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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 15 November 2011, Vol.45(22), pp.9550-7
    Description: Formation of ternary complexes between arsenic (As) oxyanions and ferric iron (Fe) complexes of humic substances (HS) is often hypothesized to represent a major mechanism for As-HS interactions under oxic conditions. However, direct evidence for this potentially important binding mechanism is still lacking. To investigate the molecular-scale interaction between arsenate, As(V), and HS in the presence of Fe(III), we reacted fulvic and humic acids with Fe(III) (1 wt %) and equilibrated the Fe(III)-HS complexes formed with As(V) at pH 7 (molar Fe/As ~10). The local (〈5 Å) coordination environments of As and Fe were subsequently studied by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Our results show that 4.5-12.5 μmol As(V)/g HS (25-70% of total As) was associated with Fe(III). At least 70% of this As pool was bound to Fe(III)-HS complexes via inner-sphere complexation. Results obtained from shell fits of As K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra were consistent with a monodentate binuclear ((2)C) and monodentate mononuclear ((1)V) complex stabilized by H-bonds (R(As-Fe) = 3.30 Å). The analysis of Fe K-edge EXAFS spectra revealed that Fe in Fe(III)-HS complexes was predominantly present as oligomeric Fe(III) clusters at neutral pH. Shell-fit results complied with a structural motif in which three corner-sharing Fe(O,OH)(6) octahedra linked by a single μ(3)-O bridge form a planar Fe trimer. In these complexes, the average Fe-C and Fe-Fe bond distances were 2.95 Å and 3.47 Å, respectively. Our study provides the first spectroscopic evidence for ternary complex formation between As(V) and Fe(III)-HS complexes, suggesting that this binding mechanism is of fundamental importance for the cycling of oxyanions such as As(V) in organic-rich, oxic soils and sediments.
    Keywords: Arsenates -- Chemistry ; Ferric Compounds -- Chemistry ; Humic Substances -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 07 October 2014, Vol.48(19), pp.11320-9
    Description: Elevated solution concentrations of As in anoxic natural systems are usually accompanied by microbially mediated As(V), Mn(III/IV), and Fe(III) reduction. The microbially mediated reductive dissolution of Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides mainly liberates sorbed As(V) which is subsequently reduced to As(III). Manganese oxides have been shown to rapidly oxidize As(III) and Fe(II) under oxic conditions, but their net effect on the microbially mediated reductive release of As and Fe is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the microbial reduction of As(V)-bearing ferrihydrite (molar As/Fe: 0.05; Fe tot: 32.1 mM) by Shewanella sp. ANA-3 (10(8) cells/mL) in the presence of different concentrations of birnessite (Mn tot: 0, 0.9, 3.1 mM) at circumneutral pH over 397 h using wet-chemical analyses and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Additional abiotic experiments were performed to explore the reactivity of birnessite toward As(III) and Fe(II) in the presence of Mn(II), Fe(II), ferrihydrite, or deactivated bacterial cells. Compared to the birnessite-free control, the highest birnessite concentration resulted in 78% less Fe and 47% less As reduction at the end of the biotic experiment. The abiotic oxidation of As(III) by birnessite (k initial = 0.68 ± 0.31/h) was inhibited by Mn(II) and ferrihydrite, and lowered by Fe(II) and bacterial cell material. In contrast, the oxidation of Fe(II) by birnessite proceeded equally fast under all conditions (k initial = 493 ± 2/h) and was significantly faster than the oxidation of As(III). We conclude that in the presence of birnessite, microbially produced Fe(II) is rapidly reoxidized and precipitates as As-sequestering ferrihydrite. Our findings imply that the ability of Mn-oxides to oxidize As(III) in water-logged soils and sediments is limited by the formation of ferrihydrite and surface passivation processes.
