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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: PLoS One, CA: Public Library of Science
    Description: This article explores the interrelationship between the urinary microbiota and host antimicrobial peptides as mechanisms for urinary tract infection risk.
    Keywords: Resident Bacterial Communities ; Host Antimicrobial Peptides ; Urinary Tract Infection
    ISSN: 19326203
    E-ISSN: 19326203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(5), p.e36298
    Description: Lactobacillus- dominated vaginal microbiotas are associated with reproductive health and STI resistance in women, whereas altered microbiotas are associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), STI risk and poor reproductive outcomes. Putative vaginal taxa have been observed in male first-catch urine, urethral swab and coronal sulcus (CS) specimens but the significance of these observations is unclear. We used 16 S rRNA sequencing to characterize the microbiota of the CS and urine collected from 18 adolescent men over three consecutive months. CS microbiotas of most participants were more stable than their urine microbiotas and the composition of CS microbiotas were strongly influenced by circumcision. BV-associated taxa, including Atopobium , Megasphaera , Mobiluncus , Prevotella and Gemella , were detected in CS specimens from sexually experienced and inexperienced participants. In contrast, urine primarily contained taxa that were not abundant in CS specimens. Lactobacilllus and Streptococcus were major urine taxa but their abundance was inversely correlated. In contrast, Sneathia , Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma were only found in urine from sexually active participants. Thus, the CS and urine support stable and distinct bacterial communities. Finally, our results suggest that the penis and the urethra can be colonized by a variety of BV-associated taxa and that some of these colonizations result from partnered sexual activity.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Public Health And Epidemiology ; Infectious Diseases ; Microbiology ; Urology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity, July 2018, Vol.86(7)
    Description: Some members of the genus , including the human pathogen , infect multiple tissues, including the genital and gastrointestinal (GI) tracts. However, it is unknown if bacterial targeting to these sites is mediated by multifunctional or distinct chlamydial factors. We previously showed that disruption of individual large clostridial toxin homologs encoded within the plasticity zone were not critical for murine genital tract infection. Here, we assessed whether cytotoxin genes contribute to GI tropism. Infectivity and shedding of wild-type (WT) and three mutants containing nonsense mutations in different cytotoxin genes, , , and , were compared in mouse genital and GI infection models. One mutant, which had a nonsense mutation in , was highly attenuated for GI infection and had a GI 50% infectious dose (ID) that was 1,000 times greater than that of the WT. GI inoculation with this mutant failed to elicit anti-chlamydial antibodies or to protect against subsequent genital tract infection. Genome sequencing of the mutant revealed additional chromosomal mutations, and phenotyping of additional mutants suggested that the GI attenuation might be linked to a nonsense mutation in The molecular mechanism underlying this dramatic difference in tissue-tropic virulence is not fully understood. However, isolation of these mutants demonstrates that distinct chlamydial chromosomal factors mediate chlamydial tissue tropism and provides a basis for vaccine initiatives to isolate chlamydia strains that are attenuated for genital infection but retain the ability to colonize the GI tract and elicit protective immune responses.
    Keywords: Chlamydia ; Gastrointestinal Infection ; Genital Tract Immunity ; Intracellular Bacteria ; Intracellular Pathogen ; Sexually Transmitted Diseases ; Tropism ; Chlamydia Infections -- Etiology ; Chlamydia Muridarum -- Pathogenicity ; Chromosomes -- Physiology ; Gastrointestinal Diseases -- Etiology ; Reproductive Tract Infections -- Etiology
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 1098-5522
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  • 4
    In: Critical Care Medicine, 2017, Vol.45(6), pp.e543-e551
    Description: OBJECTIVES:: Characterization of urinary bacterial microbiome and antimicrobial peptides after burn injury to identify potential mechanisms leading to urinary tract infections and associated morbidities in burn patients. DESIGN:: Retrospective cohort study using human urine from control and burn subjects. SETTING:: University research laboratory. PATIENTS:: Burn patients. INTERVENTIONS:: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: Urine samples from catheterized burn patients were collected hourly for up to 40 hours. Control urine was collected from “healthy” volunteers. The urinary bacterial microbiome and antimicrobial peptide levels and activity were compared with patient outcomes. We observed a significant increase in urinary microbial diversity in burn patients versus controls, which positively correlated with a larger percent burn and with the development of urinary tract infection and sepsis postadmission, regardless of age or gender. Urinary psoriasin and β-defensin antimicrobial peptide levels were significantly reduced in burn patients at 1 and 40 hours postadmission. We observed a shift in antimicrobial peptide hydrophobicity and activity between control and burn patients when urinary fractions were tested against Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis urinary tract infection isolates. Furthermore, the antimicrobial peptide activity in burn patients was more effective against E. coli than E. faecalis. Urinary tract infection–positive burn patients with altered urinary antimicrobial peptide activity developed either an E. faecalis or Pseudomonas aeruginosa urinary tract infection, suggesting a role for urinary antimicrobial peptides in susceptibility to select uropathogens. CONCLUSIONS:: Our data reveal potential links for urinary tract infection development and several morbidities in burn patients through alterations in the urinary microbiome and antimicrobial peptides. Overall, this study supports the concept that early assessment of urinary antimicrobial peptide responses and the bacterial microbiome may be used to predict susceptibility to urinary tract infections and sepsis in burn patients.
