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  • Forests
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Forest Research, 2005, Vol.124(4), pp.261-271
    Description: Based on the results of the atmospheric deposition classification of the year 1989, a methodical approach should be introduced, which—based on the modelled total deposition rates—enables us to characterise the input situation of forest monitoring plots and to delimit load areas in Germany. In 1989, the deposition situation in nearly 1,800 forest monitoring sites (BZE/extensive Soil Condition Inventory) in Germany could be explained by four factors (or three, excluding sea salt impact) with the help of a factor analysis. The factor values were grouped into six deposition types with typical compounds and regional patterns. The classified input rates of the soil inventory plots adequately represent the stress situation and deposition changes in Germany. The application of the statistical approach on the level of Brandenburg clarifies the special local input situation. Due to the special combination of deposed elements, the sources of emissions can be characterised as well. When the soil inventory is repeated, a project planned for 2006, this approach can be used in order to determine homogenous areas for stratified data evaluation.
    Keywords: Atmospheric deposition ; Emissions ; Multivariate statistics ; Germany ; Brandenburg ; Forest ; Monitoring
    ISSN: 1612-4669
    E-ISSN: 1612-4677
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  • 2
    In: Global Change Biology, August 2014, Vol.20(8), pp.2644-2662
    Description: The ational orest oil nventory () provides the reenhouse as eporting in ermany with a quantitative assessment of organic carbon () stocks and changes in forest soils. Carbon stocks of the organic layer and the mineral topsoil (30 cm) were estimated on the basis of ca. 1.800 plots sampled from 1987 to 1992 and resampled from 2006 to 2008 on a nationwide grid of 8 × 8 km. Organic layer stock estimates were attributed to surveyed forest stands and land cover data. Mineral soil stock estimates were linked with the distribution of dominant soil types according to the oil ap of ermany (1 : 1 000 000) and subsequently related to the forest area. It appears that the pool of the organic layer was largely depending on tree species and parent material, whereas the pool of the mineral soil varied among soil groups. We identified the organic layer pool as stable although was significantly sequestered under coniferous forest at lowland sites. The mineral soils, however, sequestered 0.41 Mg C ha yr. Carbon pool changes were supposed to depend on stand age and forest transformation as well as an enhanced biomass input. Carbon stock changes were clearly attributed to parent material and soil groups as sandy soils sequestered higher amounts of , whereas clayey and calcareous soils showed small gains and in some cases even losses of soil . We further showed that the largest part of the overall sample variance was not explained by fine‐earth stock variances, rather by the concentrations variance. The applied uncertainty analyses in this study link the variability of strata with measurement errors. In accordance to other studies for entral urope, the results showed that the applied method enabled a reliable nationwide quantification of the soil pool development for a certain period.
    Keywords: C/N Ratio ; Carbon Sequestration ; Carbon Stocks ; Forest Stand Type ; Mineral Soil ; Nation Forest Soil Inventory ; Organic Layer ; Soil Groups ; Soil Organic Matter ; Soil Survey ; Tree Species ; Uncertainties
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Environmental monitoring and assessment, January 2014, Vol.186(1), pp.257-75
    Description: The consistency of visual assessment of tree defoliation, which represents the most widely used indicator for tree condition, has frequently been in the focus of scientific criticism. Thus, the objective of the present study was to examine the consistency of the defoliation data from the annual national training courses for the forest condition survey in Germany from 1992 to 2012. Defoliation assessments were carried out in stands of beech (Fagus sylvatica), oak (Quercus robur and Quercus petraea), Norway spruce (Picea abies), and pine (Pinus sylvestris). Among the observer teams, the absolute deviation from the observer mean of all years was ±4.4 % defoliation and the standard deviation of defoliation was ±5.5 %. On average, 94 % of the assessments were located within the ±10 % interval of deviation from the mean. Tree species-specific differences did not occur when all years were considered. A trend towards increasing consistency was observed from 1992 to 2012, in particular for oak and spruce. The deviation of defoliation assessments depended non-linearly on the level of defoliation with highest deviations at intermediate defoliations. In spite of high correlations and agreements among observers, systematic errors were determined in nearly every year. However, within-observer variances were higher than between-observer variances. The present study applied a three-way evaluation approach for the assessment of consistency and demonstrated that the visual defoliation assessment at the national training courses in general produced consistent data within Germany from 1992 to 2012.
    Keywords: Environmental Monitoring -- Methods ; Forestry -- Education ; Trees -- Physiology
    ISSN: 01676369
    E-ISSN: 1573-2959
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Central European Forestry Journal, 01 June 2017, Vol.63(2-3), pp.105-112
    Description: Close to one third of Germany is forested. Forests are able to store significant quantities of carbon (C) in the biomass and in the soil. Coordinated by the Thünen Institute, the German National Forest Inventory (NFI) and the National Forest Soil Inventory (NFSI) have generated data to estimate the carbon storage capacity of forests. The second NFI started in 2002 and had been repeated in 2012. The reporting time for the NFSI was 1990 to 2006. Living forest biomass, deadwood, litter and soils up to a depth of 90 cm have stored 2500 t of carbon within the reporting time. Over all 224 t C ha-1 in aboveground and belowground biomass, deadwood and soil are stored in forests. Specifically, 46% stored in above-ground and below-ground biomass, 1% in dead wood and 53% in the organic layer together with soil up to 90 cm. Carbon stocks in mineral soils up to 30 cm mineral soil increase about 0.4 t C ha-1 yr-1 stocks between the inventories while the carbon pool in the organic layers declined slightly. In the living biomass carbon stocks increased about 1.0 t C ha-1 yr-1. In Germany, approximately 58 mill. tonnes of CO2 were sequestered in 2012 (NIR 2017).
    Keywords: Forests Ecosystems ; Soil ; Carbon Stocks ; Germany ; National Forests Inventory ; National Forests Soil Inventory
    ISSN: 2454034X
    E-ISSN: 2454-0358
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Forest Research, 2005, Vol.124(4), pp.251-260
    Description: In the 1970s unexpected forest damages, called “new type of forest damage” or “forest decline”, were observed in Germany and other European countries. The Federal Republic of Germany and the German Federal States implemented a forest monitoring system in the early 1980s, in order to monitor and assess the forest condition. Due to the growing public awareness of possible adverse effects of air pollution on forests, in 1985 the ICP Forests was launched under the convention on long-range transboundary air pollution (CLRTAP) of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN-ECE). The German experience in forest monitoring was a base for the implementation of the European monitoring system. In 2001 the interdisciplinary case study “concept and feasibility study for the integrated evaluation of environmental monitoring data in forests”, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, concentrated on in-depths evaluations of the German data of forest monitoring. The objectives of the study were: (a) a reliable assessment of the vitality and functioning of forest ecosystems, (b) the identification and quantification of factors influencing forest vitality, and (c) the clarification of cause-effect-relationships leading to leaf/needle loss. For these purposes additional data from external sources were acquired: climate and deposition, for selected level I plots tree growth data, as well as data on groundwater quality. The results show that in particular time series analysis (crown condition, tree growth, and tree ring analysis), in combination with climate and deposition are valuable and informative, as well as integrated evaluation of soil, tree nutrition and crown condition data. Methods to combine information from the extensive and the intensive monitoring, and to transfer process information to the large scale should be elaborated in future.
    Keywords: Environmental monitoring ; Data management ; Forest growth ; Critical loads ; Regionalization ; Integrated evaluation ; Modelling ; Forest vitality ; Crown condition
    ISSN: 1612-4669
    E-ISSN: 1612-4677
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