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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Annals of Forest Science, 2019, Vol.76(2), pp.1-9
    Description: Key message The NFIWADS database contains aggregated results for the German National Forest Inventory (NFI) plots based on process-based water balance simulations. More than 150 water budget, soil moisture, and drought stress indicators were derived for mature, closed-canopy beech and spruce stands, and provide a basis for the assessment of forest productivity and risks. Dataset is available in the Open Agrar repository (Schmidt-Walter et al 2018) athttps://www.openagrar.de/receive/openagrar_mods_00044576. Associated metadata is available athttps://metadata-afs.nancy.inra.fr/geonetwork/srv/fre/catalog.search#/metadata/2f09d81c-b663-48a0-8b84-0b247bba6d35.
    Keywords: Forest inventory ; Soil water availability ; Water balance ; Drought stress ; Climate change
    ISSN: 1286-4560
    E-ISSN: 1297-966X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 15 October 2014, Vol.330, pp.283-293
    Description: Future climate projections for Central Europe indicate a decrease in summer precipitation which might range between 15% and 50%, and equally important, changes in the climate variability, resulting in consecutive years with drought periods. With respect to Central European forests, we asked to which degree realistic drought conditions are tolerated by the recruits of the dominant tree species L , and how the effects depend on biotic interactions. To test the combined effects of drought, competition and provenance of recruits we set up a rain shelter experiment at three sites in different regions of Germany. Transposable roof panels allowed a flexible precipitation reduction between 10% and 70% corresponding with a return period of 40 years. We planted saplings of three provenances, exposed them to drought and competition. We tested if understorey herbaceous competitors have a negative impact on saplings, and thus, exacerbate drought effects and that provenances from drier regions are adapted to drought conditions and cope better with drought conditions. Six months after the drought treatment started, we encountered significant drought effects, seen in a reduced leaf stomatal conductance, although there was not yet a response in growth rates. Overall, the site had the greatest impact on phytometer performance, while we found no indication of adaptation to drought of the different provenances. Furthermore, drought effects increased in interaction with site effects, being highest at the driest site. At the driest site, leaf stomatal conductance decreased in the presence of competition but increased in the control subplots, while the site of intermediate moisture conditions showed the opposite pattern and the wettest site displayed no differences. Our results highlight the fact that biotic interactions can mitigate or exacerbate drought effects, depending on regional site conditions.
    Keywords: Global Change ; Fagus Sylvatica ; Drought ; Forest Understory ; Competition ; Provenances ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Annals of Forest Science, 2018, Vol.75(1), pp.1-18
    Description: Key message Understory plant communities are essential for the recruitment of trees making up future forests. Independent of plant diversity, the understory across different forest ecosystems shows considerable physiological acclimation and structural stability towards drought events, which are expected to occur more frequently in future. Context Understory plant communities are essential for the recruitment of trees making up the future forest. It is so far poorly understood how climate change will affect understory in beech and conifer forests managed at different intensity levels. Aims We hypothesized that drought would affect transpiration and carbon isotope discrimination but not species richness and diversity. Moreover, we assumed that forest management intensity will modify the responses to drought of the understory community. Methods We set up roofs in forests with a gradient of management intensities (unmanaged beech—managed beech—intensively managed conifer forests) in three regions across Germany. A drought event close to the 2003 drought was imposed in two consecutive years. Results After 2 years, the realized precipitation reduction was between 27% and 34%. The averaged water content in the top 20 cm of the soil under the roof was reduced by 2% to 8% compared with the control. In the 1st year, leaf level transpiration was reduced for different functional groups, which scaled to community transpiration modified by additional effects of drought on functional group leaf area. Acclimation effects in most functional groups were observed in the 2nd year. Conclusion Forest understory shows high plasticity at the leaf and community level, and high structural stability to changing climate conditions with drought events.
    Keywords: Climate change ; Herb layer ; Stable carbon isotope ; Functional traits ; Diversity
    ISSN: 1286-4560
    E-ISSN: 1297-966X
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Annals of Forest Science, 12/2017, Vol.74(4)
    Description: Key message The combination of technical treatments and planting of alder trees in a compacted forest soil improves the circulation of air and water through the pore system. This leads to decreases in CO2concentrations and increases in root growth in the soil. Both are indicative of an initial recovery of soil structure. Context The compaction of forest soils, caused by forest machinery, has as a principal consequence: the destruction of soil structure and thus the reduction of the soil aeration status. Thus, the gas exchange between soil and atmosphere is reduced and the depth propagation of roots is limited, resulting in the shortage of water and nutrient supplies for trees. Aims This research aimed at detecting the first stages of recovery of soil structure in a compacted forest soil, which was treated with a combination of techniques (i.e., planting tree species, mulching, addition of lime), which could presumably accelerate the regeneration of soil structure. Methods The variation of CO2 concentrations and the dynamics of root growth were repeatedly measured. Linear mixed models were developed in order to test the effects of the treatments and the planting of trees on soil aeration, as well as to identify the influence of the different environmental effects on CO2 concentration in soil. Results The planting of root-active trees showed significant effects on decreases in CO2 concentrations. However, during the short-term observation, some negative effects occurred especially for the mulched sites. Nevertheless, all applied technical treatments promoted an improved soil aeration and a higher root growth compared to untreated sites which points to an initial enhanced recovery of soil structure. Pronounced seasonal and interannual variations of soil respiration were highly influenced by soil temperature and soil water content variations. Conclusion An initial regeneration of soil structure is indicated by distinct changes of the soil aeration status. This regeneration is partially enhanced by the applied treatments. The quantitative potential of the regeneration techniques needs a longer observation period for mid- and long-term soil recoveries.
    Keywords: Water Circulation ; Soil Compaction ; Propagation ; Soil Compaction ; Soil Temperature ; Soil Temperature ; Water Depth ; Soil Water ; Aeration ; Soil Water ; Gas Exchange ; Moisture Content ; Carbon Dioxide ; Forest Soils ; Trees ; Soil Aeration ; Soil Lime ; Forests ; Soil Structure ; Variation ; Trees ; Gas Exchange ; Compacted Soils ; Gas Exchange ; Forest Soils ; Water Content ; Environmental Effects ; Planting ; Soil Temperature ; Aeration ; Environmental Effects ; Environmental Effects ; Recovery ; Machinery ; Machinery ; Carbon Dioxide ; Soil Improvement ; Soil Structure ; Soil Structure ; Water Content ; Annual Variations ; Soil Aeration ; Trees ; Regeneration ; Forests ; Moisture Content ; Carbon Dioxide ; Atmospheric Models ; Aeration ; Planting ; Soil Dynamics ; Compacted Forest Soils ; Co2concentrations ; Root Growth ; Rhizotron Window ; Soil Temperature ; Soil Water Tension;
    ISSN: 1286-4560
    E-ISSN: 1297-966X
    Source: Springer (via CrossRef)
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