, but no differences in therapeutic alliance. Results suggest that A-MET is a promising adjunctive treatment for residual body image disturbance among normal and overweight individuals undergoing treatment for an eating disorder. Future research and clinical implications are discussed. ► Mirror Exposure is superior to non directive treatment for body image disturbance. ► Mirror Exposure results in secondary improvements in eating disorder symptoms. ► Social comparison was a negative predictor of treatment response. ► Teasing and greater thin-ideal internalization predicted greater treatment response. ► Participants' perception of homework improved in mirror exposure therapy.
    Keywords: Eating Disorders ; Mirror Exposure ; Body Image Disturbance ; Latent Growth Curve Model ; Randomized Control Trial ; Anxiety ; Medicine ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0005-7967
    E-ISSN: 1873-622X
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Addictive Behaviors, 2011, Vol.36(10), pp.949-958
    Description: Appearance-and-performance enhancing drug (APED) use is a form of drug use that includes use of a wide range of substances such as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AASs) and associated behaviors including intense exercise and dietary control. To date, there are no reliable or valid measures of the core features of APED use. The present study describes the development and psychometric evaluation of the Appearance and Performance Enhancing Drug Use Schedule (APEDUS) which is a semi-structured interview designed to assess the spectrum of drug use and related features of APED use. Eighty-five current APED using men and women (having used an illicit APED in the past year and planning to use an illicit APED in the future) completed the APEDUS and measures of convergent and divergent validity. Inter-rater agreement, scale reliability, one-week test–retest reliability, convergent and divergent validity, and construct validity were evaluated for each of the APEDUS scales. The APEDUS is a modular interview with 10 sections designed to assess the core drug and non-drug phenomena associated with APED use. All scales and individual items demonstrated high inter-rater agreement and reliability. Individual scales significantly correlated with convergent measures (DSM-IV diagnoses, aggression, impulsivity, eating disorder pathology) and were uncorrelated with a measure of social desirability. APEDUS subscale scores were also accurate measures of AAS dependence. The APEDUS is a reliable and valid measure of APED phenomena and an accurate measure of the core pathology associated with APED use. Issues with assessing APED use are considered and future research is considered. ► The APEDUS is the first standardized assessment of the APED phenomenon. ► The APEDUS has strong evidence for inter-rater and test-retest reliability. ► The APEDUS is a sensitive and specific measure of anabolic steroid dependence. ► The APEDUS subscales have strong convergent and divergent validity. ► APED users are accurate self-reporters of the APEDs they use.
    Keywords: Anabolic–Androgenic Steroid ; Polysubstance Use ; Body Image Disturbance ; Compulsive Exercise ; Psychometrics ; Appearance and Performance Enhancing Drug Use ; Social Welfare & Social Work
    ISSN: 0306-4603
    E-ISSN: 1873-6327
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  • 5
    Article
    Article
    BMJ Publishing Group Ltd and British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine
    Language: English
    In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, 12 December 2012, Vol.46(15), p.1038
    Description: Owing to the separation into age groups at the first winter Youth Olympic Games (YOG), athletes differed in age by up to two years, leading to a potential relative age effect (RAE).
    Keywords: Adolescents ; Elite Performance
    ISSN: 0306-3674
    ISSN: 03063674
    E-ISSN: 1473-0480
    E-ISSN: 14730480
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2011, Vol.43(4), pp.1421-1426
    Description: ► The familiarity of rules on the ski slopes and the intuitive behaviour were examined. ► High-risk situations were wrongly assessed by a high percentage. ► The correct intuitive behaviour changes with experience. ► Young age appears to be strongly related to inadequate knowledge. ► Ski resorts and schools should heighten awareness of rules in the high-risk groups. Increases in the numbers of people participating in snow sports raise safety concerns. Despite declining numbers of skiing injuries among recreational skiers, collisions resulting in severe injuries appear to be on the rise. Skiers’ risk of injury depends on a considerable number of different factors but only a few studies have investigated risk-taking behaviour and knowledge of proper skiing behaviour. To promote safe skiing the International Ski Federation (FIS) introduced regulations in 1967. We investigated participants’ familiarity with the FIS regulations on the ski slopes in relation to age, skiing ability and country of origin. Random interviews were conducted with1450 recreational skiers at 17 ski resorts in Tyrol, an Austrian province. A questionnaire assessing skiers’ knowledge of existing rules, their intuitive behaviour in given situations and perceptions of safety was developed. The study revealed that beginners, young skiers and those who were not local residents displayed insufficient knowledge. Risk-inducing situations that could result in collisions, such as moving upwards during carving, were largely assessed incorrectly. Appropriate intuitive behaviour increases with experience, and beginners are less able to implement FIS regulations than more experienced skiers. Ski resorts, the media and schools should direct educational efforts toward these high-risk groups. More research is needed to determine the causal connection between skiing injuries and disregard of the FIS Rules.
