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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: PLoS One, CA: Public Library of Science
    Description: This article explores the interrelationship between the urinary microbiota and host antimicrobial peptides as mechanisms for urinary tract infection risk.
    Keywords: Resident Bacterial Communities ; Host Antimicrobial Peptides ; Urinary Tract Infection
    ISSN: 19326203
    E-ISSN: 19326203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, pp. 1376-1383
    Description: Article on evidence of uncultivated bacteria in the adult female bladder.
    Keywords: Uropathogens ; Clinical Cultivation ; Uncultivated Bacteria ; Urinary Tract Conditions
    ISSN: 1098660X
    E-ISSN: 1098660X
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: International Urogynecology Journal, 2014, Vol.25(9), pp.1179-1184
    Description: Byline: Linda Brubaker (1), Charles W. Nager (2), Holly E. Richter (3), Anthony Visco (4), Ingrid Nygaard (5), Matthew D. Barber (6), Joseph Schaffer (7), Susan Meikle (8), Dennis Wallace (9), Noriko Shibata (10), Alan J. Wolfe (10) Keywords: Microbiome; Urinary bacteria; Urinary urgency incontinence; Urinary tract infection Abstract: Introduction and hypothesis This study's aims were to detect and quantify bacterial DNA in the urine of randomized trial participants about to undergo treatment for urinary urgency incontinence (UUI) without clinical evidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) and to determine if the presence of bacterial DNA in baseline urine relates to either baseline urinary symptoms or UTI risk after urinary tract instrumentation. Methods Women without clinical evidence of baseline UTI were randomized to cystoscopic onabotulinum toxin A injection and oral placebo medication versus cystoscopic placebo injection and active oral medication. Bacterial DNA in participants' catheterized urine was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results Bacterial DNA was detected in the urine of 38.7 % of participants (60 out of 155). In these 60 qPCR-positive participants, baseline daily UUI episodes were greater than in the 95 qPCR-negative participants (5.71 [[+ or -]2.60] vs 4.72 [[+ or -]2.86], p=0.004). Neither symptom severity by questionnaire nor treatment outcome was associated with qPCR status or with qPCR level in qPCR-positive subjects. In contrast, the presence of urinary bacterial DNA was associated with UTI risk: only 10 % of the qPCR-positive women developed a UTI post-treatment, while 24 % of the qPCR-negative women did so. The median qPCR level for qPCR-positive samples did not differ significantly by UTI status (UTI 2.58x10.sup.5 vs no UTI 1.35x10.sup.5 copies/mL, p=0.6). Conclusions These results may indicate a urinary bacterial contribution to both baseline UUI and the risk of post-treatment UTI. Author Affiliation: (1) Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Urology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, 2160 S. First Avenue, Boulevard 120, Room 420, Maywood, IL, 60153, USA (2) Department of Reproductive Medicine, UC San Diego Health System, San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA (3) Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA (4) Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA (5) Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA (6) Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA (7) Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA (8) Gynecologic Health and Disease Branch, The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA (9) Health Sciences Division, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA (10) Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, USA Article History: Registration Date: 29/12/2013 Received Date: 10/10/2013 Accepted Date: 28/12/2013 Online Date: 11/02/2014 Article note: The ABC trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01166438.
    Keywords: Microbiome ; Urinary bacteria ; Urinary urgency incontinence ; Urinary tract infection
    ISSN: 0937-3462
    E-ISSN: 1433-3023
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Health, 01 October 2008, Vol.7(1), p.47
    Description: Abstract Background The Yusho poisoning incident, which was caused by rice bran oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated quarterphenyls (PCQs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) generated by heat denaturation of PCB, occurred in 1968 in western Japan. Annual physical, dermatological, dental, ophthalmological and laboratory examinations were conducted for Yusho patients after the incident. From 2001, blood levels of individual PCDF congeners were also measured. The blood levels of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF), PCBs and PCQs in Yusho patients were found to be significantly higher than those of the general population. We investigated the relationships between blood concentrations of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, PCBs and PCQs in Yusho patients and the items measured in the annual medical examination. Methods Medical and laboratory examination data from 501 Yusho patients enrolled in the study from 2001 to 2004 were analyzed. The relationships between blood 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, PCB and PCQ concentrations and medical/laboratory examination data were investigated using principal components and logistic regression analyses. Results Serum Concentrations of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, PCBs and PCQs in blood tended to correlate with either acneform eruptions, black comedones, cutaneous and mucosal pigmentation, and hypersecretion of meibomian glands as well as general fatigue, headaches, cough/sputum, abdominal pain, arthralgia, increased blood sugar, increased serum γ-GTP and decreased total bilirubin. The majority of these signs and symptoms are included in the diagnostic criteria for Yusho. Conclusion After Yusho patients had suffered chronic exposure to these chlorinated compounds for more than 35 years, the serum concentration of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF in blood was significantly related to arthralgia and decreased albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio; the serum concentration of PCBs was significantly related to ophthalmologic symptoms; and the serum concentration of PCQ to increased total cholesterol. These findings suggest that the co-contaminants may affect other functions than those originally associated with Yusho.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 1476-069X
    E-ISSN: 1476-069X
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  • 5
    Language: Japanese
