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  • Gagea
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Plant Systematics and Evolution, 2013, Vol.299(2), pp.413-438
    Description: The genus Gagea Salisb. is the largest amongst Liliaceae, including 50–300 species. This genus can be subdivided into at least 14 sections: among them, there is the species-rich, relatively late-branching monophyletic sect. Didymobulbos . Most of species and putative hybrids within this section were included in this study for a total of about 148 accessions (corresponding to 35 taxa), almost all collected across the Euro-Mediterranean area. Thirty-seven morpho-anatomical and ontogenetic characters were considered, together with the cpDNA ( trn L– trn F IGS, psb A– trn H IGS) and nrDNA (ITS region) molecular markers. Bayesian analysis revealed the phylogenetic relationships among Didymobulbos taxa, allowing us to demonstrate new circumscriptions of critical species complexes, such as those of G. chrysantha Schult. & Schult.f., G. dubia A. Terracc. and G. granatellii (Parl.) Parl. Also the prominent role played in this section by reticulate evolution is further highlighted: many taxa, often unexpectedly, are inferred to represent hybrids (31 % of investigated taxa). The division into series cannot be maintained as we found extensive molecular evidence of hybridization between them. A new taxonomic setting for Gagea sect. Didymobulbos is proposed, and five new species are described.
    Keywords: Gagea ; Liliaceae ; ITS ; Karyology ; Networks ; Phylogeny ; Taxonomy ; L–F IGS ; A–H IGS
    ISSN: 0378-2697
    E-ISSN: 1615-6110
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Organisms Diversity & Evolution, 2011, Vol.11(5), pp.387-407
    Description: A new region of speciation for the genus Gagea (Liliaceae) was investigated (Bogda-Shan and Urumqi; northwestern Xinjiang, China). Two species were recorded as new for the region ( G. rufidula , G. davlianidzeae ); three species are described as new to science ( G. angelae, G. jensii and G. huochengensis ). The description of G. nigra is emendated. Sequence data (cpDNA: trn L- trn F IGS+ psb A- trn H IGS, nrDNA: ITS), including representatives of all Gagea sections, were used to compare the new species with closely related taxa. A nuclear single copy gene region (pCOS At 103) was analysed for representatives of the Sects. Minimae and Gagea . Network analysis of cpDNA and nDNA indicates hybridization and recent speciation in Xinjiang. ITS and pCOS At 103 sequences reveal gene flow between G. davlianidzeae and G. nigra . A cpDNA haplotype network constructed from representatives of Sect. Gagea was highly informative phylogenetically. Gagea angelae and G . huochengensis , sharing gene flow, are related closely to a basal clade represented by G. ancestralis , G. xiphoidea and G. capusii , which may include the putative progenitor of all other taxa of the large Eurasian Sect. Gagea . Whereas speciation in Sect. Minimae seems to be driven mainly by hybridization, speciation in the Sect. Gagea may be influenced by both hybridization and geographical separation. We confirm the monophyly of Sects. Bulbiferae and Minimae .
    Keywords: cpDNA ; Gagea ; hybridization ; ITS ; Liliales ; At ; speciation
    ISSN: 1439-6092
    E-ISSN: 1618-1077
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Plant Systematics and Evolution, 2016, Vol.302(8), pp.985-1007
    Description: The most important center of speciation in the genus Gagea is thought to be in Central Asia. Here, we focus on species diversity in southeastern Kazakhstan (around Almaty, Ili-Alatau range of the Western Tian-Shan mountains). We studied an elevational transect, reaching from lowland steppes to the alpine zone (500–2750 m a. s. l.), and carried out detailed morphological and molecular investigations for populations of Gagea spp. Nine species were identified in different altitudinal zones; one of these ( Gagea almaatensis ) is described as new to science. We could detect two altitudinal contact zones between closely related species: G . filiformis and G. granulosa (sect. Minima e), and G . almaatensis and G. kuraminica (sect. Gagea ). Morphological and molecular investigations (ITS data and cpDNA networks) indicate ongoing hybridization of co-occurring G. filiformis into G. granulosa and putative bidirectional hybridization events between G. almaatensis and G. kuraminica.