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0090-3493
    E-ISSN: 15300293
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  • 5
    In: The ISME Journal, 2015
    Description: Vector-borne microbes are subject to the ecological constraints of two distinct microenvironments: that in the arthropod vector and that in the blood of its vertebrate host. Because the structure of bacterial communities in these two microenvironments may substantially affect the abundance of vector-borne microbes, it is important to understand the relationship between bacterial communities in both microenvironments and the determinants that shape them. We used pyrosequencing analyses to compare the structure of bacterial communities in Synosternus cleopatrae fleas and in the blood of their Gerbillus andersoni hosts. We also monitored the interindividual and seasonal variability in these bacterial communities by sampling the same individual wild rodents during the spring and again during the summer. We show that the bacterial communities in each sample type (blood, female flea or male flea) had a similar phylotype composition among host individuals, but exhibited seasonal variability that was not directly associated with host characteristics. The structure of bacterial communities in male fleas and in the blood of their rodent hosts was remarkably similar and was dominated by flea-borne Bartonella and Mycoplasma phylotypes. A lower abundance of flea-borne bacteria and the presence of Wolbachia phylotypes distinguished bacterial communities in female fleas from those in male fleas and in rodent blood. These results suggest that the overall abundance of a certain vector-borne microbe is more likely to be determined by the abundance of endosymbiotic bacteria in the vector, abundance of other vector-borne microbes co-occurring in the vector and in the host blood and by seasonal changes, than by host characteristics.
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 1751-7362
    E-ISSN: 17517370
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity, July 2015, Vol.83(7), pp.2870-81
    Description: Pathogenically diverse Chlamydia spp. can have surprisingly similar genomes. Chlamydia trachomatis isolates that cause trachoma, sexually transmitted genital tract infections (chlamydia), and invasive lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and the murine strain Chlamydia muridarum share 99% of their gene content. A region of high genomic diversity between Chlamydia spp. termed the plasticity zone (PZ) may encode niche-specific virulence determinants that dictate pathogenic diversity. We hypothesized that PZ genes might mediate the greater virulence and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) resistance of C. muridarum compared to C. trachomatis in the murine genital tract. To test this hypothesis, we isolated and characterized a series of C. muridarum PZ nonsense mutants. Strains with nonsense mutations in chlamydial cytotoxins, guaBA-add, and a phospholipase D homolog developed normally in cell culture. Two of the cytotoxin mutants were less cytotoxic than the wild type, suggesting that the cytotoxins may be functional. However, none of the PZ nonsense mutants exhibited increased IFN-γ sensitivity in cell culture or were profoundly attenuated in a murine genital tract infection model. Our results suggest that C. muridarum PZ genes are transcribed--and some may produce functional proteins--but are dispensable for infection of the murine genital tract.
    Keywords: Genome, Bacterial ; Chlamydia Infections -- Microbiology ; Chlamydia Muridarum -- Genetics ; Virulence Factors -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 1098-5522
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Body Image, March 2019, Vol.28, pp.66-75
    Description: The 10-item Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) is a widely-used measure of a facet of positive body image. Here, we examined the psychometric properties of a Bahasa Malaysia (Malay) translation of the BAS-2 in a community sample of Malaysian Malay and Chinese adults (  = 781). Participants completed the Malay BAS-2 alongside demographic items and measures of subjective happiness, life satisfaction, actual-ideal weight discrepancy (women only), drive for muscularity (men only), and internalisation of appearance ideals. Exploratory factor analyses with a Malay subsample indicated that BAS-2 scores reduced to a single dimension with all 10 items in women and men, although the factor structure was similar but not identical across sex. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the one-dimensional factor structure had adequate fit following modifications. BAS-2 scores were partially scalar invariant across sex (with no significant sex differences) and ethnicity (Malay participants had significantly higher body appreciation than Chinese participants), as well as had adequate internal consistency. Evidence of construct and incremental validity was also provided through associations with additional measures and the prediction of subjective happiness over-and-above other variables, respectively. The availability of the Malay BAS-2 should help advance research on the body appreciation construct in Malay-speaking populations.