    Keywords: Recreational Skiing ; Accident Prevention ; Level of Knowledge ; Fis Rules ; Social Welfare & Social Work ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0001-4575
    E-ISSN: 1879-2057
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Psychology and Aging, 2011, Vol.26(3), pp.701-715
    Description: Face cognition is considered a specific human ability, clearly differentiable from general cognitive functioning. Its specificity is primarily supported by cognitive-experimental and neuroimaging research, but recently also from an individual differences perspective. However, no comprehensive behavioral data are available, which would allow estimating lifespan changes of the covariance structure of face-cognition abilities and general cognitive functioning as well as age-differences in face cognition after accounting for interindividual variability in general cognition. The present study aimed to fill this gap. In an age-heterogeneous (18–82 years) sample of 448 adults, we found no factorial dedifferentiation between face cognition and general cognition. Age-related differences in face memory were still salient after taking into account changes in general cognitive functioning. Face cognition thus remains a specific human ability compared with general cognition, even until old age. We discuss implications for models of cognitive aging and suggest that it is necessary to include more explicitly special social abilities in those models.
    Keywords: Face Cognition ; Abstract Cognition ; Adult Lifespan
    ISSN: 0882-7974
    E-ISSN: 1939-1498
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Psychology and Aging, 2013, Vol.28(1), pp.243-248
    Description: We investigated the specificity of face compared with object cognition from an individual differences and aging perspective by determining the amount of overlap between these abilities at the level of latent constructs across age. Confirmatory factor analytic models tested the specificity of speed and accuracy measures for face and object cognition ( N = 448; 18 to 88 years). Accuracy measures were distinguishable and slightly dedifferentiated across age, which was not due to loss of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. There was no face specificity for speed measures. These results support the specificity of face cognition from differential and developmental perspective only for performance accuracy.
    Keywords: Face Cognition ; Object Cognition ; Individual Differences ; Age Differences
    ISSN: 0882-7974
    E-ISSN: 1939-1498
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: European eating disorders review : the journal of the Eating Disorders Association, 2011, Vol.19(1), pp.37-45
    Description: To present a case report detailing the use of an enhanced form of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). The treatment was provided to an adolescent with an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) diagnosis, and included a focus on the additional maintaining mechanisms of mood intolerance and interpersonal problems. This case began as an unsuccessful attempt at family therapy, where the underlying dysfunction exacerbated symptoms and demoralized the family. The therapist subsequently chose to utilize an enhanced version of CBT to simultaneously address the patient's symptoms and try to effect change across multiple domains. A description of the patient's eating disorder pathology, the 29-session treatment, and outcome, are provided. This case study illustrates that it is possible to successfully use enhanced CBT with developmentally appropriate adaptations in the treatment of a young patient with an EDNOS diagnosis, as suggested by Cooper and Stewart (2008).
    Keywords: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy ; Feeding and Eating Disorders -- Therapy
    E-ISSN: 1099-0968
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Eating Disorders, December 2011, Vol.44(8), pp.692-702
    Description: The primary aim was to examine the utility of DSM-IV criteria in predicting treatment outcome in a sample of adolescents with eating disorders. We (a) descriptively compared the baseline rates of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) across multiple reference points for diagnostic criteria, (b) using ROC curve analyses, assessed the sensitivity and specificity of each diagnostic criterion in predicting clinical outcome, and (c) with logistic regression analyses, examined the incremental predictive value of each criterion. Results show a high degree of variability in the baseline diagnostic profiles as a function of the information used to inform each DSM-IV criterion. For AN, Criterion A yielded the best predictive validity, with Criteria B-D providing no significant incremental value. For BN, none of the measures had a significant AUC, and results from logistic regression analyses showed that none of the indicators were robust in predicting outcome. For AN, the existing Criterion A is appropriate for children and adolescents, and is sufficient to predict outcome in the context of active refusal to maintain a normal weight as well as multiple informants and behavioral indicators of the psychological aspects of AN. For BN, predictive validity could not be established.
    Keywords: Anorexia Nervosa ; Bulimia Nervosa ; Children ; Adolescents ; Diagnosis ; Predictive Validity
    ISSN: 0276-3478
    E-ISSN: 1098-108X
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