    Keywords: cpDNA ; Gagea ; Hybridization ; ITS ; Phylogeny ; Taxonomy
    ISSN: 0378-2697
    E-ISSN: 2199-6881
    E-ISSN: 16156110
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  • 4
    In: Ecology and Evolution, May 2019, Vol.9(10), pp.5870-5890
    Description: The Irano‐Turanian (IT) floristic region is considered an important center of origin for many taxa. However, there is a lack of studies dealing with typical IT genera that also occur in neighboring areas. The species‐rich monocot genus Salisb. shows a center of diversity in IT region and a distribution in adjacent regions, therefore representing a good study object to investigate spatial and temporal relationships among IT region and its neighboring areas (East Asia, Euro‐Siberia, Himalaya, and Mediterranean). We aimed at (a) testing the origin of the genus and of its major lineages in the IT region, (b) reconstructing divergence times, and (c) reconstructing colonization events. To address these problems, sequences of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 418 individuals and chloroplast intergenic spacers sequences (A‐H, L‐F) of 497 individuals, representing 116 species from all sections of the genus and nearly its entire distribution area were analyzed. Divergence times were estimated under a random molecular clock based on nrITS phylogeny, which was the most complete data set regarding the representation of species and distribution areas. Ancestral distribution ranges were estimated for the nrITS data set as well as for a combined data set, revealing that most likely originated in southwestern Asia. This genus first diversified there starting in the Early Miocene. In the Middle Miocene, migrated to the Mediterranean and to East Asia, while migration into Euro‐Siberia took place in the Late Miocene. During the Pleistocene, the Arctic was colonized and the most widespread species, reached North America. The Mediterranean basin was colonized multiple times from southwestern Asia or Euro‐Siberia. Most of the currently existing species originated during the last 3 Ma. Divergence time estimation and ancestral range reconstructions were carried out for the species‐rich monocot genus (Liliaceae). Our study could demonstrate that the species‐rich Irano‐Turanian (IT) floristic region, a current centre of species diversity, is also the origin of the genus and of its major linages. Colonisation of adjacent areas started from the IT floristic region and benefit from periods of climatic changes creating dry habits. Therefore, our study supports that the IT region is an important source of taxa for adjacent areas of Euro‐Siberia.
    Keywords: Ancestral Area Reconstruction ; Biogeography ; Dated Phylogeny ; Gagea ; Irano‐Turanian Region ; Southwestern Asia
    ISSN: 2045-7758
    E-ISSN: 2045-7758
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Plant Systematics and Evolution, 2009, Vol.278(3), pp.133-148
    Description: Hybridization seems to play an important role in speciation of Gagea Salisb., a genus which is characterised by polyploid taxa lines and in which diploids (2 n  = 24) appear only to be common in basal sections. Hybrid detection was applied utilising direct and cloning nrDNA ITS data (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2) combined with neighbour and ribotype networks and discussed in connection with previously published cpDNA, morphological and karyological data of the authors. We have evidence of the hybrid origin of taxa within the section Gagea ( G. pomeranica , G. megapolitana ) and the monophyletic clade of sections Didymobulbos and Fistulosae ( G. microfistulosa , G. polidorii , G. cf. bohemica ). Morphologically and karyologically differentiated Gagea megapolitana and G. pomeranica , adapted to synanthropic habitats, represent both hybrids of G. pratensis  ×  G. lutea . Gagea microfistulosa represents a hybrid of G. villosa  ×  G. fragifera ; Gagea polidorii could represent the reverse hybrid. G. glacialis is also closely related to the latter complex.
    Keywords: Concerted evolution ; Salisb. ; Hybridization ; ITS-region ; Morphology ; Networks ; Polyploidization ; Speciation
    ISSN: 0378-2697
    E-ISSN: 1615-6110
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