    Keywords: Body Appreciation ; Positive Body Image ; Test Adaptation ; Malaysia ; Psychometrics ; Psychology
    ISSN: 1740-1445
    E-ISSN: 1873-6807
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: 2015, Vol.9(7), p.e0003918
    Description: Although cutaneous ulcers (CU) in the tropics is frequently attributed to Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue , the causative agent of yaws, Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of CU in yaws-endemic regions of the South Pacific islands and Africa. H . ducreyi is generally susceptible to macrolides, but CU strains persist after mass drug administration of azithromycin for yaws or trachoma. H . ducreyi also causes genital ulcers (GU) and was thought to be exclusively transmitted by microabrasions that occur during sex. In human volunteers, the GU strain 35000HP does not infect intact skin; wounds are required to initiate infection. These data led to several questions: Are CU strains a new variant of H . ducreyi or did they evolve from GU strains? Do CU strains contain additional genes that could allow them to infect intact skin? Are CU strains susceptible to azithromycin? ; To address these questions, we performed whole-genome sequencing and antibiotic susceptibility testing of 5 CU strains obtained from Samoa and Vanuatu and 9 archived class I and class II GU strains. Except for single nucleotide polymorphisms, the CU strains were genetically almost identical to the class I strain 35000HP and had no additional genetic content. Phylogenetic analysis showed that class I and class II strains formed two separate clusters and CU strains evolved from class I strains. Class I strains diverged from class II strains ~1.95 million years ago (mya) and CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP ~0.18 mya. CU and GU strains evolved under similar selection pressures. Like 35000HP, the CU strains were highly susceptible to antibiotics, including azithromycin. ; These data suggest that CU strains are derivatives of class I strains that were not recognized until recently. These findings require confirmation by analysis of CU strains from other regions. ; Cutaneous ulcers (CU) in children living in equatorial Africa and the South Pacific islands have long been attributed to yaws, which is caused by subsp. . However, PCR-based cross sectional surveys done in yaws-endemic regions show that is the leading cause of CU in these regions. . classically causes the genital ulcer (GU) disease chancroid and was once thought to be exclusively sexually transmitted. We show that CU strains obtained from Samoa and Vanuatu are genetically nearly identical to class 1 GU strains and contain no additional genetic content. The CU strains are highly susceptible to antibiotics, including azithromycin. The data suggest an urgent need to obtain and analyze CU isolates from Africa and other countries in the South Pacific and to search for environmental sources of the organism.
    Keywords: Research Article
    ISSN: 19352727
    E-ISSN: 1935-2735
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, pp. 1376-1383
    Description: Article on evidence of uncultivated bacteria in the adult female bladder.
    Keywords: Uropathogens ; Clinical Cultivation ; Uncultivated Bacteria ; Urinary Tract Conditions
    ISSN: 1098660X
    E-ISSN: 1098660X
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  • 10
    In: SHOCK, 2017, Vol.48(4), pp.441-448
    Description: INTRODUCTION:: The cutaneous microbiome maintains skin barrier function, regulates inflammation, and stimulates wound-healing responses. Burn injury promotes an excessive activation of the cutaneous and systemic immune response directed against commensal and invading pathogens. Skin grafting is the primary method of reconstructing full-thickness burns, and wound infection continues to be a significant complication. METHODS:: In this study, the cutaneous bacterial microbiome was evaluated and subsequently compared to patient outcomes. Three different full-thickness skin specimens were assessed: control skin from non-burned subjects; burn margin from burn patients; and autologous donor skin from the same cohort of burn patients. RESULTS:: We observed that skin bacterial community structure of burn patients was significantly altered compared with control patients. We determined that the unburned autologous donor skin from burn patients exhibits a microbiome similar to that of the burn margin, rather than unburned controls, and that changes in the cutaneous microbiome statistically correlate with several post-burn complications. We established that Corynebacterium positively correlated with burn wound infection, while Staphylococcus and Propionibacterium negatively correlated with burn wound infection. Both Corynebacterium and Enterococcus negatively correlated with the development of sepsis. CONCLUSIONS:: This study identifies distinct differences in the cutaneous microbiome between burn subjects and unburned controls, and ascertains that select bacterial taxa significantly correlate with several comorbid complications of burn injury. These preliminary data suggest that grafting donor skin exhibiting bacterial dysbiosis may augment infection and/or graft failure and sets the foundation for more in-depth and mechanistic analyses in presumably “healthy” donor skin from patients requiring skin grafting procedures.
    Keywords: Adult–Etiology ; Autografts–Microbiology ; Bacterial Infections–Mortality ; Burns–Therapy ; Female–Microbiology ; Gastrointestinal Microbiome–Mortality ; Graft Survival–Surgery ; Humans–Etiology ; Male–Microbiology ; Middle Aged–Mortality ; Sepsis–Therapy ; Skin Transplantation–Microbiology ; Wound Infection–Mortality ; Wound Infection–Therapy;
    ISSN: 1073-2322
    E-ISSN: 15400514
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