    In: Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology, February 2008, Vol.56(2), pp.95-100
    Description: Quantitative measurement of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been performed by PCR method. However, PCR method has problems such as a special instrument, a complicated manual skill and a high cost. Recently, simple and highly sensitive HCV core antigen (Ag) method has been developed. We performed fundamental evaluation of HCV core Ag method, and compared HCV core Ag method with HCV PCR high-range method. The intra-assay and inter-assay variation coefficients for HCV core Ag were calculated to be within the ranges of 1.0-11.3% and 0.8-9.3%, respectively. The test of dilution linearity revealed the unstableness in the vicinity of a cut-off level of 50 fmol/L. Based on the result of the high-range method; sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and agreement rate were 97.0%, 100%, 100%, 82.0%, and 96.5%, respectively. The correlation between the HCV core Ag method and the high-range method was r = 0.87. Cost per sample and time from sample preparation to final report for HCV core Ag were cheaper and shorter than those of HCV PCR method, respectively. We consider that the HCV core Ag method seems to be useful as the quantitative measurement of HCV with respect to rapidness, easiness and low cost.
    Keywords: Hepatitis C Antigens -- Analysis ; Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques -- Methods ; Viral Core Proteins -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0047-1860
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Biomaterials, April 2015, Vol.47, pp.62-71
    Description: The nanoscale structure-function relationship is a key determinant of bone toughness or micro-fragility. The loss of bone toughness during the aging process has been accepted based on empirical evidence, but this concept has not yet been fully supported by evidence at the material level. Here, we demonstrate a reduction in bone toughening mechanism in mimetic aged cortical bone obtained from deficient ( ) mice and assessed by dynamic mechanical analysis. The strain-rate nanoindentation tests showed enhanced stiffening of the wild-type calvarial bone and a large dimensional recovery during rapid loading following the constant displacement test. Such strain-dependent stiffening was likely associated with nanoscale dilatational bands and subsequent strain-energy transfer to the superior wild-type cross-linked collagen matrix network. The absence of dilatational bands formed by hydroxyapatite crystals and non-collagenous proteins in the bone samples likely diminished the intrinsic bone toughening mechanisms almost independent of viscoelastic behaviors. Such nanoscale structural alternations that occur during aging processes lead to crack propagation and result in overall bone fractures under large external stresses. In addition, dynamic mechanical analysis using instrumented nanoindentation was useful for the evaluation of bone mechanical properties in this pathological model of a genetic knockout mouse.
    Keywords: Bone ; Mechanical Properties ; Ageing ; Dynamic Mechanical Analysis ; Nanoindentation ; Medicine ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0142-9612
    ISSN: 20452322
    E-ISSN: 1878-5905
    E-ISSN: 20452322
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2017, Vol.12(5), p.e0178123
    Description: Sarcopenia is an aging and disease-related syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, with the risk of frailty and poor quality of life. Sarcopenia is diagnosed by a decrease in skeletal muscle index (SMI) and reduction of either handgrip strength or gait speed. However, measurement of SMI is difficult for general physicians because it requires special equipment for bioelectrical impedance assay or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to explore a novel, simple diagnostic method of sarcopenia evaluation in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD).We retrospectively investigated 132 inpatients with CVD (age: 72±12 years, age range: 27-93 years, males: 61%) Binomial logistic regression and correlation analyses were used to assess the associations of sarcopenia with simple physical data and biomarkers, including muscle-related inflammation makers and nutritional markers.Sarcopenia was present in 29.5% of the study population. Serum concentrations of adiponectin and sialic acid were significantly higher in sarcopenic than non-sarcopenic CVD patients. Stepwise multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis revealed that adiponectin, sialic acid, sex, age, and body mass index were independent factors for sarcopenia detection. Sarcopenia index, obtained from the diagnostic regression formula for sarcopenia detection including the five independent factors, indicated a high accuracy in ROC curve analysis (sensitivity 94.9%, specificity 69.9%) and the cutoff value for sarcopenia detection was -1.6134. Sarcopenia index had a significant correlation with the conventional diagnostic parameters of sarcopenia.Our new sarcopenia index using simple parameters would be useful for diagnosing sarcopenia in CVD patients.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 8
    In: Pathology International, April 2016, Vol.66(4), pp.218-223
    Description: Ovarian clear cell carcinomas often show a spherule‐like mucoid stroma. In ascitic fluid, they form spheroids with a hollow acellular space. In spite of the absence of stromal cells, both the mucoid stroma and hollow spheroids contain abundant extracellular matrix, and one of the major components is hyaluronan. It has been suggested that tumor‐derived hyaluronan plays a significant role in the formation of these structures. To clarify this, a hyaluronan inhibition assay was performed on HAC‐2, a clear cell carcinoma cell line, . When hyaluronan synthesis was inhibited by 4‐methylumbelliferone, HAC‐2 failed to show the spherule‐like accumulation of hyaluronan or hollow spheroids. Inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis was associated with the reduction of cell growth. Analysis of 28 archival ascites cytology specimens showed that clear cell carcinomas expressed hyaluronan more frequently than serous carcinomas (11 of 14 3 of 14, respectively, 〈 0.05). All of these facts indicate that tumor‐derived hyaluronan is essential for the formation of the mucoid stroma or hollow spheroids, and that hyaluronan is also involved in the regulation of cell growth in ovarian clear cell carcinomas. The inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis could be a potential adjunctive therapy for refractory clear cell carcinomas outside the ovary.