    Keywords: Arsenic -- Chemistry ; Ferric Compounds -- Chemistry ; Iron -- Chemistry ; Oxides -- Chemistry ; Shewanella -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 2013, Vol.47(21), pp.12165-73
    Description: The speciation of As in wetlands is often controlled by natural organic matter (NOM), which can form strong complexes with Fe(III). Here, we elucidated the molecular-scale interaction of arsenite (As(III)) with Fe(III)-NOM complexes under reducing conditions. We reacted peat (40-250 μm size fraction, 1.0 g Fe/kg) with 0-15 g Fe/kg at pH 〈2, removed nonreacted Fe, and subsequently equilibrated the Fe(III) complexes formed with 900 mg As/kg peat at pH 7.0, 8.4, and 8.8. The solid-phase speciation of Fe and As was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (Fe) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (As, Fe). Our results show that the majority of Fe in the peat was present as mononuclear Fe(III) species (RFe-C = 2.82-2.88 Å), probably accompanied by small Fe(III) clusters of low nuclearity (RFe-Fe = 3.25-3.46 Å) at high pH and elevated Fe contents. The amount of As(III) retained by the original peat was 161 mg As/kg, which increased by up to 250% at pH 8.8 and an Fe loading of 7.3 g/kg. With increasing Fe content of peat, As(III) increasingly formed bidentate mononuclear (RAs-Fe = 2.88-2.94 Å) and monodentate binuclear (RAs-Fe = 3.35-3.41 Å) complexes with Fe, thus yielding direct evidence of ternary complex formation. The ternary complex formation went along with a ligand exchange reaction between As(III) and hydroxylic/phenolic groups of the peat (RAs-C = 2.70-2.77 Å). Our findings thus provide spectroscopic evidence for two yet unconfirmed As(III)-NOM interaction mechanisms, which may play a vital role in the cycling of As in sub- and anoxic NOM-rich environments such as peatlands, peaty sediments, swamps, or rice paddies.
    Keywords: Arsenites -- Metabolism ; Ferric Compounds -- Chemistry ; Soil -- Chemistry ; Soil Pollutants -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 01 April 2014, Vol.48(7), pp.3822-31
    Description: Binding of arsenite (As(III)) to sulfhydryl groups (Sorg(-II)) plays a key role in As detoxification mechanisms of plants and microorganisms, As remediation techniques, and reduced environmental systems rich in natural organic matter. Here, we studied the formation of Sorg(-II)-As(III) complexes on a sulfhydryl model adsorbent (Ambersep GT74 resin) in the absence and presence of ferrihydrite as a competing mineral adsorbent under reducing conditions and tested their stability against oxidation in air. Adsorption of As(III) onto the resin was studied in the pH range 4.0-9.0. On the basis of As X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) results, a surface complexation model describing the pH dependence of As(III) binding to the organic adsorbent was developed. Stability constants (log K) determined for dithio ((AmbS)2AsO(-)) and trithio ((AmbS)3As) surface complexes were 8.4 and 7.3, respectively. The ability of sulfhydryl ligands to compete with ferrihydrite for As(III) was tested in various anoxic mixtures of both adsorbents at pH 7.0. At a 1:1 ratio of their reactive binding sites, R-SH and ≡FeOH, both adsorbents possessed nearly identical affinities for As(III). The oxidation of Sorg(-II)-As(III) complexes in water vapor saturated air over 80 days, monitored by As and S XAS, revealed that the complexed As(III) is stabilized against oxidation (t1/2 = 318 days). Our results thus document that sulfhydryl ligands are highly competitive As(III) complexing agents that can stabilize As in its reduced oxidation state even under prolonged oxidizing conditions. These findings are particularly relevant for organic S-rich semiterrestrial environments subject to periodic redox potential changes such as peatlands, marshes, and estuaries.
    Keywords: Models, Theoretical ; Arsenites -- Chemistry ; Ferric Compounds -- Chemistry ; Sulfhydryl Compounds -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Science and Technology, 06 September 2016, Vol.50(17)
    Description: Reductive release of the potentially toxic metalloid As from Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides has been identified as an important process leading to elevated As porewater concentrations in soils and sediments. Despite the ubiquitous presence of Mn oxides in soils and their oxidizing power toward As(III), their impact on interrelated As, Fe, and Mn speciation under microbially reducing conditions remains largely unknown. For this reason, we employed a column setup and X-ray absorption spectroscopy to investigate the influence of increasing birnessite concentrations (molar soil Fe-to-Mn ratios: 4.8, 10.2, and 24.7) on As speciation and release from an As-contaminated floodplain soil (214 mg As/kg) under anoxic conditions. Our results show that birnessite additions significantly decreased As leaching. The reduction of both As and Fe was delayed, and As(III) accumulated in birnessite-rich column parts, indicating the passivation of birnessite and its transformation products toward As(III) oxidation and the precipitation of Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides. Microbial Mn reduction resulted in elevated soil pH values, which in turn lowered the microbial activity in the birnessite-enriched soil. We conclude that in Mn-oxide-rich soil environments undergoing redox fluctuations, the enhanced As adsorption to newly formed Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides under reducing conditions leads to a transient stabilization of As.