    Keywords: 4‐Methylumbelliferone ; Ascites ; Clear Cell Carcinoma ; Hollow Spheroid ; Hyaluronan ; Ovary
    ISSN: 1320-5463
    E-ISSN: 1440-1827
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: The American Journal of Human Genetics, 01 February 2018, Vol.102(2), pp.321-329
    Description: Early-onset epileptic encephalopathies, including West syndrome (WS), are a group of neurological disorders characterized by developmental impairments and intractable seizures from early infancy. We have now identified biallelic variants in three individuals with WS; these include compound-heterozygous missense and frameshift variants in a family with two affected siblings (individuals 1 and 2) and a homozygous splicing variant in a consanguineous family (individual 3). All three individuals showed hippocampal malrotation. In individuals 1 and 2, electroencephalography (EEG) revealed characteristic fast waves and diffuse sharp- and slow-wave complexes. The fast waves were clinically associated with seizures. encodes a co-chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum and regulates the subcellular distribution and responses of multiple Toll-like receptors. The amount of CNPY3 in lymphoblastoid cells derived from individuals 1 and 2 was severely lower than that in control cells. -knockout mice exhibited spastic or dystonic features under resting conditions and hyperactivity and anxiolytic behavior during the open field test. Also, their resting EEG showed enhanced activity in the fast beta frequency band (20–35 Hz), which could mimic the fast waves in individuals 1 and 2. These data suggest that and perform essential roles in brain function in addition to known Toll-like receptor-dependent immune responses.
    Keywords: Early-Onset Epileptic Encephalopathy ; West Syndrome ; Hippocampal Malrotation ; Fast Waves ; Cnpy3 ; Prat4a ; Chaperone ; Toll-Like Receptor ; Biology
    ISSN: 0002-9297
    E-ISSN: 1537-6605
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 28 May 2002, Vol.99(11), pp.7367-72
    Description: Prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)), a major cyclooxygenase product in a variety of tissues and cells, readily undergoes dehydration to yield the bioactive cyclopentenone-type PGs of the J(2)-series, such as 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2) (15d-PGJ(2)). The observation that the level of 15d-PGJ(2) increased in the tissue cells from patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis suggested that the formation of 15d-PGJ(2) may be closely associated with neuronal cell death during chronic inflammatory processes. In vitro experiments using SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells revealed that 15d-PGJ(2) induced apoptotic cell death. An oligonucleotide microarray analysis demonstrated that, in addition to the heat shock-responsive and redox-responsive genes, the p53-responsive genes, such as gadd45, cyclin G1, and cathepsin D, were significantly up-regulated in the cells treated with 15d-PGJ(2). Indeed, the 15d-PGJ(2) induced accumulation and phosphorylation of p53, which was accompanied by a preferential redistribution of the p53 protein in the nuclei of the cells and by a time-dependent increase in p53 DNA binding activity, suggesting that p53 accumulated in response to the treatment with 15d-PGJ(2) was functional. The 15d-PGJ(2)-induced accumulation of p53 resulted in the activation of a death-inducing caspase cascade mediated by Fas and the Fas ligand.
    Keywords: Apoptosis -- Drug Effects ; Immunologic Factors -- Pharmacology ; Neurons -- Physiology ; Prostaglandin D2 -- Analogs & Derivatives
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 10916490
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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