    Keywords: Engineering ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0013-936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Environ. Sci. Technol, 09 April 2013, Vol.47((7) ; 04, 2013)
    Description: Short-range ordered ferric arsenate (FeAsO4 · xH2O) is a secondary As precipitate frequently encountered in acid mine waste environments. Two distinct structural models have recently been proposed for this phase. The first model is based on the structure of scorodite (FeAsO4 · 2H2O) where isolated FeO6 octahedra share corners with four adjacent arsenate (AsO4) tetrahedra in a three-dimensional framework (framework model). The second model consists of single chains of corner-sharing FeO6 octahedra being bridged by AsO4 bound in a monodentate binuclear (2)C complex (chain model). In order to rigorously test the accuracy of both structural models, we synthesized ferric arsenates and analyzed their local (〈6 Å) structure by As and Fe K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. We found that both As and Fe K-edge EXAFS spectra were most compatible with isolated FeO6 octahedra being bridged by AsO4 tetrahedra (RFe-As = 3.33 ± 0.01 Å). Our shell-fit results further indicated a lack of evidence for single corner-sharing FeO6 linkages in ferric arsenate. Wavelet-transform analyses of the Fe K-edge EXAFS spectra of ferric arsenates complemented by shell fitting confirmed Fe atoms at an average distance of ∼5.3 Å, consistent with crystallographic data of scorodite and in disagreement with the chain model. A scorodite-type local structure of short-range ordered ferric arsenates provides a plausible explanation for their rapid transformation into scorodite in acid mining environments.
    Keywords: X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy ; Arsenates -- Chemistry ; Ferric Compounds -- Chemistry;
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 15205851
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Science and Technology, 02 January 2018, Vol.52(2)
    Description: X-ray amorphous Fe(III)-As(V) coprecipitates are common initial products of oxidative As- and Fe-bearing sulfide weathering, and often control As solubility in mine wastes or mining-impacted soils. The formation conditions of these solids may exert a major control on their mineralogical composition and, hence, As release in the gastric tract of humans after incidental ingestion of As-contaminated soil. Here, we synthesized a set of 35 Fe(III)-As(V) coprecipitates as a function of pH (1.5-8) and initial molar Fe/As ratio (0.8-8.0). The solids were characterized by synchrotron X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, and electrophoretic mobility measurements, and their As bioaccessibility (BAAs) was evaluated using the gastric-phase Solubility/Bioavailability Research Consortium in vitro assay (SBRC-G). The coprecipitates contained 1.01-4.51 mol kg-1 As (molar Fe/Assolid: 1.00-8.29) and comprised varying proportions of X-ray amorphous hydrous ferric arsenates (HFAam) and As(V)-adsorbed ferrihydrite. HFAam was detected up to pH 6 and its fraction decreased with increasing pH and molar Fe/As ratio. Bioaccessible As ranged from 2.9 to 7.3% of total As (x = 4.8%). The BAAs of coprecipitates formed at pH ≤ 4 was highest at formation pH 3 and 4 and controlled by the intrinsically high solubility of the HFAam component, possibly enhanced by sorbed sulfate. In contrast, the BAAs of coprecipitates dominated by As(V)-adsorbed ferrihydrite was much lower and controlled by As readsorption and/or surface precipitation in the gastric fluid. Bioaccessible As increased up to 95% with increasing liquid-to-solid ratio, indicating an enhanced solubility of these solids due to interactions between Fe and the glycine buffer. We conclude (i) that natural Fe(III)-As(V) coprecipitates exhibit a particularly high solubility in the human gastric tract when formed at pH ~ 3-4 in the presence of sulfate, and (ii) that the in vitro bioaccessibility of As in Fe(III)-As(V) coprecipitates as assessed by tbe SBRC-G assay depends critically on their solid-phase concentration in As-contaminated soil and mine-waste materials.
    Keywords: Engineering ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0013-936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 19 November 2013, Vol.47(22), pp.13201-2
    Keywords: X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy ; Arsenates -- Chemistry ; Ferric Compounds -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Environ. Sci. Technol, 18 November 2014, Vol.48((22) ; 11, 2014)
    Description: Floodplain soils are frequently contaminated with metal(loid)s due to present or historic mining, but data on the bioaccessibility (BA) of contaminants in these periodically flooded soils are scarce. Therefore, we studied the speciation of As and Fe in eight As-contaminated circumneutral floodplain soils ( less than or equal to 21600 mg As/kg) and their size fractions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and examined the BA of As in the solids by in-vitro gastrointestinal (IVG) extractions. Arsenopyrite and As(V)-adsorbed ferrihydrite were identified by XAS as the predominant As species. The latter was the major source for bioaccessible As, which accounted for 5-35% of the total As. The amount of bioaccessible As increased with decreasing particle size and was controlled by the slow dissolution kinetics of ferrihydrite in the gastric environment (pH 1.8). The relative BA of As (% of total) decreased with decreasing particle size only in a highly As-contaminated soil -- which supported by Fe XAS -- suggests the formation of As-rich hydrous ferric oxides in the gastric extracts. Multiple linear regression analyses identified Al, total As, Corg, and P as main predictors for the absolute BA of As (adjusted R2 less than or equal to 0.977). Health risk assessments for residential adults showed that (i) nearly half of the bulk soils may cause adverse health effects and (ii) particles 〈5 mu m pose the highest absolute health threat upon incidental soil ingestion. Owing to their low abundance, however, health risks were primarily associated with particles in the 5-50 and 100-200 mu m size ranges. These particles are easily mobilized from riverbanks during flooding events and dispersed within the floodplain or transported downstream.
    Keywords: Flood Plains ; Environmental Sciences ; Regression Analysis ; Spectroscopy ; Particle Size ; Rivers ; Flooded Soils ; Abundance ; Environmental Impact ; Particulates ; Ingestion ; Soil ; Health Risks ; Absorption Spectroscopy ; Flood Plains ; River Banks ; Kinetics ; Ph ; Flood Plains ; Speciation ; Risk ; Arsenic ; Public Health ; Assessments ; Soil Contamination ; Particle Size ; Solids ; Flood Plains ; Speciation ; Risk ; Arsenic ; Public Health ; Assessments ; Soil Contamination ; Particle Size ; Solids ; Freshwater Pollution ; Natural Hazards ; General (556) ; Toxicology & Environmental Safety ; Epidemiology and Public Health ; Water Resources and Supplies ; Data Acquisition;
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 15205851
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 20 June 2017, Vol.51(12), pp.6897-6907
    Description: In freshwater wetlands, organic flocs are often found enriched in trace metal(loid)s associated with poorly crystalline Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides. Under reducing conditions, flocs may become exposed to aqueous Fe(II), triggering Fe(II)-catalyzed mineral transformations and trace metal(loid) release. In this study, pure ferrihydrite, a synthetic ferrihydrite-polygalacturonic acid coprecipitate (16.7 wt % C), and As- (1280 and 1230 mg/kg) and organic matter (OM)-rich (18.1 and 21.8 wt % C) freshwater flocs dominated by ferrihydrite and nanocrystalline lepidocrocite were reacted with an isotopically enriched Fe(II) solution (0.1 or 1.0 mM Fe(II)) at pH 5.5 and 7. Using a combination of wet chemistry, Fe isotope analysis, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, we followed the Fe atom exchange kinetics and secondary mineral formation over 1 week. When reacted with Fe(II) at pH 7, pure ferrihydrite exhibited rapid Fe atom exchange at both Fe(II) concentrations, reaching 76 and 89% atom exchange in experiments with 0.1 and 1 mM Fe(II), respectively. XAS data revealed that it transformed into goethite (21%) at the lower Fe(II) concentration and into lepidocrocite (73%) and goethite (27%) at the higher Fe(II) concentration. Despite smaller Fe mineral particles in the coprecipitate and flocs as compared to pure ferrihydrite (inferred from Mössbauer-derived blocking temperatures), these samples showed reduced Fe atom exchange (9-30% at pH 7) and inhibited secondary mineral formation. No release of As was recorded for Fe(II)-reacted flocs. Our findings indicate that carbohydrate-rich OM in flocs stabilizes poorly crystalline Fe minerals against Fe(II)-catalyzed transformation by surface-site blockage and/or organic Fe(II) complexation. This hinders the extent of Fe atom exchange at mineral surfaces and secondary mineral formation, which may consequently impair Fe(II)-activated trace metal(loid) release. Thus, under short-term Fe(III)-reducing conditions facilitating the fast attainment of solid-solution equilibria (e.g., in stagnant waters), Fe-rich freshwater flocs are expected to remain an effective sink for trace elements.
    Keywords: Fresh Water ; Iron ; Iron Isotopes
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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